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Baer
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ADOPH BAER HOUSEHOLD

Adolph Baer (1st Gen Brother {Isaac, Adolph, Joseph, Bernard, and Theodore}) [1]
Born: Baden, Germany, 1855 [2]
Died: Salt Lake City, August 15, 1914 [3]
U.S. Immigration: 1873
Naturalization: 1902 [4]

Mathilda Ettinger Baer
Born: Karlsberg, Germany, 1863 [5]
Died: San Francisco, California, 1954

Thea Baer
Born: Leadville, October 6, 1884
Died: Leadville, October 10, 1884

Minetta Camila Baer Alexander (Daughter of Adolph and Mathilda)
Born: Leadville, January 27, 1886
Died: Tilburn, California, January 27, 1980

Ernest Oliver Baer (Son of Adolph and Mathilda)
Born: Leadville, August 26, 1888
Died: San Francisco, California, July 15, 1961
Immigrated to Brazil, 1945

Bernard Baer (1st Gen Brother)
Born: Germany, 1866
Died:

Joseph Baer (1st Gen Brother)
Born:
Died:

William Baer
Born:
Died:

ISAAC BAER HOUSEHOLD

Isaac Baer (1st gen brother)
Born: Baden, Germany, March 20, 1852 [6]
Died: Domingo, New Mexico, November 16, 1920
U.S. Immigration: August 30, 1870

Hattie Kahn Baer (wife of Isaac, daughter of Julius Kahn)
Born: Evansville, Indiana, November 10, 1864
Died: Domingo, New Mexico, November 16, 1920 [7]

Infant
Born: Leadville, June 5, 1882
Died: Leadville, June 5, 1882

Ezra Baer (son of Isaac)
Born: Leadville, July 13, 1883
Died: Alameda, California, November 29, 1866 [8]

Ruth Baer (Mayer) (daughter of Isaac and Hattie)
Born: Leadville, November 20, 1886
Died:

Helen Cohn Baer (wife of Ezra)
Born:
Died: Leadville, 1984

THEODORE BAER HOUSEHOLD

Theodore Daniel Baer (1st gen brother)
Born: Baden, Germany, November 8, 1869
Died: Salt Lake City, September 22, 1910 [9]

May Kahn Baer (Wife of Theo, daughter of Marx Kahn)
Born: Illinois, 1878
Died:

Fredrick Baer
Born: Leadville, 1906 [10]
Died:

Louise Baer
Born: Leadville, 1908
Died:

Tillie Baer (Mayer, Daughter of Hattie and Isaac)
Born:
Died: Colorado, 1984

Adolph and Isaac Baer were the first of the Baer family to arrive in 1878, before Leadville was incorporated as a city. They would be followed by their youngest brother Theodore [11] in 1879, who would have been eleven years of age at the time of his arrival. [12] A fourth brother, Bernhard, appears early in Leadville records but was likely only in town for a brief time before moving on to head the Northern California [13] arm of the family business in the early 1890s, [14] and Joseph who disappears from any found records around the turn of the twentieth century. These five brothers lay the foundation for the Baer Bros. extensive business empire. Both Adolph and Isaac served for periods as superintendant of the Congregation Israel Sunday School and Adolph’s wife, Mathilda Ettinger Baer, was one of the organization’s longest tenured teachers. [15]

Three of the five brothers, Isaac, Adolph, and Theo, dug deep roots in the Leadville community not only active in the day to day operations of Temple Israel, but were central to the formation of Jewish society in the Rocky Mountain region and the Leadville community at large. Isaac was the most active brother in the founding of several early Leadville Jewish organizations: he served as president of the Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 322 of the Independent Order of the B’nai B’rith (founded in 1879); the Hebrew Burial Association (founded in 1880); and the reform congregation (Temple Emanuel Congregation founded in 1879). [16] It is unclear when the Baer’s established a permanent residence in Leadville as Isaac was receiving mail in care of general delivery as early as May of 1879 [17] and evidence shows they lived at their store, located at 30 Harrison Avenue, in 1879. [18] It is possible that Adolph and Isaac Baer were present in Leadville as early as 1877.

These are rather humble beginnings for a family that would build a curiously diverse empire that spanned the West, expanded into Mexico though the 1920s, and South America as recently as the 1940s. Their holdings included such enterprises as liquor and tobacco distribution, farming, ranching, mining and real estate investment and management, and coffee and dairy production. Isaac was also a politically active Republican and served for a period as the president of the Colorado chapter of the National Cattleman’s Association. It is likely that Adolph’s eldest son, Earnest, expanded the family business interests into South America as he expatriated to Brazil in 1945. [19] When Isaac Baer’s son Ezra’s estate was finally settled upon the death of his wife in 1984, the Baer’s still owned a substantial amount of property in Leadville. [20]

On October 22, 1879, the first organizational meeting for the creation of Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 322 of the Independent Order of B’nai B’rith. Adolph Baer, Leo Lindauer, [21] and Isaac Kamak [22] were named as a committee to arrange the group’s inaugural banquet to be held in November. [23] In the weeks to follow before the celebration took place on November 9, 1879, Kamak would be elected president and Adolph vice president of the new chapter. Adolph, Isaac, and his companion, Lena Samuels, attended the celebration. [24] The first lodge officers had experience with other B’nai B’rith chapters, Kamak had been a member of Melchizideck Lodge No. 200 in Waterbury, Connecticut, and Isaac had been a member of the Lone Star Lodge in Dallas, Texas, [25] where he befriended future Leadville brothel owner Ben Loeb.

In 1880, Adolph and Isaac and moved the Baer Bros. liquor and cigar storefront to 119 East 4th Street where they resided with younger brother Theo. [27] On May 8, Adolph expanded the family business into mining when he purchased a 1/8th share in the Peacock Lode from E. Higginbotham for $500. [28] He did not hold the share in whole for long before selling half of it to Simon Schloss [29] for $200 on the same day. [30] In June, the Leadville miners’ strike had become untenable, and Governor Pitkin declared martial law to restore order. During the occupation, Isaac served as the Orderly Sergeant for Company A of the state militia. [31] On September 14, 1880, the first mention of a physical Leadville synagogue appears when Yom Kippur services are held for the Congregation Israel above the clothing store belonging to Meyer Harris [32] and Max and Sol Herman [33] located at 112 East Chestnut Street. [34] Isaac sang bass with the choir that evening and his future bride, Hattie Kahn, sang soprano. [35] Adolph and Isaac attended the second annual hop for the Standard Club on October 21. It is likely that this was Isaac’s first leisurely encounter with Hattie who was also in attendance that evening. [36] On November 9, 1880, The Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 322 celebrated their first anniversary with a Banquet at Turner Hall, the following account of the festivities appeared in the Leadville Daily Herald:

Leadville Daily Herald. November 14, 1880.

The B’Nai Brith. (Leadville, Colorado: Leadville Daily Herald). November 14, 1880. Page 4.

The Baers renamed their storefront; Baer Bros. Cigars, Wine, & Liquor and moved across the street to 122 Harrison Avenue in March of 1881. [37] Adolph continued to live at the store while Isaac found his own residence at 125 West 8th Street. [38] Joseph makes his first appearance in Leadville records early in this year and was in attendance for the opening of the new Turner Hall in Buena Vista, Colorado (35 miles south of Leadville) on January 22. [39] By March of 1881, Adolph owned a stake in all of the mining property on Ball Mountain. All owners of these properties met on March 4, to consolidate the Green Mountain, Colorado Princess, Golden Casket, J.Q.S.E.C.B, Mary C., Black Diamond, Humboldt, Ohio, Lawrence, and other mining concerns on Ball Mountain into a single mining co-operative. [40]

On March 13, 1881, Isaac married Hattie, daughter of Leadville clothier Julius Kahn: [41]

Leadville Daily Herald.  March 13, 1881.

Social. (Leadville, Colorado: Leadville Daily Herald). March 13, 1881. Page 4.

A few days following their nuptials the newlyweds were in attendance at the Pink Domino Hop presented by the Hebrew Ladies Society on March 15. [42] On March 18, amidst a great deal of controversy and at the behest of the Baers, Justice Powers had warrants issued for the arrest of a former county commissioner and saloon owner named Dearborn for unsatisfied debts. At word of this, the Baer brothers immediately attached the assets of the Dearborn Saloon, and Deputy Bob Johnson was dispatched with orders to arrest Dearborn and turn the property over to the Baers. This was met with some resistance by both the employees, and patrons of the Dearborn. When Judge Powers arrived at the scene to check on progress he was attacked by a man named Fisk who grasped his throat and began to choke him. Law enforcement officials managed to gain control of what had become a small bar-fight, arrested the instigators, and handed the property over to its lien-holders. [43] On September 24, the Baer Bros. were one of many Leadville storefronts to hang banners in observance of the assassination of President James Garfield, [44] who was shot by Charles Guiteau on July 2. Garfield suffered for nearly three months with various infections and sepsis related to his wounds and died on September 19, 1881, from a ruptured spleen. [45] Isaac attended the Simchat Toras Ball presented by the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Association at City Hall on October 18. [46]

In 1882, the storefront changed locations again to 116 Harrison Avenue. Isaac and Hattie moved to their new home at 308 East 4th Street. [47] Bernhard made his first appearance in Leadville at this time, finding residence at the store with brother Adolph. [48] On January 31, Adolph and local Jewish tailor Sol Levy [49] were indicted on charges of larceny. The charges were almost immediately dismissed and the details of the actual complaint were not recorded. [50] On May 6, Adolph was attached by the district court for failing to appear for service as a petit juror. [51] On June 5, 1882, Hattie gave birth to a stillborn child that is interred at Leadville’s Hebrew cemetery. [52] Isaac and Hattie attended a New Year’s Eve supper hosted by Sam Mayer [53] at his home on December 31.[54]

It is unclear when or where Adolph married Mathilda Ettinger, however she makes her first appearance in Leadville as Mrs. Adolph Baer at the Hebrew Ladies’ Ball at Germania Hall on January 19, 1883 along with her husband, Isaac, and Hattie [55] Joseph Baer served as chairman of the arrangement committee while Isaac and Adolph performed as floor attendants for the annual Purim Masque Ball on March 22. [56] On March 29, Adolph was one of a litany of Leadville businessmen to endorse the candidacy of Fred Schaefer for the city alderman seat of Leadville’s fourth ward. [57] Hattie gave birth to the couple’s first son, Ezra, on July 13. [58] On October 2, a fire broke out in the Delmonico Restaurant, managed by Ben Loeb. The structure, which bordered on Baer’s store was built from dry pine and canvass which caused it to be quickly engulfed in flames. Although conditions were ideal to destroy the entire block, the fire department managed to contain the conflagration to the Delmonico, however the surrounding structures suffered severe water damage. This included Baer Bros. which reported $700 worth of impairment and was fully covered by insurance. [59] On October 4, the partnership of Adolph, Rebecca Samuels, [60] and the Monmouth & Leadville Gold & Silver Mining Company were awarded a land patent for the Now or Never mine. [61] A few days later the Baer’s stepped up production on the Now or Never hoping to find the other side of a gold vein they located earlier on their adjoining G.M. Favorite claim. [62] On October 5, Rosh Hashanah services were conducted at the new Turner Hall. Congregation President Isaac Baer addressed the audience in German, followed by a Hebrew address by Marx Kahn. [63] Closing addresses were given by congregation [64] Vice President Simon Mooney [65] and Morris Altman. [66] That same week, the collective Baer brothers gave a silver set to Sol Rice [67] for the occasion of his recent wedding. [68] Isaac, Hattie, Adolph, and Mathilda attended the Chanukah Festival Ball held at City Hall on December 28. [69]

Mathilda Ettinger and Adolph Baer on the occasion of their wedding, likely October 13, 1883.

Mathilda Ettinger and Adolph Baer on the occasion of their wedding, likely October 13, 1883. This wedding date cannot be confirmed.

Photo: Temple Israel Collection.

Adolph and Mathilda moved to their new home at 316 W. 8th Street in 1884. [70] Mathilda attended a formal high tea hosted by Mary Maxwell and her sister on January 11. [71]

Bank failures were common in Leadville, as well as nationwide, and many were closed with the same frequency that they opened. Leadville’s First National Bank, which incorporated in 1879, shut its doors to depositors in January of 1884. [72] This caused unprecedented economic chaos in Leadville and the bank found their creditors and debtors alike in federal court trying to settle their losses. This was the case for the Baer brothers who were caught up in the fray regarding $1540 in overdrafts to their account which occurred at the bank’s closing. The matter was believed to be settled by a credit in the same amount to the account of Goulder Janowitz, [73] whom had assumed the debt on behalf of the Baers. This lead to an argument with the receiver which was ultimately settled in the United States Circuit Court at Denver during February in Janowitz’s favor. [74]

Mathilda and Adolph Baer in their first home at 315 West 8th Street (circa 1884).

Mathilda and Adolph Baer in their first home at 315 West 8th Street (circa 1884).

Photo; Temple Israel Collection

Mathilda hosted a large dinner party at her home on March 1, 1884. [75] On February 23, The Pleasant Hour Club accepted the application for membership submitted by Mathilda. [76] Isaac served on the organizing committee and Adolph served as a costume judge for the Purim Masque Ball on March 11. [77] This annual event was a favorite among Leadvillians at large, however, the 1884 celebration was of particular note: the event was by invitation only, tickets were not transferable, and all proceeds went to the construction fund for the construction of Temple Israel Synagogue which was completed later that summer. [78] On June 6, Adolph became one of the founding members of Leadville’s Board of Trade. [79] On June 12, Isaac and Hattie attended the Strawberries and Ice Cream Festival Hop presented by the Ladies’ Hebrew Benevolent Association at Armory Hall. This year an election took place in an effort to decide who was the most popular lady present, and by a count of the votes, Rosa Monheimer [80] defeated her opponent, Anna Herman, [81] 880 votes 524. [82] This gives us a solid representation of how popular these events were on Leadville’s social calendar.

Isaac served on the arranging committee for the third annual Congregation Israel Sunday School Picnic held on June 21. [83] On July 16, Mathilda was one of a small group of Jewish ladies who attended a gathering hosted by Bertha Kraft [84] at her home. [85] Local butcher John Schmidt’s shop was apparently indebted to many creditors as his business was in decline. On August 8, the Baer Brother’s attached a check that Schmidt had tendered to the Arkansas Valley Smelter in an attempt to recover some of his debt to the Baer firm. [86]

On September 19, 1884, as part of the Temple Israel building dedication festivities, Isaac presented the synagogue key to Congregation Israel President J. H. Monheimer on behalf of the building committee to in the absence of the committee’s chairman [87] David May. [88] Isaac had served as superintendent of Congregation Israel’s Sabbath School since 1882, when the institution had fifteen students, [89] and on September 21 he gave the following report on the school’s state of affairs:

On account of the prolonged winter, our various removals to one room or another, the attendance at times has not been as large as was desirable. The last few weeks the attendance has been about forty children with six to seven teachers in attendance. I think that, now that we have a permanent home, that our attendance will be more regular and greater success will attend our efforts. Early in the year we received twenty dollars from the congregation, which has more than sufficed to pay the small expenses incurred… [90]

Isaac and Hattie performed in the Temple Israel Choir and Isaac read Joel verses 2 and 4 from the Old Testament for the Shabeth Tshuva services led by Rabbi Morris Sachs at Temple Israel on October 3, 1884. [91] On October 6, Mathilda gave birth to Thea, the couple’s first child. She died a mere four days later of unknown causes. [92]

Thea Baer’s headstone at Leadville’s historic Hebrew cemetery.

Thea Baer’s headstone at Leadville’s historic Hebrew cemetery.

Photo: Temple Israel Collection. Photo by Robert-George de Stolfe.

