Biography
Greenwald
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Louis Greenwald
Occupation: Listed as Peddler in 1885 Colorado census
Born: est. 1851
Birthplace: Poland-Russia
Died: February 26, 1913

Deborah (“Dinah” “Dina”) Vigavano-Recardo Greenwald
Occupation: “Real estate proprietor”
Born: February 1857
Birthplace: Spain
Died: July 24, 1945

Jeanette Greenwald Tobin
Occupation:
Born: July 1876
Birthplace: New York
Died:

Julia Greenwald Schayer
Occupation:
Born: December 1878
Birthplace: New York
Died: 1954

Charlotte (“Charlotta” “Lottie”) Greenwald
Occupation:
Born: September 1888
Birthplace: Colorado
Died:

Zundel (“Zundel” “Zenta”) Greenwald
Occupation: Painter
Born: 1849
Birthplace: Poland Russia
Died: April 29, 1914

Sarah Greenwald
Occupation:
Born: 1853
Birthplace:
Died: May 16, 1893

Ester (“Esther”) Silver Greenwald
Occupation:
Born: July 1876
Birthplace: Poland Russia
Died:

Elsie Greenwald Kahn
Occupation:
Born: September 15, 1885
Birthplace: Russia
Died: December 14, 1930

David Greenwald
Occupation:
Born: est. 1885
Birthplace:
Died:

Dora Greenwald
Occupation:
Born:
Birthplace:
Died:

Sam Greenwald
Occupation:
Born: December 1895
Birthplace: Colorado
Died:

Julius Greenwald
Occupation: Chemist
Born: Nov 1896
Birthplace: Colorado
Died:

Isaac (“Izzy” “Isadore”) Greenwald
Occupation:
Born: November 1898
Birthplace: Colorado
Died:

Sarah Greenwald
Occupation:
Born: est. 1901
Birthplace: Colorado
Died:

The Greenwalds were best known as a prominent merchant family in Leadville from 1880 to 1916 who owned one of the town’s largest dry goods and clothing stores. The family’s presence in Leadville was divided between two brothers, Louis and Zundel Greenwald, and their families. Zundel was not a part of the dry goods business, he instead opened a shop tied to his occupation as a painter. Despite the family’s prominence in town, surprisingly little information exists on their day-to-day lives. Most early references to the family in Leadville’s newspapers were advertisements for Louis’ store. It was not until the late 1890s and early 1900s that the family drew the town’s attention with their involvement in numerous lawsuits and court proceedings. Beyond the negative, however, the Greenwalds’ latter years in Leadville were significant due to the prominence of women in the family businesses. Louis’ wife, Deborah, in particular rose to manage the dry goods store and even began a bonds business. The family’s involvement in Leadville’s Jewish life, on the other hand, was minimal with only minor mentions of their attendance to Jewish events found in the town’s newspapers.

Louis Greenwald was born in 1851 in Poland/Russia and moved to London early in life with his father to establish a clothing store. [1] Deborah’s origins are more vague when compared to Louis’. She was born in February of 1851, 1853, 1856, or 1857 in England, Spain, or Portugal. Her father was credited as being German, Spanish, or Portuguese while her mother was German, Spanish, Dutch, or Portuguese. [2] Her maiden name, Vigavano-Recardo, in addition to her later sending daughters to a Catholic convent in Canada, indicates that she was Catholic prior to meeting Louis. [3]

Whether Deborah converted fully to Judaism or not is unknown. It is unclear when and where Louis and Deborah met or married, be it London or in the United States. Census and newspaper records indicated that Louis arrived in New York in 1876 and Deborah arrived in 1877, though it is more likely that they arrived together and that one of the records is incorrect. [4] Louis established a branch store in New York and lived there with Deborah for two years, welcoming their first child, Jeanette, in November 1876. [5] The family welcomed their second child, Julia, in New York in December 1878. [6] Census records are inconsistent for much of the family, however Louis’ obituary stated that he arrived in Leadville with a “party of New Yorkers” in 1878. [7] The first indication of Louis’ presence in Leadville in local records can be found in the city directories in which he was listed as a glazier living at “St. Louis av. rear of Opera House.” [8]

