The purpose of this timeline is to document year by year the series of events of the Orthodox Jews in Leadville from the time they separated into their own group through the establishment of a building to the time the building was demolished.
September 22- “Rosh Hashanah the Jewish New Year began last night at the hour of the setting of the sun, and event was properly observed by the Hebrews generally throughout the city. Appropriate services were held in the Temple Emmanuel, a large congregation being present. The cantor, Mr. Adolph Schayer,  conducted the ritualistic services and read a very excellent sermon suitable for the occasion… The congregation of Knesseth Israel also held divine services in Knights of Labor hall, [across Pine street from Temple Israel] which was largely attended.” 
September 30- “At the hour of the setting of the sun the solemn Jewish fast of Yom Kippur commences. It is the day of atonement, when every faithful child of Israel engages in prayer and fasting for the space of twenty-four-hours. During this time no food is partaken of, and divine services are held at the various places of worship. Nearly all the Jewish business houses will be closed on Saturday and will not open again until 6 o’clock that evening. At Temple Emmanuel, services will be held by Congregation Israel on Friday evening and Congregation Knesseth will worship in Knights of Labor Hall [across Pine street from Temple Israel].” 
November 3- “Congregation Knesseth Israel composed of what are known as the Orthodox Hebrews of this city, have purchased the building of West Fifth street, used by the Salvation Army. This property belonged to the Presbyterian church but it had been used by the Salvationists, rent free. The consideration was $1,500 [actually $1,050].” 
December 7- “The congregation of the orthodox Jews of the city, having purchased the old Salvation Army barracks on West Fifth street, for a Jewish synagogue, are making arrangements for a grand concert to be given in the Opera house in the near future. The talent employed will be entirely local, and an elegant program is being prepared for the occasion. Other denominations of the city have kindly tendered their services for the stage, and the performers will be cosmopolitan. The congregation of orthodox Jews in the city is quite small and many of the members are in moderate circumstances, hence the object of having the concert to further the work.” 
December 11- “The congregation of the Orthodox Jews of the city, having purchased the old Salvation Army barracks, on West Fifth street, for a Jewish synagogue, are making arrangements to soon present the drama “Early Vows” and give a concert at the opera house. Mr. Rosendorf  has charge of the actors and actresses while professor J. K. Sullivan is attending to the concert portion of the program.” 
January 8- “The entertainment of the society Knesseth which takes place at the Opera house tomorrow night promises to furnish amusement for the laughter-loving and jolly as well as lovers of the drama.” 
September 20- “Yom Kippur (day of atonement) commenced at sunset last night and will last until sunset tonight. Both Jewish congregations in the city are holding appropriate services…” 
September 29- “…[Yom Kippur] Services will be held at Knesseth Israel congregation at their temple on West Fifth street, at 6 o’clock Sunday evening and on Monday from 7 to 12 and at 6 pm.” 
April 11- “Temple Knesseth Israel on West Fifth street was the scene of a small blaze about 1 o’clock yesterday afternoon. Some one left a candle burning on the table, and the flames soon caught on the woodwork. The blaze was seen from the Fifth Avenue Hotel, opposite and the fire department summoned and the flames extinguished. The damage was trifling.” 
September 18- “The Jewish New Year 5668 begins at sunset tonight. Appropriate services will be held this evening and during the day tomorrow and until sunset tomorrow night. At Temple Israel and also at the Orthodox temple services will be conducted on an elaborate scale.” 
March 2- “Orthodox Hebrew society circles are in quite a flutter of excitement over the marriage of Mrs. Sarah Hyman and Michael Friedman, sometimes known as Michael Miller. The ceremony was performed by the rabbi of the Congregation Bnesseth [Knesseth], Zunda Greenwald, in the presence of a number of friends. The bride is a widow of some 56 summers, while the groom is about 28 years old. Friedman has been a devoted admirer of Mrs. Hyman for some time, and during his recent troubles in the justice court she proved to be a good friend by going on his bond and keeping him out of a prison cell. The widow did not apparently desire that Friedman should take her for herself alone, but deeded over to him a large share of her real estate, of which she owns a considerable amount. Although the marriage might be said to be of May and December, both parties to the connubial event appear to be well satisfied and happy.” 