Isaac served on the reception committee for the sixth annual Ladies’ Hebrew Benevolent Association Ball held at city hall on October 8, 1884. [93] After evening services at Temple Israel on October 24, a large Shabbat dinner was held at City Hall featuring music provided by Professor Henry Simon. [94] Over eighty congregants appeared at the event including Isaac and Hattie Baer. [95] On November 22, Adolph and Mathilda attended a bon voyage party for Jacob and Henrietta Schloss who were preparing to embark on a journey to visit their daughters in St. Louis followed by a stop at the New Orleans Exposition. [96]

In 1885, Ike and Hattie moved to a new home located at 318 W. 6th Street. [97] In January, Isaac reported that Temple Israel’s Sunday School now boasted seventy-five students. [98] Mathilda was in poor health in early 1885 with an undetermined malady and, on January 16, she and Adolph left for an extended East Coast trip, vowing not to return to Leadville until her medical issues were abated. [99] Isaac and Hattie were in attendance at the first dance held for the Could City Social Club, [100] a Jewish social organization that held weekly dances under the musical direction of Professor Henry Simon [101] and most frequently held at Armory Hall. [102] Adolph and Mathilda chaperoned the Hebrew Children’s Mask Ball, in association with that year’s Purim festivities, [103] at Armory Hall on May 8. [104]

Both Isaac and Adolph were heavily active in an effort by local businessmen to route the railroad to the new burgeoning camp at Aspen, Colorado, through Leadville. As a result of the meeting on April 3, 1885, both Adolph and Isaac began service on a survey committee empowered to demonstrate to the Rio Grande Railroad that the route through Leadville would be shorter and more efficient than a proposed route to the northwest through Granite, Colorado. [105] On June 5, Isaac accompanied a survey team to the top of the western range in an effort to find a suitable route. [106]

Isaac Baer’s proposal for a direct route (highlighted in red) from Leadville to Aspen.

Isaac Baer’s proposal for a direct route (highlighted in red) from Leadville to Aspen.

On To Aspen. (Leadville, Colorado: Carbonate Chronicle). April 11, 1885. Page 8.

West side of 500 Block, Harrison Avenue. Baer Brothers at left.

West side of 500 Block, Harrison Avenue. Baer Brothers at left.

Photo: Temple Israel Collection.

Detail of Baer Brothers at 503 Harrison Avenue, circa 1885.

Detail of Baer Brothers at 503 Harrison Avenue, circa 1885.

Photo: Temple Israel Collection.

On July 4, the committee had examined the proposed route and issued a report that ultimately advised against it:

…The distance by-the-way traveled was about forty miles, and we think a road would be at least forty-five miles long.

More than one-half of this distance is covered by snow, and no knowledge could be obtained of the formation under it.

The examination was made as rapidly as possible, and only having in view the object of seeing the country.

A wagon road might be constructed following approximately the route examined, but we do not advise it, on account of the cost, length, and difficulties of construction… [107]

Mathilda served on the arrangement committee for the Hebrew Ladies’ Benevolent Association’s Strawberries & Ice Cream Festival held on June 12 at City Hall. [108] On July 26, 1885, the Jewish community hosted a picnic and derby day at the local racetrack where the Baer Bros. dun horse scored a victory over Scott & Allen’s bay mare. [109] Isaac sang bass with the Temple Israel choir during a memorial for United States President Emeritus Ulysses S. Grant and Sir Moses Montefiore on August 8, 1885. [110] Isaac served as a receiver for the Hebrew Ladies Aid Society ball on the evening of September 25, 1885. [111] On July 31, Mathilda attended the twenty-first recital given by the Cecelian Club, a local classical music organization, at the home of Judge Goddard. [112] Simultaneously, the Temple Israel Sunday School picnic took place at the international racetrack where Isaac Baer’s horse enjoyed a second victory over the steed owned by Scott & Allen. [113]

In 1886, the Baer’s moved their store to 503 Harrison Avenue. [114] On January 27, Adolph and Mathilda introduced their first child to the world when their daughter, Minetta, was born. [115] On June 9, Adolph, Isaac, Mathilda, and Hattie attended the Strawberries & Ice Cream Festival Hop given by the Hebrew Ladies’ Benevolent Society at City Hall. [116] By July, Baer Bros. had become a regional liquor distributor and began shipping barrels of beer to Glenwood Springs. [117] Six-week-old Minetta attended the first birthday party for Frankie McLister at his parent’s home on July 18. [118] Isaac was selected as a petit juror for the county commissioners in September. [119] On September 17, the following item appeared in the Herald Democrat newspaper:

Leadville Herald Democrat. September 17, 1886.

The City. (Leadville, Colorado: Leadville Herald Democrat). September 17, 1886. Page 4.

The Baer Bros.’ Mercantile Co. was ordered to replace the lamppost at their own expense. [120]

On October 3, congregation president Isaac Baer delivered his annual report to the congregation of Temple Israel:

“…At the commencement of the year now closing, the number of members reported on our books were 65 names, of these, however, only 37 were contributors; to these have been added 14 names, 2 withdrew from membership, and none lost by death, leaving us at this day a membership of 49 actual paying members.

I would recommend that the vice president be authorized to expend the sum not exceeding $75 to put in good repair the road leading to the cemetery as its present condition is much to be deplored; also that four chairs to be purchased for the pulpit as those we are using were borrowed for the holidays and the balance of the year ordinary ones are used. I would also inform the congregation that our organ is badly out of repair and would recommend that a new one be purchased and that your new executive board purchase one at the earliest practicable moment. With these additions to our temple it well be complete in its furnishings many years to come.

I congratulate the congregation upon its financial condition, and with reasonable effort on the part of the incoming executive board no financial troubles will be theirs, as for the first time since the completion of our house of worship we are entirely out of debt and can remain so.

Services have been held on Friday evenings for five months and I hope your new board will see that uninterrupted services will be held every Friday evening and holidays during the coming year.

Thanking you for the honor conferred on calling me to the chair as your presiding officer, and thanking the members for their assistance in the discharge of my various duties.” [121]

On November 20, 1886, Hattie and Isaac welcomed daughter Ruth to their family. [122]

Joseph Baer, and his son, William, who had been operating a messenger service from Leadville to the Midland railroad camps, moved their headquarters to Glenwood Springs, Colorado on November 21, 1886, due to the progress along the line moving the camps further west. [123]

On January 18, 1887, a partnership consisting of David May, Adolph Baer, and Sam Mayer purchased the Union Block building in the 400 bock of Harrison Avenue from Joseph Monheimer for the sum of $40,000. [124] Hattie attended a coffee party hosted by Rosa Shoenberg May [125] on January 15, 1887. [126] On March 23, the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company expanded their business by renting a newly erected building from Jacob Schloss [127] for use as a warehouse. [128] The Baer brother’s G.M. Favorite mine reported two large strikes on two veins; three and four feet wide and containing substantial amounts of gold and silver on April 13. [129] On May 26, Sam Mayer [130] noted that he, Adolph Baer, and Marcus Monheimer [131] were planning to build a theater and “…run it as a stock company.” [132] Hattie attended a coffee party hosted by Tillie Mayer at her home on August 14. [133] On October 8, Adolph purchased 1/6th interests in the Tennessee and Jupiter mining claims from M. Sheehan for $100 each. [134] At a banquet in observance of Simchat Torah, David May proposed a toast to Isaac acknowledging his success as the superintendent of the Temple Israel Sunday School on October 9.[135] On October 12, Adolph was selected for jury service to the Lake County court. [136]

On February 4,1888, the Jewish community celebrated the service of Mrs. L.D. Shoenberg and Mathilda Baer to the Temple Israel Congregation. Leadville’s Jewish elite turned out en masse for the black-tie affair which featured music provided by Professor Charlie Brown and his orchestra, an elegant banquet, and a personal address to the ladies delivered by David May. Isaac proposed a toast to “our hostesses”, and Adolph offered another to the “progress of the Jews in Leadville”. [137]

On February 12, 1888, the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company was recognized as members of “The Big One Hundred”, a group of Leadville businessmen who successfully organized to normalize commercial insurance rates in the Leadville marketplace. [138] In March, Hattie was attending Mrs. Skillman’s art class and was noted to be making great progress on a painting she titled “Spring Idyll”. [139]

In June, 1888, an article appeared in the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle admonishing dog owners for unpaid license taxes on their pets noting that: “The marshal will begin tomorrow,” said the city clerk, “to arrest people who have not provided themselves with licenses. There are lots of men who know the ordinance about the animals and yet who will never pay the tax until they are compelled to.” Adolph appeared on a short list of Leadvillians who had adhered to the edict and paid their imposed fees in a timely fashion. [140] This did not keep Adolph away from the long arm of local justice as the following item appeared in the June 5 edition of the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle:

Leadville Evening Chronicle. June 5, 1888.

Baer Will Fix It. (Leadville, Colorado: Leadville Evening Chronicle). June 5, 1888. Page 5.

On August 26, 1888, Adolph and Mathilda welcomed son Earnest to the family.

Earnest Baer in 1951 when he immigrated to Brazil.

Earnest Baer in 1951 when he immigrated to Brazil.

Brasil, Cartões de Imigração, 1900-1965. database with images. FamilySearch. (image 142 of 203; National Archives, Rio de Janeiro). May 8, 2019.

Isaac Baer, and several other prominent Leadville businessmen composed a committee charged to find a suitable route for a railway spur that would connect Leadville to the Horseshoe mining district. [141] On August 13, the Board of Trade voted to build Isaac’s proposed road, though the Union Pacific Railway had not officially signed on. (The railway operator did tell a Leadville representative that this was a mere formality and to proceed with construction). The board felt it prudent and in the event the railroad backed out, the need for a less strenuous wagon road to the district facilitated breaking ground, whether or not the Union Pacific chose to participate. [142] Adolph, Mathilda, Isaac, Hattie, and Joe were among the adults who chaperoned for the Temple Israel Sunday School picnic at Turner’s Grove on August 19. [143] Isaac attended the housewarming party at Richard Metz’s [144] new home on West 7th Street on September 3. [145] Isaac, Hattie, Adolph, and Mathilda were all present at the Simchat Toras Ball at City Hall on September 28. [146] On October 12, Adolph and Mathilda were present at the birthday party in honor of Pauline Simons at the Janowitz home. [147] Mrs. Simons was the mother of Goldie Janowitz and Rika Fleissner. [148] In December the Baer brothers donated $5 to the Denver Orphan’s Home. [149]

The Baer Bros. teamsters were involved in another runaway incident on February 24, 1889, however this time they appear to have only participated in the effect and not the cause of the accident:

Carbonate Chronicle.  February 25, 1889.

A Runaway. (Leadville, Colorado: Carbonate Chronicle). February 25, 1889. Page 3.

Adolph served on the Grand Jury for Leadville’s District Court for the March term of 1889. [150] Joseph attended a party hosted by Charlotta and Eve Schloss at their father’s home on March 4. [151] On March 18, Joe attended a party at the Heimberger [152] home. [153] Joseph attended a farewell banquet in honor of Robert Hoffman at the Hotel Kitchen on May 6. [154]

On July 25,1889, it was reported that a series of new mines opened on the Baer brothers’ dormant Black Cloud Lode had discovered the location of a new, high yielding vein. [155] This was fortuitous and the property was immediately leased to James Harvey at a royalty rate of fifteen percent when the smelter returns were less than $2000, and twenty-five percent when the baseline exceeded that figure. [156] On August 2, the Baer’s were represented in an organization of Leadville mine owners who met to protest the untaxed importation of lead ores from British Columbia and Mexico. [157]

Mathilda hosted a small dinner party at her home on July 28, 1889. [158] On September 26, Hattie and her parents celebrated the Bar Mitzvah for her brother, Lee Kahn, in a lavish affair at Temple Israel. Hattie performed a vocal duet with Temple Israel cantor Ben Davies [159] during the reception that followed. [160] Mathilda attended a party for “Grandma Green” at the Boehner home on September 30, [161] and a coffee party at the Schloss home on October 1. [162] Adolph was on the reception committee for the tenth annual Simchath Torah Ball held at City Hall on October 18. [163]

In 1890, Joseph moved to his first recorded Leadville address at 425 Harrison Avenue in the Union Block. [164] This may have been a measure of prudence as the brothers owned a large stake in the property. Mathilda attended a needlework party at the Hanna home on the afternoon of January 4. [165] Adolph and Mathilda were present at a gathering hosted by Henrietta Schloss at her home on January 12. [166] Mathilda entertained a small group of ladies during a luncheon at her home on January 24, [167] she also threw a lovely celebration in recognition of Minette’s fifth birthday on February 1. [168] Hattie and Mathilda attended a reception in honor of Mrs. Sam Mayer at the Kahn home on March 2. [169] Adolph and Mathilda led the grand march for Leadville’s tenth annual Purim Ball held on March 7. [170] Isaac’s son, Ezra, was a member of the State Agricultural Glee Club and Band which performed at the Tabor Opera House on April 6. [171] The Herald Democrat noted the Baer’s had several strong thoroughbred horses at their Rifle ranch that would be making noise on the racing circuit that spring. [172] A census enumerator fraudulently neglected to count some 530 Leadvillians in the 1890 United States Census, [173] and this list of the uncounted included the household of Adolph Baer. [174] Issac, Adolph, Hattie, and Mathilda attended the annual Strawberries and Ice Cream Festival and Hop on June 4 at City Hall in the midst of a late seasonal snowstorm. [175] On July 14, Ezra celebrated his birthday at the Hotel Jerome in Aspen with twenty of his closest friends. [176] On July 19, the Baer brothers’ G.M. Favorite mine struck a vein of gold reportedly eighteen inches in width. [177] Adolph was elected and officer of The Hawkins, Long & Derry Mining Company on August 20. [178] In September, the McKinley Tariff Bill [179] passed into law, raising taxes on liquor and tobacco imported to the United States by nearly fifty percent. The following comments appeared in the September 30, 1890 edition of the Herald Democrat:

…Mr. Adolph Baer, of the firm of Baer Bros. wasn’t certain as to the effect which the new tariff bill would have until the conference committee had made its report. If the senate bill passed, however, it would quite decidedly enhance the price of imported beer and sparkling wines, glassware, such as is used in saloons-decanters, goblets, bottles of various sorts, etc. The bill, as it now stands, will make a difference of $20 per 1,000 on cigars. [180]

Joe attended a musical hosted by Tille Kahn at her parent’s home on October 4, 1890. [181] Isaac attended a large bon voyage party hosted by Ed Nollenbeger for Robert Wimmer who left Leadville permanently on October 14 to tend his mining properties in Mexico. [182] In October, Joe attended a farewell party in honor of Beckie Krone, niece of Louis and Goldie Janowitz, who had spent the summer with her aunt and uncle in Leadville. [183] On December 14, five-year-old Minette hosted a small party for her friends and cousin Ruth at her parents’ home. [184] Isaac was on the reception committee for the Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Association Chanukah Ball at City Hall on December 15, 1890. [185] Following the dance, Isaac and a number of gentlemen in attendance took their wives to an impromptu supper. [186] On the afternoon of Christmas day, Julia Burnand hosted a small gathering of friends that included Minnette Baer at her home to show off her Christmas tree and the gifts she received from her parents. [187] On December 28, it was reported that Ruth, daughter of Isaac and Hattie, had been suffering from bronchitis. [188]

Mathilda, Ernest Oliver, and Minetta Camilla Baer circa 1890.

Mathilda, Ernest Oliver, and Minetta Camilla Baer circa 1890. As noted on the carte de visite, the photo was taken in Leadville at the Alfred Brisbois photo studio located at 419 Harrison Avenue.

Photo: Temple Israel Collection.

In February of 1891, Isaac Baer was one of many Leadville business owners to crow about the idea of an electric railway that would connect all points along Leadville’s business district to Evergreen Lakes Resort:

“It will certainly be a good thing for this city, in every way, providing it is properly managed and has the necessary amount of capital behind it. There are few, if any, more delightful resorts in Colorado than Evergreen Lakes, and this road will make them accessible to all. I heartily endorse the scheme and hope its promoters will carry the thing to completion.” [189]

While sledding down West 7th Street on February 23, 1891, Ezra collided with another sled. The result of the accident was two stitches installed on the right side of his forehead by Dr. Lee Kahn. [190] On March 15, Isaac and Hattie celebrated their tenth wedding anniversary with a small party at their home. The Baer, Kahn, May, and Behrens [191] families were in attendance. [192] On April 7, Minette was a page for the wedding between Moses Stern and Charlotta Schloss [193] at the Hotel Kitchen (Vendome/Tabor Grand). [194] Mathilda was also in attendance. Minette and Earnest were both guests at the fourth birthday part for Pauline Street at her parents home on April 10. [195] Adolph and Mathilda hosted a “Lavender Dinner” [196] for Herman and Felicia Stern [197] at their home on April 12. [198] Adolph and Mathilda attended the Hebrew Ladies’ Strawberries & Ice Cream Festival Ball at City Hall on June 4. [199] Minette attended the fourth birthday party for “Little Baby” Burnand on August 8. [200] On August 19, Mathilda hosted a small luncheon for Hattie, Bertha Stockdorf, the Kepplers, and McListers at her home. [201] Adolph’s son, Earnest celebrated his third birthday with a party at his parents’ home on August 26. [202] Joseph attended a party given by Esther Bergerman [203] at her home on September 7. [204] On December 21, Adolph served on the jury for the larceny trial of Fannie Murphy. The jury returned a verdict of not guilty and Murphy was dismissed. [205] The Baer Bros. sold their interest in the Mahala and Agassiz lodes to J. Connolly for $12,000. [206] While on a visit to Karlsruhe, Germany, three-year-old Earnest suffered from a bout of scarlet fever. [207]

On January 23, 1892, Adolph returned to Leadville after visiting the latest booming mining camp in Creede, CO, and gave the following account:

The situations selected for the towns of Creede and Jimtown are not suitable, as the gulch is too narrow. The only place outside of the school lands for a townsite is Watson’s ranch, which is about three miles from Creede. The Present towns are something like Oro, as far as situation is concerned, only worse.