Louis’ elder brother, Zundel (sometimes referred to as Zunda or Zenta), was born in 1849 in Poland/Russia and immigrated to the United States in 1881. [9] He married a woman named Sarah (born in Russia est. 1848) prior to his arrival in the United States and had a daughter and a son, Elsie and David. [10] Records for Elsie’s birth are inconsistent with Zundel’s year of immigration, however, as her grave indicates that she was born on September 15, 1885 in Russia, four years after Zundel’s immigration. [11] Historical records regarding David are nearly non-existent, with the only mention of his relation to Zundel being an 1899 Herald Democrat article which, in mentioning his age, placed his birth year at 1885. [12] The first indication of Zundel’s presence in Leadville was the 1888 Leadville city directory in which he was listed as Z. Greenwald living at 110 ½ West Chestnut Street. [13]

Louis’ dry goods store was originally located at 111 East 5th Street, indicated by the first newspaper advertisement for the store found in the November 15, 1882, edition of the Leadville Daily Herald. [14] Louis and his family moved to new residences frequently in Leadville for the first few years, settling at 309 East 4th Street in 1882, 310 East 3rd Street in 1883, and 312 East 6th Street in 1887. [15] Louis finally found a more permanent settlement at 138 East 6th Street where he opened his flagship business soon after obtaining the warranty deed for the land in July 1891. [16] A newspaper advertisement in 1892 noted that 138 East 6th Street was the street level store and 312 East 6th Street was the upper story. [17] Zundel similarly moved frequently around Leadville, primarily residing at homes on West Chestnut street. [18]

The Greenwalds led a seemingly uneventful life in Leadville for the first decade of their residence with only minor references such as school rosters in the local newspapers. The most significant occurrence for Louis and Deborah was welcoming their third daughter, Charlotte, to the family in September 1888. [19] Curiously, school rosters in 1889 and 1892 listed a Dora Greenwald, a name which does not match any Greenwald in census or directory records. [20] An article in the Herald Democrat, however, noted that she was the daughter of Zundel. [21] By 1892, Louis began to invest in mining with the purchase of mining deeds from Henry E. Kress, specified as, “one-third interest in the Little Ed. lode, one-third interest in the Louis and George, Crown Point, Bismarck and Silver Queen lodes, Alicante Mining district: consideration, $500.” [22] Elsie and Dora attended the thirteenth annual Simchat Torah celebration in October of 1892, one of the only references to the family’s Jewish heritage that can be found. [23] Louis and Deborah’s daughter, Jeanette, married a newspaper editor named Thomas P. Tobin (born December 1867 in Illinois) in 1893 and remained in Leadville for a time, but eventually moved permanently to Shawnee, Oklahoma. [24] Strangely, two of Louis and Deborah’s older children attended a convent school in Canada from 1883 or 1884 until 1892 and 1893. [25] Though the children were unnamed, such an action may indicate that Deborah had not converted to Louis’ religious beliefs. [26]

Disaster struck Zundel’s family in May 19, 1893 with the sudden death of Sarah. Her obituary stated that she suffered from apoplexy, a condition which results from a either a cerebral hemorrhage or a stroke. [27] The Herald Democrat further stated that the only indication of her unwellness were frequent headaches. Sarah was promptly buried in Leadville’s Hebrew Cemetery. [28] Zundel remarried soon after Sarah’s death to Ester, a Russian immigrant born in July 1876. [29] The 1900 United States census estimated their marriage took place in the same year as Sarah’s death, 1893. [30] Over the proceeding five years, Zundel and Ester had three children: Sam in December 1895, Julius in November 1896, and Isaac in November 1898. [31]

From 1894 until 1900, both Louis and Zundel made gains in land acquisition and mining investments. In September 1894, the Board of Alderman motioned to grant Zundel “privilege of repairing a building at 124 West Chestnut street.” [32] Louis submitted a letter of intent for the Louis and George, Crown Point, Silver Queen and Bismarck lodes in December 1894 and filed a patent in May 1896 for a specified amount of land for the Hard Luck, Slide, and Founding mines bearing gold and silver located in the California mining district. [33]

Legal issues followed both sides of the family for much of their time in Leadville, largely beginning in 1895. In May of that year, a miner at the Nettie Morgan mine named Henry Bowman sued Louis for $700 over a breach of contract regarding shares in the mine. [34] In September 1898, Louis became involved in court proceedings regarding the Rio Grande company seeking to extend its railway through Big Evans gulch over mining plots. [35] Louis was among those who did not want to sell and so the company sued him and other investors for “condemnation.” [36] Run-ins with the court unfortunately became a issue within the family as well for the Greenwalds. In May 1899, Zundel’s son, David, wanted to diverge from his father’s intention that he become involved in the painting business and instead wished to become an actor. [37] Zundel reportedly prohibited David from pursing his dream and David, in response, brought the issue to Justice Paddock. Paddock concluded that the father’s wishes were law until David reached the age of 21.