October 6- “Beginning last night at sunset and lasting until sunset this evening the Hebrews all of the world are observing by prayer and fasting ‘Yom Kippur’ the ‘day of atonement’. Both Jewish congregations in this city are holding impressive services which will last throughout the day…” 
September 17- “The new year services will be continued to-day, commencing at 9:30 am. The orthodox Jews of the city held services at their temple on West Fifth street last evening, which were very impressive.” 
September 30- “Everybody is invited to be present at the disposal of the Log Cabin Quilt at the Synagogue, West Fifth street at 5 pm Saturday.” 
August 19- “The congregation of Knesseth Israel is fixing up its house of worship on West Fifth street. The place is receiving a new coat of paint both inside and out and other improvements are being made preparatory to the proper observance of the Jewish holidays which occur next month.” 
September 3- “…Knesseth Israel congregation will also hold services [Yom Kippur] at their place of worship on West Fifth street.” 
January 1- “Knesseth Israel, the orthodox branch of the Hebrew church has a place of worship on West Fifth street. It has a good attendance, the sabbath services being presided over by Z. Greenwald.”
April 1- “Sunday April 1, at the Orthodox Jewish Church, 119 West Fifth street Miss Minne Olena to Mr. Aron Walpusky, Judge H. P. Krell and Acting Rabbi Adolph Schayer Officiating.
The groom was attended by Mr. and Mrs. Mankus and the bride by Mr. and Mrs. S. Flaxx.
The Ceremony was performed at 4:30 pm a large number of invited guests being present. The contracting parties and guests appeared in full dress, and after the ceremony, which was performed both in English and Hebrew, the wedding celebration followed which lasted well into he night The young couple will make their home at 138 West 5th street.” 
September 20- “Rev. Dr. Farber of Denver will arrive this morning and will hold services at the Orthodox Synagogue on West Fifth Street at 8 o’clock to-night. Mr. Farber is a gifted speaker and Jews and Gentiles alike are invited to be present to hear him to-night.” 
March 22- “The Purim services will be held at our [Knesseth] synagogue Saturday March 22, at 8 pm and Sunday March 23 at 8 am. All invited.
G. S. Sabath Secy.” 
September 12- “This evening at the synagogue West Fifth street by Miss Winkler as 8 o’clock sharp. Everybody invited.” 
April 12- “Knesseth Israel congregation will hold services Passover Sunday morning at 8 am at the synagogue, 141 [sic 119] West Fifth street. Sunday evening at 7:30 pm. All are invited. S. J. Amter, president.” 
April 16- “Knesseth Israel congregation held its regular meeting April 13 and elected the following officers for the ensuing year: S. J. Amter, president; A. Sandusky, vice-president; J. Harwitz, treasurer; J. Goldberg, secretary; I. Greenwald, M. Ziler, and M. Barnet, trustees.” 
September 21- “The great cycle of Jewish fests and fasts is ushered in with the feats of New Year’s… Services will be held this evening and tomorrow by Congregation Israel at the temple at Fourth and Pine streets and by Congregation Knesseth Israel at their temple on Fifth street.” 
September 27- “… the Orthodox Jew passes the day in fasting and prayer from sunset till sunset. At the Orthodox temple the Kol-Nidre sermon will be given by Rabbi A. Levitzky the subject of speaking will be ‘Repentance, Prayer and Charity.’”
September 9- “…The Orthodox Jewish congregation which worships at the temple at 119 West Fifth street will also hold services commemorating the new year this evening and tomorrow morning…” 
January 15- “…The Jewish congregation in this city have two temples. Temple Israel and Knesseth Israel, in both of which regular services are held.”
January 15- “…The first Presbyterian church of Leadville was organized on Sunday, August 4, 1878, by the Rev. Dr. Sheldon Jackson with thirteen charter members. In less than ten months later the congregation worshipped in the new frame church building which still stands on West Fifth street [ at that time Knesseth Israel building].”
January 1- “Then the last by no means least, there is a strong, although small, local Hebrew congregation, which meets regularly and in orthodox fashion follows the teachings of the Mosaic faith.” 
February 11- “Preparations are being made by the members of the congregation Kneseth Israel for the repair to the church on West Fifth street. The building has been occupied by the orthodox Jewish residents of the city for a number of years as a place of worship, and it is the intention to make a number of needed modern improvements.” 