I did not visit any of the mines, but saw from ten to twelve carloads of ore leaving the district daily. The two days that I was there the trains brought in about 115 passengers and took out about fifty daily.

I inquired about the wages paid for labor, and found that carpenters receive 35 to 40 cents per hour, miners $3 per day, and teamsters $50 per month and board. Board and lodging is $1 per day for men, and a number of prospectors are scattered over the hills, but they cannot do much on account of the snow, which is about fourteen inches deep.

I met Mr. James Murray, an old Leadville miner, there, and he told me that the three principal mines-The Holy Moses, Amethyst and Last Chance-all together only employed 212 men. Mr. Murray spoke very highly of the outlook, and thought the district would come to the front as a steady producer….

…I did not see any money in circulation to speak of, and the merchants were not doing a rushing business… It is an extremely rough country, and one, I should judge, that would be hard to prospect.

So far I am perfectly satisfied with Leadville, and have seen no place to compare to it. For men out of employment they have a better chance to get work here than at Creede.” [208]

On February 15, 1892, Isaac spoke to a Herald Democrat regarding the harsh winter and the impact it was having on his cattle on the Baer’s White River, Colorado ranch:

“The Winter on White River has been a hard one, and at present there are twenty inches of snow on the winter ranges, making it hard rustling for stock. As a consequence, range cattle are in very poor condition, and unless an early spring sets in the loss will be very heavy. The beef steers that are being feed for market by a number of cattlemen are in prime condition, and a number of them will be shipped to this market shortly.

The winter has been so severe that it has driven the rabbits to seek feed in the different corals, and they are so numerous that they are now looked upon as pests.” [209]

Adolph and Joseph were both noted in attendance at the fourteenth annual Purim Ball Masque on February 25, 1892, at City Hall. [210] On April 5, both Ruth and Ezra were attending Leadville’s Central School, [211] and the two performed at a musicale at the Almay home on April 9. [212] On June 6, Mathilda returned from an eventful trip to Jimtown (Jamestown), Colorado (near modern day Creede, Colorado), most famous for being the boyhood home of Hall of Fame boxer Jack Dempsey (1895-1983). A large fire tore through the main business district of Jimtown during Mathilida’s visit destroying many businesses. Many Leadville businesses had branch operations in this small mining and ranching community and suffered losses that Mathilda witnessed firsthand. [213] On June 8, Mathilda left Leadville on a journey to Germany, [214] while Isaac and Hattie attended the fourteenth annual Strawberries & Ice Cream Festival ball at City Hall. [215] On June 15, Isaac sold lots 219 and 221 East 10th Street to Martin Kenelly for $125. [216] On August 2, 1892, Isaac appeared in court to answer to the odious charge of selling junk without a license. Isaac escaped the noose when it was realized that he had merely been buying old bottles in large quantities, but not selling them. [217] Adolph was installed as power of attorney for the administration of the estate of Bertha M. Simons on June 14. [218] On July 6, a fight broke out in front of the courthouse between city janitor William Smith and Baer Bros. employee Charlie Brown, the following account appeared in the Herald Democrat newspaper:

The Herald Democrat. July 26, 1892.

Almost A Murder. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). July 26, 1892. Page 4.

On August 17, 1892, Isaac returned from a brief trip to Bremen, Germany he made with his friend F. H. Arcularius. [219] Adolph also visited the fatherland that year on an extended trip, and he returned across the Atlantic to New York Harbor aboard the Augusta Victoria. While on his visit, Europe experienced a cholera epidemic, and by a stroke of fortuity, Adolph had moved on to his next location within days of the disease’s path first arrival along his travels. This good luck continued on his return trip to New York as the Augusta Victoria became the last ship to enter a United States’ port from the continent without being subjected to quarantine. [220] The following is quoted from Adolph which appeared in the September 8, 1892 edition of the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle:

I was in the old country two months, and after remaining a short time in London, I departed for other parts of interest on the continent. The weather was quite warm, oppressive at times, but my trip was, not withstanding, a pleasant one. I traveled considerably, landing in Hamburg, Germany, August 10 last, and remained there until August 19. At that time there was not a case of cholera in Germany, it having not yet entered the borders of that country, but preparations were being made for its possible arrival.

I returned to this country on the steamer Augusta Victoria, and it was not until the pilot boarded our ship with the latest papers that we were aware cholera had entered Hamburg. Our vessel was the last clean steamer to enter the harbor of New York, from foreign ports, without first being made subject to quarantine regulations, as the orders now governing the arrival of steamers were not then in force. I met a friend next day, however, who arrived just behind me, on the next steamer, who had been examined by the health officials before being allowed to land. [221]

This advertisement for Manitou Ginger Champagne for which the Baer Broothers Mercantile was the exclusive distributors appeared in the August 18, 1892 edition of the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle.

This advertisement for Manitou Ginger Champagne for which the Baer Broothers Mercantile was the exclusive distributors appeared in the August 18, 1892 edition of the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle.

Manitou. (Leadville, Colorado: The Evening Chronicle). August 18, 1892. Page 2.

September of 1892 was eventful in the realm of the Baer brothers. That month it was discovered that former local insurance agent, Jacob Bernheimer, [222] had gone missing from Durango, Colorado, and was believed to have committed suicide, likely by tossing himself into the cold, fast rushing waters of the Animas River. Bernheimer left Leadville under the auspices of great controversy; reputed as a man with gambling issues, Bernheimer accepted monthly premium payments from local Leadville merchants, and was supposed to make quarterly premium payments to his parent companies, which he failed to do, leaving his unsuspecting clients with lapsed policies. Baer Bros. were one of a large group of local Leadville organizations who filed embezzlement charges against Bernheimer, which caused him to lose employment, leave town, and contributed to his declining emotional state. [223]

Adolph and Mathilda attended the Knights of Robert Emmet Ball on October 15 at Armory Hall. [224] Joseph supervised the floor and both Isaac and Adolph were in attendance at Leadville’s thirteenth annual Simchas Torah Ball at the Knights of Labor Hall on October 18, 1892. [225]

On January 13, 1893, the Baer Bros. were part of a syndicate of Leadville businessmen who formed an ownership group and purchased the Hotel Kitchen (A.K.A; Hotel Vendome/Tabor Grand) from Charles W. Kitchen for $50,000. [226] The hotel has a connection to Temple Israel as it was created by architect George King [227] and general contractor Bob Murdoch [228] who constructed both projects, concurrently, in 1884. [229] Minette attended the fourth birthday party of Charles Priddy at his parents’ home on January 23. [230] Hattie, Ruth, and Minette hosted a “donkey party” [231] for young Master Frank McLister, at their home on February 18. [232] Joseph was on the floor committee for the fifteenth annual Purim Ball Masque held at City Hall on March 2. [233] Minette and Earnest attended the third birthday party for Gladys Street at her parents home on March 21. [234] Adolph and Mathilda attended a meeting for the Capital Hill Club at the Cary home on May 20. [235] On May 27, Adolph filed a location certificate for the Spar lode. [236] Mathilda presented a Dresden china dish, on behalf of Leadville’s Jewish ladies, at a farewell luncheon in recognition of Carrie Mayer’s move to Cincinnati on September 6. [237] All of the Baer Brothers families were represented at Leadville’s Hanukah Festival on December 11. [238] On December 17, Adolph and Isaac received 4/18th ownership of the Lord Byron lode in the California Mining District as the result of a lawsuit [239] against S.B. Kertz. [240]

On May 27, 1893, Earnest attended the seventh birthday party of Harry Brenneman at his parents’ home. [241] At a meeting of the Jewish Ladies’ Reading Club on June 10, hosted by Mathilda at her home, Vice President Ruth Ward Kahn resigned her post and Mina Heimberger was elected as her replacement. [242] Adolph, Mathilda, Theo, and Joseph all attended the Strawberries & Ice Cream Festival Ball presented by the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Association on June 15, 1893. [243] Mathilda earned the first prize of a cut glass olive dish at the Capital Hill Eucre Club meeting on June 28. [244] On July 2, Mathilda, Hattie, and Bernhard accompanied Ameilia Leppel [245] and Emanuel Katz [246] on a trip to Evergreen Lakes for a breakfast picnic. [247] Theo and Joseph spent September 3, picking berries in the valley with Hanna Leon, [248] Amelia Friedlander, and Lizzie Shayer. [249] Mathilda attended a meeting of the Afternoon Card Club at the Newland home on December 9. [250] Hattie hosted a card party at her home on December 11, Adolph, Mathilda, Theo, and Joe were in attendance. [251] At the Temple Israel Hanukah Festival on December 12, Isaac led the opening prayer followed by a recitation by the Sunday School that included Ruth. [252]

In 1894, Theo joined Joseph in the bachelor lifestyle and they became roommates. [253] In January, Mathilda, and Minetta spent several weeks in Denver tending to an undisclosed medical issue of Minetta’s. Mother and daughter returned to Leadville on January 17, with Minetta’s condition reported as “much improved.” [254] Mathilda, Minette, and Ernest attended the fifth birthday party of Charles Priddy at his parents’ home on January 21. [255] Mathilda attended a meeting of the Wednesday Afternoon Card Club at the home of Mrs. Street on February 14. [256] Adolph and Mathilda here present at the Capital Hill Card Club meeting at the Maxwell home on February 22, 1894. [257] Hattie and Mathilda both performed vocal solos at a musicale hosted by the Heimbergers at their home on March 4. [258] Hattie hosted a Purim oriented meeting for the Jewish Ladies’ Reading Club at her home on March 21, 1894. [259] Joe and Theo were among a small group of “Jewish folk” who attended a picnic excursion to Twin Lakes on April 12. [260] Mathilda attended a meeting of the Wednesday Afternoon Card Club on April 17 at the Denison home where she won the first prize of “…an exquisite cut glass tea bell.” [261] Minette performed at a musicale hosted by Mrs. Almy at her home on June 3. [262] The same day, Mathilda received word that her father had passed at his home in Frankfurt, Germany. [263] Mathilda and Adolph attended a meeting for the Capital Hill Card Club at the Maxwell’s summer home near Twin Lakes. [264] In October, Mathilda became one of the founding fifteen members of the Historical Club, a reading club that focused on historical, political, and parliamentary literature. [265] Adolph and Mathilda attended a Capital Hill Eucre Club party at the Maxwell home on November 22, where Adolph took the gentlemen’s prize of a Russia leather pocketbook. [266] On December 11, 1894, the Doris Gold and Silver Mining Company incorporated with a capital value of $500,000 and Adolph Baer as a director. [267] On December 9, 1894, Adolph underwent surgery at a private hospital in New York City to remove a tumor from his neck. [268] Mathilda hosted a small New Year’s Eve party at her home on December 31, where Joseph and Theo were both in attendance. [269]

1895 likely represents the year that Isaac’s family moved their primary residence to the Baer ranch near Meeker, Colorado, and his Leadville address of record became the Vendome Hotel which the Baer brothers partially owned. Theo left Joe’s apartment in the Union Block and moved to a boarding house and laundry a few doors away at 137 E. 5th Street. [270] In January, Eve Schloss visited Leadville from her home in Denver as the guest of Adolph and Mathilda. [271] Isaac attended a small party at the home of his father in law, Julius Kahn, on January 5. [272] On January 15, Theo, Joseph, Isaac and Hattie attended the Jewish Hop at the Vendome Hotel. [273] Joe, Isaac, and Hattie attended the Assembly Club dance at the Vendome Hotel on January 19. [274] On January 20, Adolph returned to work after his five-week recovery from the surgery to remove the tumor that he undertook in December of 1894 in New York City. [275]

The Baer brothers were partnered in the Kaufman lode mining claim with Porter Wilson, Fred Peterson and Thomas Campbell. On January 24, 1895, the owners filed suit against Joseph M. Killoran for jumping the claim in July of 1894, and operating it as his own property. [276] This play was successful and on May 16, Adolph and Isaac purchased the shares of their partners and established a patent on the Kaufman lode which boasted a 300 foot vein of silver. [277] On February 13, Mathilda attended a meeting of the Afternoon Card Club at the Davis home, and she followed this hosting a meeting of the Jewish Ladies’ Reading Club at her own home the same evening, and the following day she hosted a meeting for the History Club at her home. [278] On February 15, Hattie was in attendance at a small informal gathering at the home of Bertha Long. [279] On February 21, Hattie hosted a meeting of the Hebrew Ladies’ Reading Club at the Hotel Vendome where they discussed a paper written by Mrs. Mosher on The Author of Rasselas. Minette and Earnest attended the seventh birthday party for Helen Janowitz at her parents’ home on February 15. [280] Mathilda, Minette, and Earnest hosted a skating party at the ice rink on February 23. Mathilda hosted a parlor reading for the History Club at her home on February 25, which also featured a discussion on Municipal Government moderated by J.M. Maxwell. [281] On March 7, Mathilda received a bisque candlestick as a consolation prize following a meeting of the Capital Hill Eucre Club at the Burnaud home. [282] Theo and Joe attended a Eucre card party hosted by Amelia Friedlander [283] on March 10. [284] On March 20, Victor Carlson transferred 1/4th interest in the Wax, 2/3rd interest in the Iowa, and 1/2 interest in the Boyd lodes via quit claim deed for the consideration of $1750 to Julius Wolf and Isaac Baer. [285] On the same day Adolph sold his 1/5th share in the Continental lode to R.A. DeLappe for $5. Similar purchases by DeLappe suggest that this was likely a consolidation effort on his part. [286]

In April, 1895, Adolph returned from a five week visit to Mexico where he analyzed business conditions and prospected land for establishing a coffee plantation:

“…the financial condition of Mexico is on the verge of bankruptcy. It is true that the government treasury reports not long ago were to the effect that the treasury was empty, and that there was danger of repudiation. But I was reliably informed that the treasury was not quite so bad off as appeared on the surface. I could not see that the people were very badly off. From the information I gained, I was led to believe that the low price of silver had a rather beneficial effect in agricultural industries especially….In the first place it must be remembered that Mexico is an exporting country, her exports amounting to about $35,000,000 a year, while imports are $20,000,000, so you see that the balance of trade is in her favor by about $15,000,000. The importance of this fact to a silver country will be seen on a moment’s examination. Take coffee, for instance, it is worth, in gold, on the New York market, about 10 cents. With silver at 63 cents, this would place the value of coffee in Mexico, less commissions, about 31 cents. The lower the price of silver, the higher of exports in Mexico…

…Of course, the condition of the silver mines is not quite so good, but the effect of the fall in silver is not felt by the mine owner, unless he exports his bullion, or desires to convert it into gold in the payment of dividends. The people themselves are not affected. Silver, being legal tender is perfectly acceptable for all practical purposes of internal trade and commerce…My judgment is that the general prosperity of Mexico is not materially affected by the low price of silver, except in cases where she imports…”

With reference to the coffee industry Mr. Baer said that there were numerous factors to be taken into consideration. The government was very liberal in granting concessions, but the trouble is to get an absolute title to the land. It is all right so long as nobody else doesn’t claim title, but the trouble is some Mexican may be able to produce a deed or an ancient grant, and long and vexatious litigation may ensue, which doesn’t always end successfully for Americans….

“Another thing to look at, “ said Mr. Baer, “is the labor problem. Labor is cheap enough, to be sure, but it isn’t permanent. You can secure peons for 50 cents a day, and they will find themselves. They will work for a few months, until they have enough ahead to live for the balance of the year, and will then refuse to labor for almost any price. The coffee plantations now in existence are paying, the machinery for drying, etc., being brought up to a high standard of perfection…

…he learned that all mercantile establishments are taxed a certain percent of their daily receipts. Mr. Baer wanted to ascertain how this tax was disposed of-what part went to the federal, state and municipal government. He found no one who could give him a satisfactory answer, for none of them agreed as to the rate.

The trip proved to be one of great benefit to Mr. Baer, affording him, as it were, an opportunity to study Mexican life and manners at short range. [287]

Mathilda was awarded the second prize, a set of “…a half dozen daintily decorated fruit plates”, at a meeting of the Card Club at the Page home on March 30, 1895. [288] On April 6, Mathilda hosted a musicale at her home featuring Mrs. I Leon, a classical pianist from Denver who performed familiar variations of classical works, but also two of her own compositions. [289] On May 4, Minette and Ernest attended Fred Moore’s eleventh birthday party at his parents’ home. [290] Joe attended a card party hosted by Amelia Friedlander at her home on July 10. [291] Joe attended a card party hosted by Tillie Kahn at her parent’s home on August 3. [292] On September 8, Adolph and Mathilda attended a card party hosted by Charles Sands. [293] Mathilda took first place in the game of Hearts, while Adolph was awarded the evening’s “booby prize”. [294] Hattie and Mathilda attended a luncheon at the Morse home on September 13. [295] On October 9, Hattie performed a piano solo for the anniversary celebration held by the Jewish Ladies Reading Club. [296] On October 11, Mathilda attended a luncheon in honor of Mrs. Mudd at the home of Mrs. Brumand. [297] On October 16, Isaac was among a contingent of Leadvillians who supplied seven floats for a Denver parade that exhibited “Leadville greatness”. [298] Mathilda was a member of Leadville’s Capital Hill Euchre [299] Club and attended the game hosted by J.H. Stotesbury on October 12. [300] On October 20, Hattie left the Baer’s Leadville home for the ranch in Meeker to spend the week with Isaac. [301] On October 26, Mathilda returned to Leadville from a week in Glenwood springs for health issues, and was noted to have fully recovered from her ailments. [302] Ruth performed a recitation of Pie Seeds in recognition of Thanksgiving at the Seventh Street School on November 26, 1895. [303]

Pie-Seeds
A fairy story I know
That tells how pie-seeds grow.
Did you ever see pie-seed, light
As an empty husk, and white?
Ah! But the very sharpest eyes
Nothing could find the sight
The very least like pies.

But plant one. When the sun
And the gladsome rain have done
Their best, then close to the tall
Straight corn a vine will crawl-
Golden trumpets will hold,
Then green gourds round and small,
Then pumpkins yellow as gold.

Then a pie grows, spicy, sweet,
And fit for a king to eat
If touched by hands-
Ask her, she understands,
And the fairy tale will know
How out in the cornfield lands
Thanksgiving pie-seeds grow,
-Clara Doty Bates
[304]

Ruth would perform another recitation of The Snow Fairies on December 20, for the school holiday pageant. [305]

On January 8, 1896, Mathilda, Joe, and Theo attended a “leap year” party hosted by Carrie Mayer at her home. [] Mathilda took first prize of a Dresden china picture frame at a meeting of the Afternoon Card Club at the Stickley home on January 26. [307] On February 23, Mathilda attended a house party given at the Etsey home. [308] Isaac and Hattie attended a party to commemorate the thrity-fifth wedding anniversary of Hattie’s aunt and uncle, Marx and Fanny Kahn, on May 2. [309]

An article in the Herald Democrat newspaper describes the journey of a letter, written by a man in Westphalia, Germany, and very simply addressed: John Knoddel carries the Pilsner, Vienna. St. Louis and St. Louis Lemps Pale Beer, and all other beer in the Market, America. When the letter reached New York City, the postmaster recognized the addressed town of St. Louis, and forwarded the document to the St. Louis Lemps Brewery. The postmaster in St. Louis noted he had seen the name “Knoddel” appearing on kegs returned to the brewery by the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company, and forwarded the letter on to Adolph Baer in Leadville. Adolph then recognized the name as owning to a client who kept a saloon in Creede, Colorado, and eventually the letter arrived at its intended location. Knoddel gave the letter back to Adolph who framed it and hung it on his office wall. [310]

On June 7, 1896, Joseph and May were both present at a party hosted by Carrie Mayer in honor of her cousin, Bertha Guthman, [311] at her home on West 7th Street. [312] On June 10, Hattie managed the lemonade stand for the Strawberries and Ice Cream festival and hop at City Hall. [313] On September 6, Isaac accompanied Ezra to St. Louis where he was attending high-school. [314]

Joe was an usher for the wedding of Louis Cohn [315] and Amelia Friedlander at Temple Israel on January 17, 1897. [316] On January 30, Minette performed in the role of the Fairy Godmother during a Juvenile Music Club presentation of Cinderella. [317] On February 7, Adolph attended the wedding of Dr. Sol Kahn, May’s brother, to Lillie Rose at David May’s home in Denver. [318] Joe was among a group of young people who took a hayride out to the racetrack on February 21. [319] On March 21, Minette and Earnest attended the regular meeting for the Juvenile Music Club. [320] On March 27, Theo and Joe attended a birthday “stag” party in honor of Joe Neuman. [321] On May 4, Ernest performed a recitation and Minette sung Margarita for a Juvenile Music Club meeting hosted by Maud Filtner. [322]

In June of 1896, a teamster in the employ of Baer Bros., Mr. Tenny, accidently ran over the two year-old toddler of Mr. & Mr. Terlip and crushed the child to death. The couple filed suit against the Baers for negligence. In May of 1897, the case was decided by jury and the Terlips were awarded $300 of the $1875 in damages sought by the family based on projected lost income of the child from the age of seven to eighteen. Sadly, but with practicality, the judge amended the award and assigned only partial responsibility for the accident to the Baers. The judge felt it fair that all parties we culpable for the accident to some degree; Tenny was driving the wagon for personal use, and the judge noted that the Terlips were also responsible for failing to control their child by letting him wander out into the street. [323]

At a special meeting of the Juvenile Music Club on June 4, 1897, Mathilda, Minette, and Earnest aided fellow member Margaret Boehmer in the celebration of her thirteenth birthday. [324] The Baer’s had mining operations in California under the full-time direction of Bernhard and Adolph spent several weeks in June and July looking in on their progress. [325] On August 21, Earnest and Minette attended a meeting for the Juvenile Music Club at the Sherwin home. [326] On September 8, Mathilda hosted a musicale and tea at her home for the benefit of the pubic library. Prominent musicians from Leadville and Denver performed. [327]

On April 10, 1898, Joseph left Leadville to return to his former residence in Germany. [328] Joe would return to Leadville several times over the next few years, but likely maintained his residence in Europe as he is absent from U.S. records between 1900 and 1915, when he resurfaces in Denver. On May 8, Isaac left town to look after the Baer brothers’ business interests in Mexico. [329] Adolph served as a juror for the August term of the grand jury. [330] Mathilda and Mrs. Burand held a flag raffle at the Grand Patriotic Ball on August 26 that raised $252 for United States’ veterans. [331] Hattie and Ruth spent the1898-99 school year in Denver, where Ruth attended Wolfe Hall, a private Episcopalian school in Denver’s affluent Capital Hill neighborhood. [332]

Wolfe Hall, located on the 1300 block of Clarkson Avenue in Denver.

Wolfe Hall, located on the 1300 block of Clarkson Avenue in Denver. The building was razed in 1920 after the school closed its doors.

Rose & Hopkins. Wolfe Hall. [Image] ZZR700115265. Denver, CO: Denver Public Library. Western History and Genealogy Department. (1889-1901).

http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15330coll22/id/71880

Adolph was in attendance at Denver’s 1898 Columbus Day parade. This year was noted to be particularly patriotic and disorderly [333] likely due to the Spanish-American War concluding only a few weeks earlier. Adolph served as a pallbearer for the funeral of Mina Kahn, held at Temple Israel on December 7. [334]

In 1899, Theo moved his residence to The American Bank Building located at 5th Street and Harrison Avenue, room 13. [335] On January 20, Adolph, Isaac, and Thomas Kilduff legally incorporated the Baer Bros. Land and Cattle Company with a reported capitalization of $200,000. [336] This would be amended in January of 1900, when the Baer’s made the decision to sell public stock in the enterprise and made available 2000 shares at $100 each. [337] Joe attended a party hosted by the Schloss daughters at their father’s home on March 11. [338] Theo served as Alfred Freedheim’s [339] best man when he married Caroline Heitler on April 26, at Denver. [340] On November 8, the Baer brothers were parties to the incorporation of The Leadville City Mining Company with a capitalization of $1,000,000 and Adolph Baer as one of seven founding directors. Aptly named, the company confined its holdings to mining property within the Leadville city limits and was mostly comprised of property within the St. Louis Smelting & Refining Company addition, the Stevens & Leiter Subdivision, and the Leadville Improvement Company’s holdings east of Harrison Avenue. [341] On November 21, Adolph was elected treasurer for the new organization. [342] On December 14, a constable sale of the goods attached to the saloon formerly owned and operated by Louis Lacau at 300 Harrison Avenue were sold to cover outstanding debts to the Baer Bros. Mercantile Co. [343]

Adolph and Mathilda kept a second residence at Hotel L’Imperiale at Denver during 1900, [344] however, Adolph was enumerated twice in the 1900 United States Census, and is recorded both at the family residence in Denver, while also living at the Baer brother’s store at 311 Harrison Avenue in Leadville. [345] On February 27, 1900, Baer Bros. teamster John Tenny had another mishap and the following item appeared in the Herald Democrat newspaper:

The Herald Democrat). February 27, 1900.

Bit By Horse. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat. February 27, 1900. Page 6.

On March 3, 1900, Theodore signed as surety for Albert Martinola in an odd court case in which Martinola was released on a $1000 bond after his arrest for a “criminal assault” on sixteen year-old Augusta Shelman. Shelman was arrested on a charge of “being incorrigible”, plead guilty, and was sentenced to the Colorado State Industrial School for Girls until she reached the age of twenty-one. Shelman’s crime centered around her frequent circulation in local saloons, however, the reports on the case suggest that Martinola may have been acting as an agent for Shelman in her business as a prostitute; months earlier Martinola had removed Shelman from her family home, with her parent’s permission under the auspices of her procuring appointment as a home health care worker and housekeeper for an unnamed family who’s wife and mother had taken ill. [346]

Isaac and his family returned to Leadville on May 15, 1900, after spending the winter on the East Coast where the children attended school. [347] In May, the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company contributed $100 for the Leadville Independence Day celebration, [348] a fitting contribution when considering that Adolph served as chairman of the finance committee for the event. [349] Theo and nephew, Ezra, spent three months in Europe, primarily to visit Theo’s parents in Germany and attend the World’s Fair Exposition at Paris. [350] Minette and Earnest were present at a children’s picnic hosted by Henry, Celia, and Harvey Mudd at Evergreen Lakes on June 30. [351] Mathilda attended a Japanese-themed luncheon at the Hunter home in the honor of Miss Irwin, who was visiting from Honolulu. [352]

On August 22, the following item appeared in the local news section of the Herald Democrat newspaper that described Mathilda to be the victim of a burglary in Denver:

The Herald Democrat. August 27, 1900.

Robbed A Leadville Lady. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). August 27, 1900. Page 6.

In November, 1901, Theo succeeded Adolph Schayer as Temple Israel Sunday School superintendent. [353] The Baers’ business investments had become highly diverse and disbursed. On April 29, the Baer brothers announced they would be constructing a bank in Meeker, Colorado, and installing former Leadvillian and Colorado State Auditor, George Temple, as the managing banker. [354] Newspaper reports on the city council meeting held on April 30, 1901, noted that Theo and Adolph were joint parties to six Leadville saloons applying for liquor licenses that month. [355] On May 16, Adolph leased the Black Cloud mining claim to Thomas Henneberry for $10,000. [356] On May 23, Lake County Court Judge McCloud appointed a committee of Theo Baer, N.S. Gregg, and E.J. McCarty to appraise the value of personal property belonging to the estate of Ora A. Bostwick. [357] On May 25, Theo attended a welcome home party for Hattie Cohn, after her return from an extended southern vacation, with his future wife, May Kahn. [358] Ezra was now attending Colorado A & M in Ft. Collins (now Colorado State University) and he spent a portion of his summer vacation in Leadville and the rest of his time on his father Isaac’s ranch in Meeker. [359] On July 27, Mrs. Jackson gave an “Afternoon” and “Evening” party featuring music by Professor Leo Klein, [360] the “Afternoon” segment was intended for married couples, while the “Evening” portion was reserved for the single ladies and gentlemen. Jackson was new to Leadville and threw the soiree as a means to introduce herself to Leadville society. Both May Kahn, and Theo were in attendance. [361] Adolph and May Kahn attended a fishing lesson conducted by Carrie Meyer and Lillian Kahn at the Musgrove (Leadville National) Fish Hatchery located at the foot of Mount Massive. [362] Mathilda entertained future sister-in-law May and, her sister, Tillie Kahn during a dinner at the Vendome Hotel on August 30. [363] Theo led memorial services in honor of the assassination of President William McKinley [364] on September 18. [365] On December 23, John Blitzer transferred a 1/32 interest in the Hap Hazard Lode to Adolph. [366]

In 1902, Adolph’s listed address was at 501 Harrison Avenue. [367] The Baer Bros. were among a long list of petitioners protesting a new tax law that dramatically increased county property assessments in 1902. [368] On February 19, local brothel owner Ben Loeb filed a criminal complaint for check forgery against Dr. Donald Maclean, son of the former American Medical Association president, who was soon after arrested. It was thereafter revealed that Mclean had written at least twenty other fraudulent checks in the community and one of his victims was Theo Baer. [369] On March 11, the Antelope Mining Company filed renewed articles of incorporation and named Adolph Baer as their secretary. [370] The last business of Joe Hall’s popular Leadville grocery store was a court case in which Hall was ordered to pay the Baer Bros. Mercantile Co. a judgment of $632.95. [371] On March 22, Adolph and Julius Wolf [372] acquired one-half interest in the Boyd Lode from Anna Stone for $50. [373]

Ernest Baer attended Colorado College, a private secondary institution located in Colorado Springs, and was a noted member of the school’s glee club. [374] Ezra continued his studies in Ft. Collins at Colorado A & M while Ruth attended college at an unknown private school in northern California. [375] Adolph served on the executive committee for Leadville’s Independence Day celebration. [376] Theo spent the day with his future bride, May Kahn, and the rest of her family at Twin Lakes on September 7. [377] On September 12, Theo was among a group of Leadville businessmen who were present for a smelter tour given by Jake and Edwin Kahn and followed with lunch at their home prepared by May and Tillie Kahn. [378] On October 17, Isaac began a long legal battle that would rise to the United States Supreme Court and would take years to decide when he, Sam Berry, [379] and F.E. McCollum met with representatives from Leadville’s three major railroad providers in an effort to establish uniform freight charges from other major western cities to and from Leadville. [380] In October, Adolph was named executor in the matter of settling the estate of Morris Mayer. [381] At the twenty-third anniversary celebration of Leadville’s Turnverien society on October 19, Isaac Baer and Frantz Schmidt were recognized as the organization’s only two remaining founding members. [382] Theo won first prize at a meeting of the Whist Club on October 21. [383]

On January 1, 1903 Mathilda was named as a founding board member for Leadville’s first public library. [384] The Carnegie Library building still stands today and serves as Leadville’s Heritage Museum located at 102 East 9th Street. On January 27, 1903, Theo married May Harriet Kahn, daughter of Leadville grocer Marx Kahn, at Temple Israel (erroneously referenced below as “Temple Emanuel”). The following article recounts the event:

The Herald Democrat. February 1, 1903.

Society. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). February 1, 1903. Page 9.

Afterwards, Theo and May Baer moved to their new home at 214 W. 7th. [385] During this year the Baer Bros. Mercantile Co. also opened a new location in Denver at 15th Street and Arapahoe. [386]

On February 6, 1903, May was the guest of honor for a card party given by Hattie Heimberger at her home. [387] On April 9, 1903, George Egger, partnered with the Baers in the Last Chance mine, reported the discovery of a large ore body of silver, gold, and copper with a 27 foot pay streak. [388] On May 20, May hosted a meeting of the Leadville High School Alumni Association at her home. [389] Theo and May left Leadville on May 23 to attend the funeral of Samuel Rose at Denver. [390] On July 23, 1903, Adolph petitioned the court to allow him to liquidate damages on a lien he held on the saloon fixtures of J. Seymore Lang who operated his tavern in the Moulton building on Harrison Avenue. [391] After checking on business interests at the family ranch in Meeker, Colorado, Hattie and Ruth visited Hattie’s parents, Julius and Fannie Kahn, on August 1. [392] Theo led Rosh Hashanah services at Temple Israel on September 22. [393] On Christmas Eve 1903, a small fire broke out in the courthouse entryway. Baer Bros. employee, Julius Miller, who saw the ignition, ran to the storeroom, secured a bucket, dipped it in the 5th Street ditch, and extinguished the flame. If not for his quick and decisive action the building would likely have been reduced to ashes. [394]

This advertisement appeared in the October 23, 1903 edition of the Herald Democrat newspaper.