March 31- “Our members and friends are cordially invited to attend a discussion of the Jewish question ‘Zionism’. Mr. H. Fischlowitz of St. Louis will speak in the affirmative. Mr. Adolph Schayer of our city will take up the negative. Meeting will take place at Temple Israel West Fourth street, Sunday March 31 at 2:30 pm. Respectfully, Julius Leon secretary Temple Israel, S. J. Amter Kneseth Israel.” 
No newspaper mentions for Knesseth Israel, but the synagogue appears as “Orthodox Jewish Church” at “119 West Fifth street” in the 1908 city directory. Services were held for Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashana at Temple Israel. 
October 11- “The congregation of Knesseth Israel on West Fifth street enjoyed a New Year’s dinner and ball last night. A large number were present and had a most enjoyable time. The entertainment was under the direction of Harry Issacs, president, and A. Walpensky, vice president. A feature was the music interspersed during the evening by Miss Ethel Sandusky, Miss Lottie Flaks and Mr. Jake Sandusky. A bountiful dinner was served in the early evening.” 
No newspaper mentions for Knesseth Israel can be located, but the synagogue appears as “Orthodox Jewish Church” located at “119 West Fifth street” in the 1910 city directory. Services were held for Yom Kippur and Rosh Hoshanah at Temple Israel. 
September 22- “The members of the Kenneseth Israel announce that services are to be held at their church 117 West Fifth street on Friday evening at 6 o’clock and on Saturday morning at 8 o’clock to commemorate the beginning of the year 5672, and it is custom to usher it in with appropriate ceremony. Rabbi J. Greenwald of Denver will conduct the new year services. It is expected that there will be a full attendance by the members of the congregation.” 
October 1-“It is announced that there will be services held by the Keseth Israel congregation at the church on West Fifth street tonight at 4:30 in observance of the holiday. Yom Kippur, Monday morning at 10 o’clock memorial services will be held. All members of the Kneseth Israel and all other Jewish congregations in the city are invited to attend both services.” 
September 12- “This day is Tisri 1 5673, according to the Jewish calendar and will be observed according to the Jewish custom. There will be services this evening in the synagogue with appropriate ceremonies.” 
October 2- “Six o’clock last night was the opening for Jews the world over of “Rosh Hashonah… with its coming many Jewish people of Leadville wended their way to the Orthodox Jewish church at No. 119 West Fifth street, there observing their annual ceremonies, which were presided over by N. H. Miller one of the most prominent members of that church in the city.
Again today at 8 o’clock this morning and a 6 o’clock tonight the orthodox Jews will worship at the church the services at 6 o’clock or sunset, marking the opening of the great Sabbath or Penitence “Shabbos Shuva”… The public in general will be welcomed at the services which will be held today one prominent Jew said last night.” 
September 22- “The local Jews worshipped in the synagogue in West Fifth street last evening in commemoration of the day. All orthodox Jews began at sundown observance of the festival, which they will continue today. Rosh Hoshana or New Year is observed with worship for only one day, yesterday, by the reform Jews.” 
Several articles were contributed throughout the year by an anonymous writer explaining the Passover, Jewish New Year, Yom Kippur, and Hanukkah but no specific mention of synagogue services in Leadville appears. 
March 30- “While no special services will be held at the synagogue this week, many of the Jews in Leadville will observe “Pesach” or the Passover week, which began at sunset last night…” 
September 20- “There is one recent memeber of the Jewish colony of Leadville to whom the Jewish holidays this year will have a special significance. Sam Weiss a druggist engaged here until ill health recently forced his retirement, is now comfortably situated in the sanitarium of the Jewish Consumptive Relief association at Edgewater Colo, through the generosity of members of the local Temple of Israel, and that the needed assistance brought his gratitude was touchingly expressed yesterday in a letter to S. J. After, of the Boston Bazaar, who took a leading part in gaining his entrance to the home.
The sanitarium of the association has been crowded of late, owing to its good work in the past and its growing reputation. It was not without considerable correspondance that Mr. Amter secured a place for Mr. Weiss, whom other members of the Temple here with Mr. Amter wanted to assist.
Secretary Spivak was finally able to notify the local men of the vacancy in the home, however, with the result that they immediately provided means for Mr. Weiss’ entrance. They secured a berth for Mr. Weiss on a Wednesday evening train and he departed the same evening for Edgewater. His letter yesterday was expressive of his gratitude to the local Jews and his commendation of the management of the sanitarium.