This advertisement appeared in the October 23, 1903 edition of the Herald Democrat newspaper.

Original Manitou Spring Water. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). October 23, 1903. P7.

On January 4, 1904, Adolph was appointed the administrator for the estate of former Leadville jewelry store merchant and real estate mogul Marcus Mayer [395] who owned a substantial amount of commercial property on Harrison Avenue. [396] On a particularly cold day in January of 1904, street traffic on Harrison Avenue was disrupted by a stampede. A team horse became particularly agitated from the weather, and began running, causing the rest of his team, and dozens of others including one owned by the Baer Bros. to run as well. Although several sleds and wagons experienced heavy damage nobody was seriously injured during the escapade. [397] Mathilda served on a committee that organized a Women’s Club debate topic of; Are Women of Today an Improvement on Their Foremothers, argued between Mrs. Stickley and Miss Kahn on April 25. [398] In April, Isaac purchased a thoroughbred stallion from the K-T Ranch. [399] The Baer Bros. delivery wagon encountered another incident in 1904:

The Herald Democrat. May 24, 1904.

Wasted Sweetness. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). May 24, 1904. Page 6.

On July 9, 1904, Adolph acquired 1/32nd interest in the Hap Hazzard, Hap Hazzard No. 2, and the John B. mining claims from Robert Hahnewald. [400] Mathilda and Earnest returned from a trip to California on September 4. [401] In November Hattie and Ruth Baer visited Leadville from St. Louis. Ruth visited her grandparents, Julius and Fanny Kahn, while Hattie visited her business interests at the family ranch and dairy farm in Meeker. [402] May gave a family dinner party for the Kahns and Baers at her home on November 12. [403] On November 25, Ike was noted to be one of only two original members of Leadville’s Turnverein Society to have remained in the city, [404] at the twenty-fifth anniversary jubilee for the organization. [405] May gave a discussion on The Call For Men As Public School Teachers at a Women’s Club Meeting on December 3. [406] On December 14, Adolph left Leadville to spend a week tending to business on his ranch. [407]

On January 3, 1905, Jake Kahn was sent from Leadville to Salt Lake City to manage the new branch location of the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company. [408] Hattie read the last act of Julius Caesar for the Women’s Club meeting on February 23. [409] Theo conducted funeral services at Temple Israel for Jesse Bloomfield [410] who was killed in a mining accident at the Adams shaft on February 23. [411] On April 23, Adolph and Mathilda left Leadville for a new home in Salt Lake City. [412] Theo and May welcomed their first child, Fredrick, to Leadville on July 22, 1905. [413] On September 23, May Baer attended a card party and luncheon at her mother’s home. [414] On December 13, George Egger filed an affidavit of labor for assessment work he performed on the Last Chance, Last Chance No. 2, and the Gold Chain lodes he was partnered in with the Baer brothers. [415]

Theo and May celebrated their third wedding anniversary by hosting a small dinner party with the Kahn family on February 3, 1906. [416] On April 6, Hattie had a mishap while on a visit to Denver where she mislaid her purse containing a large sum of cash. The following details of the event appeared in the April 7, 1906 edition of the Herald Democrat newspaper:

The Herald Democrat.  April 7, 1906.

The Honest Bell Hop. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). April 7, 1906. Page 1.

The heavy snows of the winter of 1905-1906 in Northern Colorado made for good alfalfa and wheat growth in the spring providing a bountiful diet for the Baer Brothers Land and Cattle Company, and Isaac delivered ten carloads of steers to the Kansas City market which fetched top dollar in May. [417] On May 8, Theo and May left for Colorado Springs and Pueblo to tend to issues with May’s health. [418] After a ladies’ group from Buena Vista, Colorado toured some of the local mines on September 15, Dr. Sol Kahn and his wife Lillie entertained Theo and May them at dinner. [419] On September 19, Theo Baer assisted Adolph Schayer in presenting Rosh Hashanah services at Temple Israel. [420] During 1906, the Baer’s added a fifty foot annex to their block on Harrison Avenue in which was installed a bowling alley which appears to have been frequently populated with a large number of patrons. [421] On November 7, Isaac delivered 375 steers to the Kansas City Stockyards fetching the premium price of $4.29 a head. [422] Although the price was high in Kansas City, Denver premium prices were as much as .25 cents higher that season, [423] with the added expense of shipping the Baer brothers may have made significantly greater profit selling them locally considering the beef would have passed through Denver on their way to Missouri.

Theo Baer was an usher for the wedding of Gertrude Berryman [424] to Dr. Maurice Kahn, May and Hattie Baer’s cousin, held at Temple Israel on January 21, 1907:

The Herald Democrat. January 22, 1907.

Berryman-Kahn Temple Marriage. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). January 22, 1907. Page 5.

On January 6, fire broke out in the second floor room occupied by Michael Shaunessy, above the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company. The flames were confined to Shaunessy’s room which were extinguished quickly by the fire department. However, a hole burned through the floor causing all of the water to fall into the Baer’s domain:

…The room on the first floor, occupied by Baer Bros’, wholesale liquor dealers suffered the most damage as the water which was poured into the room on the floor came through the ceiling in torrents, and completely flooded the room. The water also found its way to the basement of the building where Baer Bros. have their bottling works, and did considerable damage there. Some valuable machinery as well as some expensive liquors were destroyed. [425]

On February 1, 1907, Evelyn Mayer [426] hosted a “recreation party” for a number of her friends at the home of her aunt and uncle, May and Theo Baer. [427] Theodore managed a ranch for the Baer Land & Cattle Company near Salt Lake City, and by 1907 the brothers had cattle ranches in Meeker, Rifle, and Jimtown (Crede), Colorado, and Salt Lake City, Utah. [428] Theo and May both attended a Valentine’s Day party at the home of Mrs. Harvey where May spoke briefly on the subject of Saint Valentine. [429] The Baer Bros. storefront featured a large elk’s head on display to commemorate the International Elks’ Convention held in Leadville during June of 1907. [430] Isaac, Hattie, and Tillie retuned from a three-month trip to Europe on June 22. Isaac and Hattie left the Meeker ranch on a globetrotting mission in December of 1907. [431] First visiting the Kahns in Leadville, then moving on to visit Ezra in Salt Lake City, followed by a lengthy trip to Europe then returned to Colorado the following spring. [432] Theo and May attended a dinner party at the home of her aunt and uncle, Isaac and Mina Kahn, on August 10. [433]

Adolph was appointed to the reception and entertainment committee in anticipation of a banquet and festival to be held in honor of Leadville’s thirtieth anniversary in January of 1909. [434] On February 14, May helped host a going away reception in honor of her sister, Tillie Kahn, at Carrie Mayer’s [435] home on February 16, 1908. [436] On March 11, Ruth acted as a bridesmaid and Ezra served as best man at the wedding of their aunt, Ruth Kahn, to Isadore Block of Dallas at the home of their grandparents, Julius and Fanny Kahn. [437] On December 16, Theo and May hosted a party in honor of Julius Kahn’s 79th birthday in their home. [438] The couple would also welcome daughter, Louise, on an unspecified date in Leadville during 1908. [439]

A Herald Democrat newspaper article noted that Isaac Baer was one of Leadville’s founding merchants, having opened the Baer Bros. liquor distributorship in 1879, a business that was still one of Leadville’s’ most successful in 1909. [440] At a meeting of the Leadville Mining and Improvement Association, Theo was appointed to an executive committee to investigate improvements for Leadville’s transportation systems On April 13. [441] Theo attended a “Five Hundred” [442] party at the home of Mrs. Fiske on April 24. [443]

In May of 1909, in a series of legal actions that began in 1907, [444] the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company and their suit against The Missouri Pacific Railway Company took center stage in an effort to normalize shipping rates for the cause of interstate commerce. The Baers had an active suit against the M.P.R. as an attempt to recover money they felt they were overcharged for transporting beer from St. Louis to Leadville. In an effort to settle, the Baers suggested a normalization of shipping rates that would retroactively reduce the amount of the Baer’s suit, while allowing for reduced freight charges for all operations who imported wholesale goods from other states. A commission of commercial organizations in Colorado chose the Baer case to set precedent for reducing and regulating shipping charges on a global scale, and force most westbound interstate freight to pass through Colorado. [445] Although the district court ruled in favor of the Baers, who were eventually awarded $2400.00 in damages which resulted in reduced beer prices in Leadville for patrons of all establishments, [446] the victory was brief; the decision was overturned in 1911 by the U.S. Circuit Court in St. Paul, Minnesota,. [447] The Baer’s would re-file the case with the U.S. Supreme Court in 1914.

Adolph purchased 1/16 shares of the Last Chance and Last Chance No. 2 lodes from John Bitzer on May 23, 1909. [448] On June 29, the Baers advertised the sale listing for a 120 acre farm near New Castle, Colorado (approximately 100 miles northwest of Leadville). The property featured 35 acres of fruit bearing apple trees, several acres of grapes, potatoes, and alfalfa, fully improved with water rights, horses, wagons, and a full inventory of implements with an “easy” payment plan. [449] Theo served on a special planning committee for Leadville’s 5th of July celebration. This may have been ironically fitting as the only fire reported in Leadville on July 4, 1909, was in Theo and May’s home:

The Herald Democrat. July 5, 1909.

One Fire For The Fourth. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). July 5, 1909. Page 5.

In 1909, the legal Independence Day holiday was Monday July 5 and thus Leadville enjoyed two celebrations that year, with the local Eagles lodge hosting festivities on Sunday, July 4, while the official city sanctioned event took place on Monday. [450]

On July 7, 1909, Isaac leased the American Lode to J.H. Allingham and C.H. Price. [451] On October 2, Theo and his children returned from a lengthy summer vacation in California. [452] On November 15, 1909, Temple Israel cantor Adolph Schayer died from heart failure. The funeral services were conducted by Theo at Temple Israel on November 17, followed by Schayer’s internment at Leadville’s Hebrew Cemetery. [453] On December 12, Theo was noted as having purchased a minimum of one hundred one-cent postage stamps from the Red Cross. Proceeds from the sale of these stamps were used to fund tuberculosis research. [454] May hosted a birthday party in honor of her father, Marx Kahn, who turned eighty on December 18. [455]

In 1910, The Baer Bros. Mercantile Company’s proprietorship was taken over by its manager, Julius Muller, and renamed The Muller Co. [456] This was an interesting transition and it is unclear if the Baer’s still owned at least a portion of the enterprise. Advertisements billed The Muller Co. as “successors” to The Baer Bros. Mercantile Company. [457] The enterprise continues to be listed this way until 1913, when A.J. Pelta assumed proprietorship, [458] and the liquor concern remained there until 1918 when it became the shop of a local pipefitter. [459]

This advertisement for The Muller Company appeared in the December 3, 1910 edition of the Herald Democrat Newspaper.

This advertisement for The Muller Company appeared in the December 3, 1910 edition of the Herald Democrat Newspaper. Note the lower portion which describes the Muller enterprise as the “successors” to the Baer Brothers Mercantile Company.

The Muller Company,. Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat. December 3, 1910. Page 5.

May hosted a bridge party for her lady friends at her home on February 23, 1910. [460] On April 16, 1910, Theo, May, and their children, Fredrick, and Louise, left Leadville for their new home in Salt Lake City, [461] where they also planned to transfer the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company’s business headquarters. [462] At a city council meeting on September 17, the Baer Bros. Mercantile CO. requested that the city pay half the expense for repairing the sidewalk in front of the Union Bock, which was denied. [463] On September 22, 1910, Theodore Baer died of a heart attack after a long period of suffering with cardiac issues:

DEATH OF THEO BAER- The sad intelligence was received here yesterday from Salt Lake City of the death of Theodore Baer. Last April Mr. Baer and family removed to Salt Lake and for sometime before his departure was not in the best of health, but it was hoped that the change would improve his condition. Arriving in Utah he became steadily worse and he went to Southern California where he gained slightly. On returning to Salt Lake he felt better, and in August made a trip to this city (Leadville) on business, but was then far from the healthy, robust that he was in former years. Going back to his new home he had a serious attack and was taken to the hospital where he had the very best of care and attention. Only a week ago he was feeling so much better that he left the hospital and went home and it was then thought that he was on the road to a speedy recovery.

The end came yesterday at noon with a sudden attack of heart failure. As a lad in Germany Mr. Baer had an attack of asthma, but for the long time he lived in Leadville he never suffered from this malady until the last when it returned accompanied with heart trouble.

Mr. Baer resided in Leadville for eighteen years being connected with the Baer Mercantile Co. and was highly thought of by all who knew him. In the fall of 190X (illegible), he married Miss May Kahn, youngest daughter of Mr. M. (Marx) Kahn, and to this union was born two children. To the bereaved wife and children the sympathy of this community is extended in their hour of sorrow. [464]

On November 23, the Baer Bros. Mercantile Company filed an amendment to their articles of incorporation with the county [465] likely to adjust ownership records as a result of Theo’s death. On December 3, 1910, Theo’s B.P.O.E. brethren honored him, and other members who passed during the year in a memorial service at the Elk’s club. [466]

In 1911, May maintained residence at 29th Street and Platte River Drive in Denver. [467] On January 20, Adolph visited Leadville to monitor his business interests. [468] Mathilda sold her one-half interest in the Jupiter Lode to O.J. [469] Levy. [470]

Upon the death of local brothel owner and Temple Israel congregant Ben Loeb [471] in January of 1912, Loeb’s obituary revealed that he first came to Leadville as a salesman for the Baer Bros. liquor distributorship and had secured the position through Issac’s father-in-law, Julius Kahn, whom he knew from Dallas before making his move to Leadville in 1881. Loeb then refused the position upon his arrival and the Baer’s chose to employ him as a bartender, a position that was more suitable to Loeb’s experience and future his ambitions. [472]

In December of 1912, Julius and Fanny Kahn had a busy travel schedule, first traveling to Denver to attend the wedding of their granddaughter, Ruth Baer, to Sam Meyer Jr., then heading on to Salt Lake City to witness grandson Ezra Bear’s wedding. [473]

In October of 1913, The Union Block Realty Company was incorporated in Leadville. The company was formed to trade real property, its board of directors included Isaac, Ruth Baer Mayer (Isaac’s daughter), Sam and Maurice Mayer, with a capitalization of $10,000. [474] On November 8, Ruth’s sister-in-law, Meta Mayer, sold her interest in the Union Block building to the new company for $10,000. [475] Hattie and Isaac came into Leadville from their ranch in Meeker to help Hattie’s parents, Julius and Fanny Kahn, celebrate their fiftieth wedding anniversary on November 30. [476] Isaac reported record sales for the Baer Bros. Land and Cattle Company, which delivered 1300 head of cattle to the Kansas City market that year. [477]

On May 13, 1914, the final chapter of the more the twelve year to modify freight charges with the Denver & Rio Grand Railway was finally decided by the United States Supreme Court in the Baer’s favor:

…Suit was begun for a refund of the over-charge and the firm (Baer Bros. Mercantile Co.) won in the United States Circuit Court, but lost in the court of appeals. Yesterday’s decree reverses the latter and affirms the former tribunal. It has the effect of reducing the charge of 45 cents a hundred made by the Rio Grande to 20 cents. The eastern road charged 45 cents between St. Louis and Pueblo (Colorado)… [478]

On August 5, 1914, Adolph Baer died at the age of 59, in Salt Lake City from stomach cancer he had been diagnosed with a year earlier. He was interred at B’nai Israel Cemetery in Utah. [479]

In 1915, Joseph Baer had returned to Colorado and began operating a brewery at 3142 Lawrence Street in Denver. [480] On January 18, Isaac and Mathilda began the arduous process of consolidating some of the Baer’s real estate holdings from Adolph’s estate by transferring the deed for Leadville’s Union Block to the newly formed Union Block Realty Company of Denver, controlled by Isaac Baer and Meta Mayer. [481] On May 6, Isaac was one of fourteen Leadvillians sent to Pueblo as delegates to represent Leadville at the state Republican convention. Isaac was also chosen to represent Lake County at the National Republican Convention held at Chicago’s Coliseum during June 8-12, 1920. [482]

In June of 1916, Isaac and Hattie came to Leadville from Meeker in their new automobile for the purpose of visiting her parents. [483] On October 13, May’s father, Marx Kahn, died at the age of 87 from heart failure at Salt Lake City. [484] Isaac and Hattie would return to Leadville the following month to attend Thanksgiving dinner with her parents. [485] In September of 1917, Lake County sold five lots owned by Adolph Baer at auction for unpaid 1912 tax assessments. [486]

On May 15, 1917, Isaac, now president of the Colorado Livestock Association, was signatory to a resolution passed by the American National Livestock Association drafted during a two-day symposium at Denver, to increase food production for the demands created by the United States ingress to World War I on April 6. [487]

A brief newspaper item noted that on February 13, 1918, an insurance adjuster had just returned from Meeker who had assessed fire damage to the Baer ranch and creamery. [488] No details have been found on the actual incident. On November 18, Ezra retuned to the region by moving from Salt Lake to Glenwood Springs where he accepted a position as an agent with the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. [489]

Hattie visited her parents, Julius and Fanny Kahn on May 9, 1919. [490] Within the few months to follow, 80 year-old Julius’ health began to rapidly decline due to his “advanced age”, and he was removed to the care of his son, Dr. Lee Kahn, in Pueblo. Julius passed on December 1, and funeral services were conducted in Denver by his Masonic brothers on December 3. [491]

On the afternoon of November 16, 1920, while traveling by automobile to their winter home in Coronado Beach California, the vehicle was struck by a train near Domingo, New Mexico. Both Isaac and Hattie were killed, and daughter Ruth Baer Mayer, critically injured. The following account of the accident appeared in the November 17 edition of the Herald Democrat newspaper: [492] (NOTE: The article names Ruth Kahn Baer as Isaac’s wife, this is an error by the reporter. All public records indicate that Hattie Kahn was Isaac’s wife, Ruth Kahn was her sister).

The Herald Democrat. November 17, 1920.

Isaac Baer Meets Death. (Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat). November 17, 1920. Page 1.

According to probate records, Isaac’s wealth at the time of his death included his share of the Baer Land & Cattle Company, and liquid assets totaling $115,000. This was distributed amongst his heirs with the exception of $500 bequeathed to the Denver Consumptive Relief Hospital. [493]

Funeral Notice for Isaac and Hattie Baer.

Funeral Notice for Isaac and Hattie Baer.

Funeral Of Mr. And Mrs. Baer Held Tuesday. (Denver, Colorado: Denver Jewish News). November 24, 1920. Page 8.

In 1921, seven years after his death, Adolph still held a substantial amount of Leadville property titled in his name. [494] Although Ezra was serving as president of the Baer Bros. organization, the headquarters for the firm remained in Salt Lake. [495] Ezra would continue to split time between Leadville and Salt Lake as the head of the Baer enterprises. [496]

On January 19, 1923, Ezra and Ruth accompanied the body of their grandmother, Fanny Kahn, to Denver via the Denver & Rio Grand Western Railway, where she was laid to rest. [497] On August 20, Ezra, and his wife Helen (Cohn) visited Leadville from their home in Denver to look after business interests. [498] As late as December 3, 1923, Adolph was still shown as a principal owner of the G.M. Lode, and Mathilda as a principal owner of the Venus Mine. [499]

This 1923 advertisement for Cummings Brothers features Baer Butter, a product of the still functioning Baer Brothers Land and Cattle Company & Creamery.

This 1923 advertisement for Cummings Brothers features Baer Butter, a product of the still functioning Baer Brothers Land and Cattle Company & Creamery.

Cummings Brothers. Leadville, Colorado: The Herald Democrat. May 1, 1923. Page 5.

Ezra was shown as still managing Isaac’s farm in the Meeker, Colorado area in 1930. [500]

On November 29, 1966, Ezra died in Alameda, California of unknown causes. He rests alongside his wife, Helen Cohn Baer, in a mausoleum at Denver’s Fairmont Cemetery. [501] Ezra, the last Baer of the original Temple Israel congregants, and proprietor of the Baer Bros. empire still held a great deal of the company’s property at the time his will entered probate.

Mathilda Baer and friend.

Mathilda Baer and friend.

Courtesy; McGeorge Collection.

Minetta Baer (lower right), at Miss Wolcott’s School.

Minetta Baer (lower right), at Miss Wolcott’s School.

Courtesy; McGeorge Collection.

The following information was supplied to Temple Israel Foundation by Jennifer McGeorge, the great granddaughter of Adolph and Mathilda Baer:

The Baers were close family friends of the Browns, as in "Unsinkable Molly", and the Baers moved to Denver close on the heels of the Browns (1890s). My great-grandmother was known to tell stories of going to their grand home in Denver for birthday parties. Minetta attended Miss Wolcott's School for Girls from 1901 to 1904. Some time thereafter the family moved to Salt Lake City, Utah, and Minetta met Daniel Alexander, her future husband and the son of a prominent resident of the city. Minetta went to Smith College but left in her sophomore year (1908) to care for her father who was very ill. Adolph died in 1914 of kidney cancer. Mathilda stayed in Salt Lake City close to her family until she was about 65 when she started to split her time between San Francisco and Salt Lake City. In San Francisco she lived at the Clift Hotel and her daughter Minetta joined her in the late 1940s. Mathilda lived there until her death at the age of 93 in 1954. My great grandmother, Minetta, lived at the Clift until 1978 and then was moved to a convalescent hospital in Tiburon, California. She died there on her 94th birthday on January 27, 1980.

I have met with my Great Uncle Daniel Alexander (Minetta's Son) and also received a letter from my Great Aunt Marion Peterson (Minetta's youngest daughter). Most of what Aunt Marion wrote we already know but she does give some insight into the family.

She thinks everyone was born in Karlsburgh, Germany and the boys left Germany to avoid Bismarck's draft and "to follow their dream to freedom and adventure". When they got to Leadville they "looked around to see what wasn't there and opened a tobacco store-cigars and cigarettes were popular with the miners. No. 1 friends in the community were the Mudd family of the Cyprus Mines Corp. Harvey Mudd Jr.'s wife Mildred Mudd was a lifelong friend of Minettas. The Baer brothers expanded their business vision and decided to go into ranching-thus they found beautiful land 5 miles outside of Meeker, Colorado, where they bought thousands of acres and established the K-T Ranch-one of the largest ranches in that part of the state-next to the Alfonzo Bell ranch (5 miles away). Adolf did not want to be a rancher so he owned the minority stock in the K-T, but Isaac and wife and children, Ruth & Ezra, lived on the ranch-only a short time as Isaac, wife and chauffeur were killed crossing a railroad track! Ezra married-lived in Meeker- Ruth, the brains and brawn of the two lived on the ranch until it was sold just before World War II.