Mr. Weiss has a wife and small daughter.” 
September 27-“…This local Jewish congregation therefore will open the services this evening at 6:30 in the church at 1[?]5 [actual 119] West Fifth street of the Kneseth Israel congregation…” 
September 17- “With the blowing of the ram’s horn, the orthodox Jews of Leadville opened the festival of Rosh ha Shana or the Jewish religious New Year last evening in the synagog [sic] at 125 [actual 119] West Fifth Street…” 
September 27- “Leadville Jews, observing the holiday with services in the synagogue at 125 [actual 119] West Fifth street gave Yom Kippur, the day of Atonement unusual significance yesterday by starting a campaign to raise for for the $10,000,000 war fund which Jews throughout the country are now raising to aid Jewish suffers from the war. S. J. After gave a patriotic and appealing speech to the congregation in support of the fund and gave a decided impetus to the local campaigns.
As a result of the bringing forward the subject, Miss Ethel Sandusky and Mrs. Henry Issacs were anointed as a committee to handle the local funds and the activities of the campaign.
The local Jews observed Yom Kippur with the services at the synagogue and if they were business people by closing their stores during the day.” 
August 24- “…For members of the Orthodox Jewish faith who are called on by the law to register, the provost marshal general has issued instructions copies of which were received by the army board here yesterday, to the effect that they may register next Monday August 26, if its against their religious tenets to register today, which is their sabbath. The same hours and place Monday will apply for them…” 
August 25- “Fourteen youths who are become 21 since June 5 last registered under the army draft law at the courthouse yesterday when the army board sat as a board of registration for the purpose.
It is believed this is the entire number who are required to register in the county, unless registration records arrived in the mail last night from out-of-town registrants or unless youths of Orthodox Jewish faith report Monday for registration. Yesterday was the sabbath of the Orthodox Jewish church and on that account the provost marshal general has designated tomorrow August 26 as the time for registration of members of this church if they so prefer. The army board will sit again tomorrow from 7 am to 9 pm in the county commissioners room at the courthouse to record any of those who report…” 
August 26- “Members of the Orthodox Jewish church whose religious tenets were against their registration under the army draft law on there sabbath Saturday last are required to register with their local army boards today. The board here, which registered fourteen men of other faiths Saturday will sit at the courthouse from 7 am to 9 pm today for this purpose under the special ruling of the provost marshal general. Registration applies to all youths who have become 21 since June 5 last.” 
September 7- “Jewish stores will close at 5:30 this afternoon in observance of Rosh Hoshana, the Jewish New Year. Members of the Jewish faith will hold services at their temple in West Fifth street at 8 o clock this morning.” 
September 8- “The Jewish congregation will observe services at 8 o’clock this morning and from 10 to 11 am they will have a war prayer and war lecture at the temple at 125 [actual 119] West Fifth street. All Jewish patriots are expected to attend these special ceremonies.
Adolph Unger of Salida and H. Miller of Leadville presided at the services yesterday morning and will probably officiate again today.
The Rosh Hoshana festival ushers in Yom Kippur this evening. The later festival will continue until Monday evening.
All business firms managed by members of the congregation observed closing hours during a part of yesterday.” 
September 9- “‘Leshono Tabo Tecosavoo’ read a messages sent yesterday by Kenneth Israel congregation of Leadville to five members who are serving in the American army and navy and the expression means “Happy New Year”.
It was dispatched to Sergeant Maurice Miller, Louis Naginsky  , Isadore Mankus  , Meyer Stager and Jake Sandusky, all of them Leadville boys who are now on duty in camps in this country, both east and west, with the exemption of Mankuss who is a sailor aboard ship in the Atlantic. Mankuss volunteered for the navy early this year. The other four were called for the national army early this summer.
The message signed by S. J. After chairman of the special committee said: ‘By a rising vote at our services, congregation Kneseth Israel conveys to you hearty New Year Greetings. We are proud that you are fighting for America, our county, and our prayers are offered that you may do your duty nobly and return home safely.
The message was occasioned by Rosh Hoshana the Jewish New Year, the festival of which ended last evening with the beginning of Yom Kippur.” 
September 16- “A. Unger of Salida arrived in the city last evening to officiate today at the Jewish Yom Kippur services.” 