1 United States Census, 1900. database with images. (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
2 United States Census, 1880. database with images. (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., n.d.)
3 Ancestry.com. Salt Lake County, Utah, Death Records, 1908-1949 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014.
4 United States Census, 1900. database with images. (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
5 Colorado State Census, 1885. database with images. (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
6 United States Passport Applications, 1795-1925. database with images. NARA microfilm publications M1490 and M1372 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.)
7 New Mexico Department of Health. New Mexico, deaths, 1889-1945 / New Mexico. Certificate and Record of Death, 1889-1942. 29 microfilm reels; 16 mm. Sante Fe, NM: Bureau of Vital Records and Health Statistics. Salt Lake City, Utah: Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1996.
8 State of California. California Death Index, 1940-1997. Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics.
9 JewishGen, comp. JewishGen Online Worldwide Burial Registry (JOWBR) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008.
10 Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
11 United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls. Year: 1900; Census Place: Leadville, Lake, Colorado; Page: 3; Enumeration District: 0046; FHL microfilm: 1240125
12 Bruno Grosser. Leadville. (Denver, CO: Jewish Outlook.) November 24, 1905. P45.
13 California State Library, California History Section; Great Registers, 1866-1898; Collection Number: 4 - 2A; CSL Roll Number: 140; FHL Roll Number: 978599
14 California State Library, California History Section; Great Registers, 1866-1898; Collection Number: 4 - 2A; CSL Roll Number: 132; FHL Roll Number: 978588
15 The Feast Of Chanuka. (Leadville, CO: USA. Herald Democrat.) December 12, 1893. P8.
16 Grosser. Denver, CO. 1905. P45.
17 (Official) List Of Letters. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). May 28, 1879. P2.
18 WM Clark, WA Root And HC Anderson. Clark, Root and Co’s First Annual City Directory of Leadville and Business Directory of Carbonateville, Kokomo and Malta for 1879. (Denver, CO: Daily Times Steam Printing House And Book Manufactory.1879). P24.
19 Brasil, Cartões de Imigração, 1900-1965. database with images. FamilySearch. (image 142 of 203; National Archives, Rio de Janeiro). May 8, 2019.
20 Historical Research Cooperative. Lake County Colorado Will/Probate Index, 1879 1988 . Leadville, CO. 1988. P10.
21 For more information on Leo Lindauer and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/lindauer.html
22 For more information on Isaac Kamak and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kamak.html
23 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. P387.
24 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. Pp393.
25 Breck Allen DuPont, The Centennial History Of The Jews Of Colorado, 1859 1959 . (Denver, CO: Hirschfeld Press), 1961.
26 For more information on Ben Loeb and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/loeb.html
27 TB Corbett, WC Hoye and JH Ballenger. Corbet, Hoye and Co’s First Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1880. (Leadville, CO: Democrat Printing Company. 1880). P66.
28 Mining Deeds. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Weekly Herald). February 14, 1880. P8.
29 For more information on Simon Schloss and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/schloss.html
30 Mining And Real Estate Sales And Transactions. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Weekly Democrat). May 8, 1880. P8.
31 The First Day Of Martial Law In This Ruffled City. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Weekly Democrat). June 19, 1880. P6.
32 For more information on Meyer Harris and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/harris.html
33 For more information on Max and Sol Herman and their families, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/herman.html
34 Corbett, Hoye and Ballenger. Leadville, CO. 1880. P179.
35 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. P677.
36 The Standard Club. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). October 24, 1880. P4.
37 Removal. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Democrat). March 29, 1881. P3.
38 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Second Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1881. (Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers.1881). P68.
39 Buena Vista Turn Hall. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). January 23, 1881. P4.
40 A Ball Mt. Consolidation. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Weekly Democrat). March 5, 1881. P6.
41 For more information on Julius Kahn and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html
42 Pink Dominoes. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). March 16, 1881. P4.
43 Bar Room Fight. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Democrat). March 19, 1881. P8.
44 Emblems Of Grief. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Weekly Herald). September 24, 1881. P8.
45 Mike Sewell. All the English Race is in Mourning: The Assassination of President Garfield and Anglo-American Relations. (Cambridge, England: UK. The Historical Journal, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), Cambridge University Press. 1991). Pp. 665-686.
46 Simchas Taura Ball. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. October 23, 1881). P3.
47 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1883. (Denver, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers.1883). P66.
48 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Thrid Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1882. (Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers.1882). Pp67-68.
49 For more information on Sol Levy and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/levy.html
50 District Court. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. February 1, 1882). P4.
51 District Court. (Leadville, CO: Leadville, Daily Herald. May 16, 1882). P4.
52 Nancy Manly. Who’s Where In Leadville’s Evergreen Cemetery . Leadville, CO; USA. Historical Research Co operative. 1981.
53 For more information on Sam Mayer and his family, Please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/mayer.html
54 Sylvester Evening. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). January 6, 1883. P1.
55 Hebrew Ladies’ Ball. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). January 20, 1883. P4.
56 Purim. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). March 23, 1883. P4.
57 Hearty Endorsement. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). March 24, 1883. P4.
58
59 Tuesday Night’s Fire. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). October 6, 1883. P7.
60 For more information on Rebecca Samuels and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/samuels.html
61 Mining Application No. 2715. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). October 26, 1883. P4.
62 Mining Notes. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). October 6, 1883. P2.
63 For more information on Marx Kahn and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html
64 The Jewish New Year. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). October 6, 1883. P8.
65 For more information on Simon Mooney and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/mooney.html
66 For more information on Morris Altman and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/mooney.html
67 For more information on Sol Rice and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/rice.html
68 Rich Remembrances. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). October 6, 1883. P6.
69 A Brilliant Affair. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). December 29, 1883. P12.
70 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1884. (Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. 1884). P63.
71 A High Tea. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). January 12, 1884. P12.
72 Another Defunct Bank. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). January 23, 1884. P4.
73 For more information on Goulder Janowitz and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/janowitz.html
74 The First Suit. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). February 23, 1884. P9.
75 Around The Circle. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). March 8, 1884. P9.
76 Social Zephyrs. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 24, 1884. P4.
77 The Jewish Festival. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). March 12, 1884. P4.
78 A Bal Masque. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). February 23, 1884 P4.
79 Chamber Of Commerce. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). June 7, 1884. P6.
80 For more information on Rosa Monheimer and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/monheimer.html
81 For more information on Anna Harris Herman and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/herman.html
82 The Hebrew Festival. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). June 13, 1884. P4.
83 A Very Pleasant Event. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). June 22, 1884. P4.
84 For more information on Bertha Kraft and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kraft.html
85 Social Summary. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). July 19, 1884. P8.
86 Schmidt’s Troubles. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). August 9, 1884. P6.
87 Congregation Israel. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). September 20, 1884. P4.
88 For more information on David May and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/may.html
89 Day Of Atonement. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). October 4, 1884. P6.
90 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. P1538.
91 Habeth Tshuva. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). Octber 4, 1884. P4.
92 Nancy Manly . Who’s Where In Leadville’s Evergreen Cemetery . Leadville, CO; USA. Historical Research Co operative. 1981.
93 The Sixth Annual Ball. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). October 9, 1884. P4.
94 For more information on Professor Henry Simon, his Great Western Orchestra, and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/simon.html
95 The Jewish Banquet. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald). October 25, 1884. P4.
96 A Pleasant Event. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). November 29, 1884. P6.
97 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1885. (Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers.1885). P63.
98 Temple Israel. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). January 3, 1885. P2.
99 Social and Personal. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). January 17, 1885. P8.
100 For more information on the Cloud City Social Club, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/cloudcitysocialclub.html
101 For more information on Professor Henry Simon and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/simon.html
102 Cloud City Social Club. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). January 24, 1885. P8.
103 For more information on Purim observances in Leadville, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/leadvillepurim.html
104 Children’s Ball. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). May 9, 1885. P3.
105 The Aspen Trade. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). April 4, 1885. P3.
106 Return Of The Explorers. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). June 6, 1885. P3.
107 The Road To Aspen. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). July 4, 1885. P8.
108 The Hebrew Ladies. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). June 13, 1885. P2.
109 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996.P1686.
110 Sir Moses Montefiore. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). August 8, 1885. P8.
111 Hebrew Hop. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). September 29, 1885. P4.
112 Social Matters. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). August 1, 1885. P8.
113 Picnic Pastimes. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). August 1, 1885. P1.
114 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886. (Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers). 1886. P64.
115 Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910. Year: 1910; Census Place: Salt Lake City Ward 4, Salt Lake, Utah; Roll: T624_1607; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 0133; FHL microfilm: 1375620. (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls).
116 Festival And Hop. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 10, 1886. P3.
117 Red Cliff Notes. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). July 19, 1886. P5.
118 Social And Personal. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). July 19, 1886. P5.
119 The Petit Jurors. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). September 6, 1886. P4.
120 The Gambling Question. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). October 7, 1889. P7.
121 The Synagogue’s Sages. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). October 4, 1886. P4.
122 Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 D.C. Year: 1910; Census Place: Precinct 4, Rio Blanco, Colorado; Roll: T624_125; Page: 8A; Enumeration District: 0127; FHL microfilm: 1374138 (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
123 J.C. Baer. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). November 22, 1886. P1.
124 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996.P1889.
125 For more information on Rosa Shoenberg and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/shoenberg.html
126 Social And Personal. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). January 24, 1887. P1.
127 For more information on Jacob Schloss and his family, Please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/schloss.html
128 The Annual Building Boom. (Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 24, 1887. P4.
129 The G.M. Favorite. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat.) April 13, 1887. P2.
130 For more information on Sam Meyer and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/meyer.html
131 For more information on Marcus Monheimer and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/monheimer.html
132 Municipal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). May 26, 1887. P4.
133 A Coffee Klatch. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). August 15, 1887. P1.
134 County Clerk’s Office. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 8, 1887. P2.
135 Celebration Of Simcos. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). October 10, 1887. P4.
136 A Thrilling Reminiscence. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). October 12, 1887. P4.
137 Banquetting The Brides. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 4, 1888. P3.
138 A Big Question Settled. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 12, 1888. P4.
139 Artistic Annotations. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 31, 1888. P4.
140 Dog Tax Payers. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 29, 1888. P8.
141 The Horseshoe Project. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). August 4, 1886. P8.
142 The Road Will Be Built. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). August 14, 1888. P4.
143 A Delightful Picnic. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily evening Chronicle). August 20, 1888. P8.
144 For more information on Richard Metz and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/metz.html
145 A Splendid Affair. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). September 4, 1888. P3.
146 Simches Thora. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). September 29, 1888. P3.
147 A Birthday Party. (Leadville, CO: Leadville, Daily Evening Chronicle). October 13, 1888. P4.
148 For more information on Rika Simon Fleissner and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/fleissner.html
149 Leadville Assistance. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). December 17, 1888. P3.
150 Legal Log. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 5, 1889. P2.
151 A Very Pleasant Party. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 5, 1889. P2.
152 For more information on the Heimberger family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/heimberger.html
153 Pleasant Party. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 19, 1889. P3.
154 A Farewell Party. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). May 13, 1889. P8.
155 Strike After Strike. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 26, 1889. P2.
156 Mining Lease. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). July 25, 1889. P3.
157 The Lead Question. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 2, 1889. P4.
158 Will Entertain. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). July 29, 1889. P1.
159 For more information on Ben Davies and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/davies.html
160 Confirmation Exercises. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). September 29, 1890. P4.
161 To Meet Mrs. Green. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). September 30, 1889. P2.
162 Pleasantly Entertained. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). October 7, 1889. P4.
163 The Simchath Tora Ball. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 19, 1889. P4.
164 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1890. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1890). Pp 63-64.
165 Mrs. Hanna Entertains. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 5, 1890. P4.
166 A Happy Gathering. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 14, 1890. P4.
167 Mrs. Baer Entertains. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 26, 1890. P4.
168 Birthday Party. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 2, 1890. P4.
169 The People You Know. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 2, 1890. P4.
170 A Season Of Rejoicing. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 8, 1890. P4.
171 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 7, 1903. P2.
172 A Kick From Horsemen. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 25, 1890. P3.
173 Very little remains of the 1890 United States Census. In January of 1921, fire destroyed the U.S. Commerce Department building in Washington, D.C., and nearly all of the 1890 U.S. Census records; in fact, only a few rolls of counts made in sporadic southeastern counties of the United States escaped in a condition that was salvageable and these records are lost to the ages. For more information on the 1890 U.S. Census please see: Blake, Kellee. First in the Path of the Firemen: The Fate of the 1890 Population Census, Part 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Genealogy Notes. Spring 1996: Volume 28, No. 1. Revised: December 13, 2017.
174 The Census Fraud. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 8, 1890. P4.
175 Among The Dancers. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 5, 1890. P4.
176 Purely Personal. (Leadville, CO; Herald Democrat). July 15, 1890. P1.
177 The G.M. Favorite. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 19, 1890. P2.
178 Mining And Smelting. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 21, 1890. P2.
179 The McKinley Tariff of 1890. US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives, 2019. https://history.house.gov/Historical-Highlights/1851-1900/The-McKinley-Tariff-of-1890/
180 That New Tariff Bill. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 30, 1890. P3.
181 Social Scintillations. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 5, 1890. P4.
182 Wished Him Godspeed. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 14, 1890. P8.
183 A Week With Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 19, 1890. P3.
184 In The Social Whirl. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 14, 1890. P5.
185 An Enjoyable Evening. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 16, 1890. P5.
186 In The Social Swim. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 20, 1890. P5.
187 Christmas Trees At Home. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). December 26, 1890. P4.
188 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 28, 1890. P4.
189 More Good Words. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 7, 1891. P4.
190 Around Town. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 24, 1891. P2.
191 For more information on Fred Behrens and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/behrens.html
192 A Gay Week In Society. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 16, 1891. P2.
193 For more information on Moses and Charlotta Stern, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/stern.html
194 Merry Wedding Bells. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 8, 1891. P4.
195 In The Social Swim. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 12, 1891. P3.
196 A “Lavender Dinner” is traditionally a menu that features dishes seasoned with the herb lavender. Los Poblanos. LTDS: Lavender Dinner. Lavender Dinner at Los Poblanos | Los Poblanos, January 16, 1970. https://lospoblanos.com/blog/ltds-lavender-dinner
197 For more information on Herman and Felicia Stern and their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/stern.html
198 In The Social Swim. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). April 13, 1891. P4.
199 Hebrew Ladies’ Ball. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 5, 1891. P2.
200 Society’s Giddy Whirl. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 9, 1891. P5.
201 Society In Midsummer. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). August 24, 1891. P1.
202 Society In Midsummer. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 30, 1891. P5.
203 For more information on Esther Bergerman and the rest of her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/bergerman.html
204 A Pleasant Party. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 8, 1891. P4.
205 Court Calendar. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 23, 1891. P2.
206 With The Recorder. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 31, 1891. P5.
207 Some People You Know. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 27, 1891. P4.
208 A Chat About Creede. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 24, 1892. P8.
209 Winter At White River. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 16, 1892. P8.
210 Merry Masqueraders. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 26, 1892. P5.
211 Schools Of The City. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 17, 1892. P4.
212 Was A Very Gay Week. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 9, 1893. P6.
213 The Jimtown Fire. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 7, 1892. P4.
214 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 8, 1892. P1.
215 A Very Pleasant Soiree. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 9, 1892. P2.
216 Filed With Recorder. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 15, 1892. P3.
217 A Day In Police Court. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). August 3, 1892. P2.
218 Power Of Attorney. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 14, 1892. P8.
219 Where William Reigns. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 20, 1892. P5.
220 Mr. Baer Returns. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). September 8, 1892. P2.
221 Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 8, 1892. P2.
222 For more information on Jacob Bernheimer and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/bernheimer.html
223 Now Among The Missing. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 15, 1892. P10.
224 Knights of Robert Emmet. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 15, 1882. P4.
225 Simchas Torah. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 19, 1892. P4.
226 Sold To A Syndicate. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 14, 1893. P8.
227 For more information on Temple Israel architect George King, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/georgeking.html
228 For more information on Temple Israel general contractor Robert Murdoch, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/robertmurdoch.html
229 For more information on the Temple Israel building history, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/buildinghistory.html
230 Colorado Short Line. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). January 30, 1893. P3.
231 A party featuring the parlor game Pin The Tail on the Donkey: Charles Zimmerling. The Donkey Party Game of Putting the Tail on the Donkey. The Funniest Novelty of the Age. , Philadelphia, PA. Copyright 1888-89, C. Zimmerling, Phila] Photograph. 1889. https://www.loc.gov/item/2016649820/
232 Sunday Social. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 19, 1893. P7.
233 Dancing For Charity. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 3, 1893. P1.
234 A Week Of Social Gaiety. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 26, 1893. P7.
235 Pleasures Of The Week. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). May 22, 1893. P2.
236 The City In Brief. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 27, 1883. P7.
237 Pleasant Autumn Days. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 10, 1893. P2.
238 The Feast Of Chanuka. (Leadville, CO: USA. Herald Democrat). December 12, 1893. P8.
239 Sheriff’s Deed Filed. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 17, 1893. P6.
240 For more information on Samuel Kertz and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kertz.html
241 T’is Largely Personal. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 28, 1893. P3.
242 Not A Lively Week. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 11, 1893. P3.
243 Berries And Ice Cream. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 16, 1892. P2.
244 Makes Glad The Heart. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). July 3, 1893. P4.
245 For more information on Amelia Leppel and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/leppel.html
246 For more information on Emannuel Katz and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/katz.html
247 Track Gossip. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). July 3, 1893. P4.
248 For more information on the Leon family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/leon.html
249 Early Autumn Days. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 30, 1893. P5.
250 Pleasure And Gaiety. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 10, 1893. P2.
251 Just Before Yuletide. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 17, 1893. P5.
252 The Feast Of Chanuka. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). December 12, 1893. P1.
253 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Fifteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1894. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers. 1894). P65.
254 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 17, 1894. P2.
255 There’s Gaiety Galore. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 28, 1894. P6
256 The Week In Society. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 14, 1894. P1.
257 Pleasant Winter Days. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 26, 1894. P2.
258 Sackcloth And Ashes. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 5, 1894. P2.
259 Life Light And Gaiety Mark The Closing Days Of The Somber Lenten Season In Leadville. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 26, 1894. P2.
260 To-Day’s News. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). April 13, 1894. P1.
261 The Sunny Side Of Life. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 22, 1894. P5.
262 Was A Very Glum Week. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 4, 1894. P4.
263 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 3, 1894. P2.
264 Was A Brilliant Week. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 16, 1894. P1.
265 Woman And Home. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 28, 1894. P6.
266 The Week In Local Society. (Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). November 26, 1894. P4.
267 Articles Of Incorporation. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 11, 1894. P3.
268 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 30, 1894. P6.
269 Ushered In The New Year. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 6, 1895. P3.
270 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Sixteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1895. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers). 1895. Pp64-65.
271 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). January 21, 1895. P4.
272 Ushered In The New Year. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 6, 1895. P3.
273 Jolly Reign Of Winter. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). January 21, 1895. P4.
274 Jolly Reign Of Winter. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 20, 1895. P4.
275 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). January 21, 1895. P4.
276 Several Suits Started. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). January 25, 1895. P4.
277 Mining Application 4479. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). May 16, 1895. P2.
278 A Flutter For February. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 17, 1895. P4.
279 A Flutter For February. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 17, 1895. P4.
280 A Flutter For February. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 17, 1895. P4.
281 Preparing For Sackcloth. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). February 25, 1895. P4.
282 Gaiety In Lenten Hours. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 10, 1895. P5.
283 For more information on Amelia Friedlander and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/friedlander.html
284 A Gay Mid-Lenten Season. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 17, 1895. P4.
285 Quit Claim Deed Filed. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 21, 1895. P4.
286 Mining Transfers. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 21, 1895. P8.
287 Scenes In Old Mexico. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 25, 1892. P8.
288 Lenten Diversions. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 31, 1895. P4.
289 Society Doings. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 7, 1895. P5.
290 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 5, 1895. P5.
291 Amid Summer’s Delights. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 14, 1895. P5.
292 Woman and Home. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 11, 1895. P5.
293 For more information on Charles Sands and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/sands-sandelowsky.html
294 Late Society News. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 15, 1895. P2.
295 A Lull In Social Gaiety. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 15, 1895. P4.
296 Chronicles Of The Social Doings Of Many Leadville People Whom You Know. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 13, 1895. P4.
297 Chronicles Of The Social Doings Of Many Leadville People Whom You Know. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 13, 1895. P4.
298 Leadville’s Exhibit. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 17, 1895. P1.
299 Euchre is a “trick” card game akin to Bridge.
300 Chronicles Of The Social Doings Of Many Leadville People Whom You Know. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 13, 1895. P4.
301 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 20, 1895. P5.
302 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 27, 1895. P5.
303 They Will Render Thanks. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 27, 1895. P6.
304 Annie Pivey. Our Little Tots Speaker. (Chicago, IL: Imperial Publishing Company). 1899. P194.
305 The Holiday Now Begin. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 21, 1895. P6.
306 It Is All Carnival Gaiety. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 12, 1896. P5.
307 Society is at its Gayest. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). January 27, 1896. P4.
308 Society At Its Gayest. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 24, 1896. P4.
309 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 3, 1896. P5.
310 The Letter That Came. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 22, 1896. P6.
311 For more information on Bertha Guthman and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/guthman.html
312 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 14, 1896. P9.
313 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 14, 1896. P9.
314 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). September 7, 1896. P3.
315 For more information on Louis and Amelia Cohn, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/cohn.html
316 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 24, 1897. P6.
317 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 31, 1897. P5.
318 He Picked A Denver Rose. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 8, 1897. P1.
319 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 28, 1897. P5.
320 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 21, 1897. P6.
321 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 28, 1897. P6.
322 Of Interest To Women. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 4, 1897. P3.
323 The Jury Makes The Damages $300. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 20, 1897. P6.
324 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 13, 1897. P5.
325 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 11, 1897. P7.
326 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 22, 1897. P7.
327 A Musicale To-Night. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 8, 1897. P2.
328 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 10, 1898. P6.
329 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 8, 1898. P5.
330 Jurors For August Term. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 4, 1898. P8.
331 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). August 26, 1898. P7.
332 The World Of Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 11, 1898. P2.
333 Flotsam And Jetsam Of The Festival. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October, 8, 1989. P6.
334 Laid To Final Rest. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 8, 1898. P8.
335 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Twentieth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1899. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1899). P71.
336 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 20, 1899). P8.
337 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 4, 1900. P4.
338 A Very Pleasant Party. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 11, 1899. P3.
339 For more information on Alfred, and Caroline Freedheim and their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/freedheim.html
340 Freedheim-Heitler. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 27, 1899. P8.
341 City Company Is Launched. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 16, 1899. P1.
342 City Mining Company Elects Its Officers. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. November 22, 1899). P2.
343 An Amateur Auction. (Leadville CO: Herald Democrat). December 15, 1899. P6.
344 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1900. (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Internet Archive 2011). P151.
345 United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900.
346 Girl Punished, Villain On Bail. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 4, 1900. P3.
347 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 16, 1900. P2.
348 It’s A Sure Go Celebration. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 18, 1900. P5.
349 Celebration Is Now Assured. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 26, 1900. P6.
350 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 21, 1900 P8.
351 Society. (Leadville CO: Herald Democrat). July 1, 1900. P14.
352 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 26, 1900. P10.
353 Bruno Grosser. Leadville. Denver, CO: Jewish Outlook. November 24, 1905. P45.
354 Juicy Deer On The Range. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 29, 1901. P3.
355 Sidewalks On Sixth. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 1, 1901. P10.
356 Filed For Record. (Leadville CO: Herald Democrat). May 16, 1901. P7.
357 County Court. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 23, 1901. P7.
358 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 26, 1901. P6.
359 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 6, 1901. P9.
360 For more information on Professor Leo Klein and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/klein.html
361 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 28, 1900. P6.
362 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 1, 1901. P6.
363 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 1, 1901. P6.
364 Library of Congress. Topics in Chronicling America - The McKinley Assassination. The McKinley Assassination - Topics in Chronicling America (Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room, Library of Congress), 2019. https://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/McKinleyAssassination.html
365 Roosevelt’s First Triumph. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 20, 1901. Pp1-2.
366 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat.) December 24, 1901. P7.
367 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1902. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1902). P73.
368 Taxpayers Heard. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 26, 1902. P3.
369 Maclean’s At The End. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 20, 1892. P2.
370 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 12, 1902. P3.
371 Last Of “Joe” Hall. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 21, 1902. P3.
372 For more information on Julius Wolf and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/wolf.html
373 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 21, 1902. P3.
374 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 4, 1902. P3.
375 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 24, 1902. P11.
376 Program For July 4th At Leadville. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 3, 1902. P7.
377 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 7, 1902. P11.
378 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 14, 1902. P11.
379 For more information on Sam Berry and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/berry.html
380 Adjust The Rates. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 7, 1902. P3.
381 Mayer Had The Faith. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 15, 1902. P3.
382 Turners Exhibit. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 20, 1902. P1
383 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 26, 1902. P11.
384 Carnegie Library. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 1, 1903. P6.
385 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1903. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1903). P70.
386 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Forty-Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1920. (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Internet Archive 2011). P373.
387 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 7, 1903. P11.
388 Activity In Mines. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 10, 1903. P2.
389 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 24, 1903. P10.
390 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 24, 1903. P10.
391 A Mechanic’s Lien. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 24, 1903. P2.
392 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 1, 1903. P5.
393 Jewish Services. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 22, 1903. P3.
394 Dangerous Fire. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 25, 1903. P1.
395 For more information on the Mayer family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/mayer.html
396 Will Of Marcus Mayer Filed For Record. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 6, 1904. P3.
397 Horses Became Restless Stampede On The Avenue. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 28, 1904. P2.
398 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 1, 1904. P11.
399 Down The Trail. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 25, 1904. P4.
400 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 9, 1904. P6.
401 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 5, 1904. P6.
402 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 7, 1904. P6.
403 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 13, 1904. P10.
404 Only Two Left. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 25, 1904. P6.
405 “Gut Heil” Cry Turners Are Guests Of Leadville. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 28, 1904. P1.
406 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 4, 1904. P12.
407 Personal Mention. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 14, 1888. P2.
408 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 3, 1905. P6.
409 Women’s Club Meeting. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 25, 1905. P4.
410 For more information on Jesse Bloomfield and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/bloomfield.html
411 Day Of Trouble: Three Funerals. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 27, 1905. P5.
412 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 24, 1905. P6.
413 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 23, 1905. P10.
414 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 24, 1905. P10.
415 Affidavit Of Labor. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 13, 1905. P6.
416 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 4, 1906. P10.
417 Isaac Baer In Kansas City. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 10, 1906. P4.
418 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 8, 1906. P10.
419 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 16, 1906. P10.
420 Jewish New Year Services At The Temple Israel. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 19, 1906. P6.
421 Meeker Matters Season Opens. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 7, 1906. P6.
422 Kansas City Market. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 8, 1906. P7.
423 Denver Cattle Market. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 8, 1906. P7.
424 For more information on Gertrude Berryman and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/berryman.html
425 Fire In Old Post Office But Damage Slight. (Leadville, CO: January 7, 1907). P2.
426 For more information on Evelyn Mayer and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/mayer.html
427 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 3, 1907). P8.
428 Returned To Salt Lake. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 8, 1907. P3.
429 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 17, 1907. P10.
430 City’s Gates Flung Wide To Greet Antlered Army. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 14, 1907.Pp1-2.
431 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 23, 1907. P8.
432 Personal Mention. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 22, 1907. P6
433 Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 11, 1907. P6.
434 Make Plans For City’s Birthday. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 4, 1909. P3.
435 For more information on Carrie Kahn Mayer and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/mayer.html and http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html
436 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 16, 1908. P6.
437 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). March 15, 1908. P8.
438 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 20, 1908. P8.
439 Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 D.C. Year: 1910; Census Place: Precinct 4, Rio Blanco, Colorado; Roll: T624_125; Page: 8A; Enumeration District: 0127; FHL microfilm: 1374138 (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
440 Revisited Scenes Of Their Former Triumphs Happy Meeting Of Trail Blazers Of ‘Seventy-Nine. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 29, 1909. P6.
441 Chairman Names Subcommittees. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 14, 1909. P3.
442 “Five Hundred” is another name for the card game “Eucre”.
443 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 25, 1909. P6.
444 St. Louis-Leadville Beer Rate Complaint Is Heard. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 31, 1907. P1.
445 Denver Businessmen Have A Kick. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May, 3, 1909. P3.
446 Beer Rates Now Lower. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 28, 1909. P1.
447 Baer Brothers Lose In Higher Court. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 19, 1911. P1.
448 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 23, 1909. P5.
449 Ranch. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 20, 1909. P4.
450 Celebrate Natal Day. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 17, 1909. P1.
451 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 7, 1909. P5.
452 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 3, 1909. P7.
453 Remains Of Adolph Schayer Laid To Rest Yesterday. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 18, 1909. P8.
454 Red Cross Stamps Here. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 13, 1909. P5.
455 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 19, 1909. P8.
456 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Thirty-First Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1910. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1910). P199.
457 Trevor Mark. Muller. (Leadville, CO: Temple Israel Foundation). 2019. For more information on Julius Muller and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/muller.html
458 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Thirty-Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1913. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1913). P198.
459 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Thirty-Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1918. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1918). P294.
460 Society. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 27, 1910. P6.
461 Here From Salt Lake City. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). February 21, 1910. P2.
462 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). April 17, 1910. P8.
463 Will Conduct Investigation. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 4, 1910. P6.
464 Death Of Theo. Baer. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 23, 1910. P5.
465 Around The City. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 24, 1910. P5.
466 Elk’s Memorial This Afternoon. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 4, 1910. P2.
467 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Thirty-ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Denver for 1911. (Denver, CO: Ballenger Publishers. 1911). P148.
468 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 20, 1911. P3.
469 “O.J.” Levy is most likely Judah Levy. For more information on Ludah Levy and his time in Leadville, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/levy.html
470 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 11, 1911. P5.
471 For more information on Ben Loeb and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/loeb.html
472 Last Call For Famous Ben Loeb. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat), January 12, 1912. P2.
473 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). December 23, 1912. P7.
474 New Realty Company Formed. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 24, 1913. P5.
475 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 8, 1913. P5.
476 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 1, 1913. P3.
477 Uniform Price For His Cattle. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 30, 1913. P5.
478 Baer Brother’s Rate Case. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 14, 1914. P5.
479 Department of Health, Office of Vital Records and Statistics. Death Certificates, 1904-1961. Series 81448. Utah State Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.
480 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Forty-Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1915. (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University Internet Archive 2011). P486.
481 Filed For Record. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 19, 1915. P5.
482 Delegates Leave For Pueblo. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 6, 1912. P5.
483 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 4, 1916. P2. 484 Marx Kahn. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 14, 1916. P4.
485 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 30, 1916. P3.
486 Treasurer’s Notice On Request For Tax Deed. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). September 21, 1917. P4.
487 Cattlemen Will Help. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 16, 1917. P1.
488 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). February 14, 1918. P3.
489 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). November 18, 1918. P4.
490 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). May 10, 1919. P3.
491 Julius Kahn. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 3, 1919. P4.
492 Isaac Baer Meets Death. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 17, 1920. P1.
493 Estate Of Isaac Baer Now In Probate. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 4, 1920. P1.
494 Treasurer’s Notice On Request For Tax Deed. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). October 24, 1921. P4.
495 Local News. (Denver, CO: Denver Jewish News). December 13, 1922. P6.
496 Social News. (Denver, CO: Denver Jewish News). June 26, 1922. P3.
497 Deaths And Funerals. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 19, 1923. P4.
498 Personal Mention. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 20, 1923. P3.
499 List Of Delinquent Taxes. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). December 3, 1923. P5.
500 United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930. (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration). 1930.
501 State of California. California Death Index, 1940-1997. (Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics).

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Personal Mention. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 10, 1919.

Personal Mention. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 20, 1923.

Pete’s Next Victim. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 2, 1900.

Picnic Pastimes. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. August 1, 1885.

Pivey, Annie. Our Little Tots Speaker. Chicago, IL: Imperial Publishing Company. 1899.

Pleasant Autumn Days. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 10, 1893.

Pleasant Party. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 19, 1889.

Pleasant Winter Days. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 26, 1894.

Pleasantly Entertained. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 7, 1889.

Pleasure And Gaiety. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 10, 1893.

Pleasures Of The Week. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. May 22, 1893.

Power Of Attorney. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. June 14, 1892.

Preparing For Sackcloth. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 25, 1895.

Program For July 4th At Leadville. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 3, 1902.

Purely Personal. Leadville, CO; Herald Democrat. July 15, 1890.

Quit Claim Deed Filed. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 21, 1895.

Ranch. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. June 20, 1909.

Red Cliff Notes. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 19, 1886.

Red Cross Stamps Here. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December, 13, 1909. P5.

Remains Of Adolph Schayer Laid To Rest Yesterday. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. November 18, 1909.

Removal. Leadville, CO: Leadville Democrat. March 29, 1881.

Return Of The Explorers. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. June 6, 1885.

Returned To Salt Lake. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 8, 1907.

Revisited Scenes Of Their Former Triumphs Happy Meeting Of Trail Blazers Of ‘Seventy-Nine. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 29, 1909.

Rich Remembrances. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. October 6, 1883.

Robbed A Leadville Lady. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 27, 1900.

Roosevelt’s First Triumph. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 20, 1901.

Rose & Hopkins. Wolfe Hall. [Image] ZZR700115265. Denver, CO: Denver Public Library. Western History and Genealogy Department. (1889-1901). http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15330coll22/id/71880

Sackcloth And Ashes. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 5, 1894.

Scenes In Old Mexico. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 25, 1892.

Schmidt’s Troubles. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. August 9, 1884.

Schools Of The City. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 17, 1892.

Several Suits Started. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 25, 1895.

Sewell, Mike. All the English Race is in Mourning: The Assassination of President Garfield and Anglo-American Relations. Cambridge, England: UK. The Historical Journal, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), pp. 665-686. Cambridge University Press. 1991.

Sidewalks On Sixth. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 1, 1901.

Simchas Taura Ball. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. October 23, 1881.

Simches Thora. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 29, 1888.

Simchas Torah. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 19, 1892.

Sir Moses Montefiore. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. August 8, 1885.

Social. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. March 13, 1881.

Social And Personal. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. January 17, 1885.

Social And Personal. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. July 19, 1886.

Social And Personal. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. January 24, 1887.

Social Matters. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. August 1, 1885.

Social News. Denver, CO: Denver Jewish News. June 26, 1922.

Social Scintillations. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 5, 1890.

Social Summary. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. July 19, 1884.

Social Zephyrs. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 24, 1884.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 5, 1895.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 3, 1896.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. June 14, 1896.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 11, 1897.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 22, 1897.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 10, 1898.

Society. Leadville CO: Herald Democrat. July 1, 1900.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 28, 1900.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 26, 1900.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 9, 1900.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 26, 1901.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 1, 1901.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 7, 1902.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 14, 1902.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 26, 1902.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 1, 1903.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 24, 1903.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 1, 1904.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. November 13, 1904.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 24, 1905.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 4, 1904.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 4, 1906.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 16, 1906.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 3, 1907.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 17, 1907.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 11, 1907.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 16, 1908.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. March 15, 1908.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. March 15, 1908.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 25, 1909.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 19, 1909.

Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 27, 1910.

Society At Its Gayest. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 24, 1896.

Society Doings. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 7, 1895.

Society’s Giddy Whirl. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 9, 1891.

Society In Midsummer. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 24, 1891.

Society In Midsummer. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 30, 1891.

Society is at its Gayest. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 27, 1896.

Sold To A Syndicate. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 14, 1893.

Some People You Know. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 27, 1891.

St. Louis-Leadville Beer Rate Complaint Is Heard. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 31, 1907.

State of California. California Death Index, 1940-1997. Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California Department of Health Services, Center for Health Statistics.

State of California, United States. Great Register of Voters. Sacramento, California: California State Library. P591.

Strike After Strike. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 26, 1889.

Sunday Social. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle February 19, 1893.

Sylvester Evening. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. January 6, 1883.

T’is Largely Personal. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 28, 1893.

Taxpayers Heard. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 26, 1902.

Temple Israel. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. January 3, 1885.

That New Tariff Bill. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 30, 1890.

The Annual Building Boom. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 24, 1887.

The Aspen Trade. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. April 4, 1885.

The B’Nai Brith. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. November 14, 1880.

The Census Fraud. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 8, 1890.

The City. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 17, 1886.

The City In Brief. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 27, 1883.

The Feast Of Chanuka. Leadville, CO: USA. Herald Democrat. December 12, 1893.

The Feast Of Chanuka. Leadville, CO: USA. Herald Democrat. December 12, 1893.

The Feast Of Chanuka. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. December 12, 1893.

The First Day Of Martial Law In This Ruffled City. Leadville, CO: Leadville Weekly Democrat. June 19, 1880.

The First Suit. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. February 23, 1884.

The G.M. Favorite. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 13, 1887.

The G.M. Favorite. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 19, 1890.

The Gambling Question. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. October 7, 1889.

The Simchath Tora Ball. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 19, 1889.

The Hebrew Festival. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. June 13, 1884.

The Hebrew Ladies. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. June 13, 1885.

The Holiday Now Begin. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 21, 1895.

The Honest Bell Hop. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 7, 1906.

The Horseshoe Project. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 4, 1886.

The Jewish Banquet. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. October 25, 1884.

The Jewish Festival. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. March 12, 1884.

The Jewish New Year. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. October 6, 1883.

The Jimtown Fire. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. June 7, 1892.

The Jury Makes The Damages $300. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 20, 1897.

The Lead Question. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 2, 1889.

The Letter That Came. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 22, 1896.

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The Muller Co. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 3, 1910.

The People You Know. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. March 2, 1890.

The Petit Jurors. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. September 6, 1886.

The Road To Aspen. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. July 4, 1885.

The Road Will Be Built. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 14, 1888.

The Sixth Annual Ball. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. October 9, 1884.

The Standard Club. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald. October 24, 1880.

The Sunny Side Of Life. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 22, 1894.

The Synagogue’s Sages. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 4, 1886.

The Week In Society. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 14, 1894.

The Week In Local Society. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 26, 1894.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 24, 1897.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 31, 1897.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 28, 1897.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. March 21, 1897.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. March 28, 1897.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. June 13, 1897.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 26, 1898.

The World Of Society. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 11, 1898.

There’s Gaiety Galore. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 28, 1894.

They Will Render Thanks. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. November 27, 1895.

The National Archives at St. Louis; St. Louis, Missouri; World War II Draft Cards (Fourth Registration) for the State of Colorado; Record Group Title: Records of the Selective Service System; Record Group Number: 147; Box or Roll Number: 006.

Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 D.C. Year: 1910; Census Place: Precinct 4, Rio Blanco, Colorado; Roll: T624_125; Page: 8A; Enumeration District: 0127; FHL microfilm: 1374138 (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910 (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. Year: 1910; Census Place: Salt Lake City Ward 2, Salt Lake, Utah; Roll: T624_1606; Page: 10B; Enumeration District: 0114; FHL microfilm: 1375619

Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910. Year: 1910; Census Place: Salt Lake City Ward 4, Salt Lake, Utah; Roll: T624_1607; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 0133; FHL microfilm: 1375620. (NARA microfilm publication T624, 1,178 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

To-Day’s News. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. April 13, 1894.

To Meet Mrs. Green. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 30, 1889.

Track Gossip. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 3, 1893.

Treasurer’s Notice On Request For Tax Deed. Herald Democrat. September 21, 1917.

Treasurer’s Notice On Request For Tax Deed. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 24, 1921.

Tuesday Night’s Fire. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. October 6, 1883.

Turners Exhibit. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 20, 1902.

Uniform Price For His Cattle. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. November 30, 1913.

United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls. Year: 1900; Census Place: Leadville, Lake, Colorado; Page: 3; Enumeration District: 0046; FHL microfilm: 1240125.

United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census of the United States, 1930. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1930. T626, 2,667 rolls. Year: 1930; Census Place: Coal Creek, Rio Blanco, Colorado; Page: 3A; Enumeration District: 0006; FHL microfilm: 2339985.

United States Census, 1880. database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9YYK-3NSK?cc=1417683&wc=XHMQ-VZ9%3A1589395618%2C1589395691%2C1589397889%2C1589395498 : 24 December 2015), Colorado > Lake > Leadville > ED 79 > image 2 of 29; citing NARA microfilm publication T9, (National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., n.d.)

United States Census, 1900. database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-6LWW-C8?cc=1325221&wc=9B78-FMB%3A1030551801%2C1031078901%2C1031884201 : 5 August 2014), Colorado > Lake > ED 48 Precinct 6-7 Leadville city Ward 3 > image 8 of 38; citing NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

United States Census, 1900. database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-6LWW-C8?cc=1325221&wc=9B78-FMB%3A1030551801%2C1031078901%2C1031884201 : 5 August 2014), Colorado > Lake > ED 48 Precinct 6-7 Leadville city Ward 3 > image 8 of 38; citing NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls.Year: 1900; Census Place: Leadville, Lake, Colorado; Page: 4; Enumeration District: 0048; FHL microfilm: 1240125.

United States Passport Applications, 1795-1925. database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-99DZ-87CW?cc=2185145&wc=3XCT-T3K%3A1056306501%2C1056431801 : 22 December 2014), (M1490) Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925 > Roll 27, 1907 Jan, certificate no 24901-25600 > image 19 of 754; citing NARA microfilm publications M1490 and M1372 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.)

Ushered In The New Year. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 6, 1895.

Was A Brilliant Week. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 16, 1894.

Was A Very Gay Week. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. April 9, 1893.

Was A Very Glum Week. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. June 4, 1894.

Wasted Sweetness. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. May 24, 1904.

Where William Reigns. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 20, 1892.

Will Conduct Investigation. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. September 4, 1910.

Will Entertain. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. July 29, 1889.

Will Of Marcus Mayer Filed For Record. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 6, 1904.

Winter At White River. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 16, 1892.

Wished Him Godspeed. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 14, 1890.

With The Recorder. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. December 31, 1891.

Woman And Home. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. October 28, 1894.

Woman and Home. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 11, 1895.

Women’s Club Meeting. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 25, 1905.

Zimmerling, Charles. The Donkey Party Game of Putting the Tail on the Donkey. The Funniest Novelty of the Age. , Philadelphia, PA. Copyright 1888-89, C. Zimmerling, 1889.

To cite any of the information in this biography, please use the following reference.

AUTHOR: Jeffrey P. Grant
EDITOR: William Korn
SOURCE: Jewish Surnames/Baer
PUBLISHED BY: Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO; USA. 2019.
STABLE URL: http://www.jewishledville.org/baer.html

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