September 25- “…Services [for Rosh Hashana] will be held both this morning and evening in the Jewish synagogue at 108  West Fifth street, the observances of the day being in charge of M. Miller. Morning worship will begin at 9 o’clock and evening service at 6:30 o’clock…” 
October 3- “…The Jewish people of Leadville will observe this most sacred day [Yom Kippur] of their church with appropriate services in the synagogue on West Fifth street. Services will begin this evening at 6 o’clock and tomorrow morning at 9 o’clock…” 
September 23- “Yom Kippur, the day of atonement, which came to an end at sunset last evening was observed here by the Jewish people of the city with the usual services and fasting. The services and prayer were held in the Jewish Synagogue of Kneseth Israel congregation on West Fifth street and was attended by a large gathering, many of whom came from Salida for the day. The services were conducted by Mr. M. Miller  of this city and Mr. A. Unger of Salida. During the course of the proceedings a collection was taken for aid of Jewish sufferers in Europe which was very well patronized. All Jewish businesses houses were closed and the day, which lasted from sunrise on September 21st to sunset on September 22nd was spent in prayer and fasting.” 
October 13- “…The Jewish holiday, Yom Kippur, or the Day of Atonement taking place ten days after the celebration of New Year, was celebrated with services in the synagogue. Practically all establishments owned by citizens of Jewish extraction were closed fo the day, just as on the holiday last week…” 
March 12- “Mrs. L. Greenwald of West Fourth street has been named chairman in charge of arrangements for the expected visit of Mr. William Friedman and Harry Frankle, of Denver in connection with the campaign to organize local branches of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations according to information reaching here yesterday from the organization headquarters in Cincinnati, O. Mr. Frankle is president of the Emanuel Congregation of Denver.
While here, Dr. Friedman and Mr. Frankle are expected to confer with the Jewish leaders.
September 23- “The Jewish New Year services were observed in the Jewish Synagogue West Fifth street last evening commencing at 6 o’clock. A fairly large congregation was present. M. B. Miller conducted the services. This evening the Jewish congregation will again assemble in the synagogue and will conclude the Rosh Hashonah on New Year celebrations.” 
September 7- “…services [Rosh Hashanah] will be held in the evening of Monday from 7 to and Tuesday from 8 to 12 in the morning at the Orthodox Jewish church on West Fifth street. Practically all Jewish business houses will be closed on Tuesday.
A formerly larger Jewish population here has dwindled down to a few, scarcely more than a dozen or 15. At one time the Orthodox Jewish church here had a regular congregation of 75 or 80…” 
September 20- “Beginning at sundown yesterday the great Jewish day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, was ushered in with solemn services in every synagogue, no matter in what portion of the world it was located. Local members of the congregation gather at the Temple Gnesseth [Knesseth] Israel on West Fifth street where services were conducted by N. E. Miller. These services will continue today and last until sundown. All store of the local Jewish merchants will be closed.” 
Knesseth Israel continued to operate on a small scale for High Holy Days and small gatherings under the leadership of Nathan Miller until 1934. Both Knesseth and Temple Israel buildings were abandoned by 1937, despite revival efforts at that time. These buildings were sold by the late 1930s and the last structural evidence of the Jewish community of Leadville passed into obscurity. The sale of both structures benefitted Colorado Jewish organizations. 
9 For more information on Schayer, see http://www.jewishleadville.org/schayer.html
10 “Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 22, 1892 p 5
11 “Yom Kippur” Herald Democrat, September 30, 1892 p 4
12 “Bought the Barracks” Herald Democrat, November 3, 1892 p 6
13 “Orthodox Jews Concert” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, December 7, 1892 p 4
14 For more information on Rosendorf, see http://www.jewishleadville.org/rosendorf.html
15 “Home Talent” Herald Democrat, December 11, 1892 p 7
16 “After the Holidays” Herald Democrat, January 8, 1893 p 5
17 “Day of Atonement” Herald Democrat, September 20, 1893 p 6
18 “New Year of the Hebrews” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, September 29, 1894 p 1
19 “A Small Blaze” Herald Democrat, April 11, 1895 p 5
20 “New Year 5668” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, September 18, 1895 p 2
21 “Hyman-Friedman” Herald Democrat, March 2, 1897 p 2
22 “Day of Atonement” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, October 6, 1897 p 4
23 “The Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 17, 1898 p 2
24 “Go to Elk’s Saloon” Herald Democrat, September 30, 1898 p 8
25 “Painting Their Church” Herald Democrat, August 19, 1899 p 8
26 “The Jewish Holidays” Herald Democrat, September 3, 1899 p 8
27 “Married” Herald Democrat, April 2, 1900 p 8
28 “Jewish Services Tonight” Herald Democrat, June 11, 1901 p 10
29 Knesset Israel Congregation!” Herald Democrat, March 22, 1902 p 10
30 “Lecture on Zionism” Herald Democrat, September 12, 1902 p 8
31 “Church Notices” Herald Democrat, April 12, 1903 p 2
32 “Knesseth Israel Officers” Herald Democrat, April 16, 1903 p 6
33 “The Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 21, 1903 p 5
34 “Jewish New Year When Sun Sets” Herald Democrat, September 9, 1904 p 2
35 “Church Life” Herald Democrat, January 1, 1906 p 23
36 “Repairing the Synagogue” Herald Democrat, February 11, 1907 p 6
37 “Church Services” Herald Democrat, March 31, 1907 p 2
38 Leadville City Directory, 1908 pp. 41
39 “New Years Ball” Herald Democrat, October 11, 1909 p 5
40 Leadville City Directory 1910 pp. 43
41 “Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 22, 1911 p 5
42 “Services at Jewish Church” Herald Democrat, October 1, 1911 p 5
43 “Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 12, 1912 p 5
44 “Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, October 2, 1913 p 5
45 “Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 22, 1914 p 5
46 “Day of Atonement” Herald Democrat, September 17, 1915 p 4
“Jewish New Year” Carbonate Chronicle, September 6, 1915 p 3
“Hanukkah Feast of Dedication” Herald Democrat, December 1, 1915 p 6
47 “Season of Passover” Herald Democrat, March 30, 1915 p 5
48 “Sent to Jewish Sanitarium” Herald Democrat, September 20, 1915 p 5
49 “Rosh Hashanah is Thursday” Herald Democrat, September 27, 1916 p 2
50 “Jewish New Year Opens” Herald Democrat, September 17, 1917 p 5
51 “Relief for the Jewish War Sufferers” Herald Democrat, September 27, 1917 p 5
52 “Those Reaching 21 Must Register” Herald Democrat, August 24, 1918 p 5
53 “Registered for Service” Herald Democrat, August 25, 1918 p 5
54 “Jewish Registration Day” Herald Democrat, August 26, 1918 p 5
55 Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 7, 1918 p 5
56 “Jewish New Year Observed” Herald Democrat, September 8, 1918 p 5
57 For more information on Naginsky, see http://www.jewishleadville.org/naginsky.html
58 For more information on Mankus, see http://www.jewishleadville.org/mankuss.html
59 “Message to Jewish Boys In Service” Herald Democrat, September 9, 1918 p 5
60 “Personal Mention” Herald Democrat, September 16, 1918 p 3
61 “Jewish New Year Today” Herald Democrat, September 25, 1919 p 5
62 “Scared Yom Kippur Day of Atonement” Herald Democrat, October 3, 1919 p 4
63 For more information on the Miller Family see http://www.jewishleadville.org/miller.html
64 “Yom Kippur Observed” Herald Democrat, September 23, 1920 p 5
65 “Double Holiday Observed” Herald Democrat, October 13, 1921 p 5
66 “Rosh Hashanah Yesterday” Herald Democrat, September 23, 1922 p 5
67 “Will Hold Services on Jewish New Year” Herald Democrat, September 8, 1923 p 5
68 “Atonement Day is Observed” Herald Democrat, September 20, 1923 p 2
69 Breck, The Centennial History of the Jews of Colorado, p. 137
Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1908, 1910”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1908, 1910.
Breck, Allen duPont. The Centennial History of the Jews of Colorado 1859-1959. Denver, CO: The Hirschfeld Press, University of Denver Department of History Series, 1960.
Griswold, Don L. Griswold and Jean Harvey. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado, Vol. I and II. Boulder, CO: Colorado Historical Society in cooperation with the University Press of Colorado, 1996.
Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Leadville, Lake County, Colorado. Sanborn Map Company, 1895. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/sanborn01031_001/.
Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)
Leadville Daily Herald (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)
Herald Democrat (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)
Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)