Louis’ marriage to Deborah took a dive in early September 1899 when she filed for divorce after a conflict with Zundel’s family. Through a lengthy report found in the Herald Democrat, the author recounted how Louis gave Zundel’s daughter, Dora, some of Deborah’s finery which included her wedding dress. [38] Furious and having observed that Louis recently sold out his stock in the Big Six mine, Deborah sought divorce and received $5000 as a settlement. Deborah also reportedly maintained her own business (likely dry goods and clothing) separate from Louis on the same block. The story did not end there, however, as Deborah proceeded to fire a revolver at Zundel after he suggested that Louis sell his stock and leave town. Zundel brought Deborah to court but promptly dropped the charges at the advice of Louis. The report concluded with Louis’ intention to sell off his stock and open a pawn shop in another town. Later that year, rumor had it that Deborah sought to close her own business and move to Colorado Springs, though it is unlikely that she followed through. [39] The 1900 US census listed Deborah as continuing to live in Leadville with her two unmarried daughters, Julia and Charlotte. [40] The census also indicated that Deborah also had a total of six children leading up to 1900, however only Julia, Charlotte, and Jeanette seem to have survived. [41]

Zundel’s family was not free from trouble, however. For unknown reasons Zundel was at odds with the family of Mr. Albert E. Carson. Their animosity resulted in frequent yelling matches and came to a head when Albert’s wife, Mary, threw a rock through the Greenwald’s window. [42] At a court hearing the next day, Zundel also reported that Albert had threatened him on numerous occasions. [43] Albert made good on his threats on January 14, 1900 when he beat Zundel and reportedly hired a man to assault Ester, Zundel’s wife. [44] Albert attacked Zundel a second time on January 21 and again appeared in court, though the conclusion of the case is unclear. [45]

Legal issues continued to plague the family on numerous fronts in the following years. In 1901, minority stock holders of the Big Six mine sued Louis Greenwald – once the president of the mine – and the board of directors over shady business practices. [46] In June of the same year, at the behest of a member of the Flaks [47] family, police posted a warrant for the arrest of Deborah (still listed as Mrs. Louis Greenwald) for “breach of the peace” though the case was later dismissed. [48] Deborah faced the Flaks family again in court later that month after being accused of illegally maintaining possession of property valued at $2,856.39 and $585 due on promissory notes. [49] Though seemingly a dour year, 1901 also saw the marriage of Louis and Deborah’s daughter Julia to Emil Schayer and the birth of Zundel and Ester’s daughter, Sarah. [50] Julia and Emil moved to Denver soon after their marriage. [51]

After 1901, Deborah had become the business person of importance in the Greenwald family with only minimal references to Louis or Zundel’s ventures. As is apparent through reports in newspapers regarding court cases and other miscellaneous announcements, Deborah began a bonds business and became quite successful. [52] By 1907, Deborah announced for the second time that she planned to leave Leadville out of consideration for her health and that she intended to sell all of her store’s stock. [53] Later the same year, Charlotte left Leadville to attend classes at the University of Chicago. [54] Zundel’s daughter, Elsie, also married David S. Kahn prior to 1910 though the exact date is unclear. [55]

The Greenwald’s time in Leadville began to wane after 1910 with many of the family members no longer listed in the city directory or census records. In March 1911, Deborah reported that Louis had suffered a “paralytic stroke” in Denver but that his health was improving. [56] Despite the article referring to Louis as her husband, the two were still officially divorced; however, they did re-marry on April 20, 1912. [57] Louis’ health continued to deteriorate over the year and he passed away on February 26, 1913. [58] His obituary reported that a Reverend Greenwald (apparently Zundel), led the funeral services. Louis was buried at the Hebrew Cemetery in Leadville. [59] Curiously, Deborah apparently took issue with the marriage between Jeanette and Thomas as she had her daughter’s marriage name omitted in the obituary when listing her as a relation. Zundel passed away one year later, on April 29, 1914, and was buried at the Golden Hill Cemetery, an orthodox Jewish cemetery in Lakewood, Colorado. [60]

Deborah announced the cessation of business at her store at 138 East 6th Street in August 1916 and thanked everyone for their patronage over the years. [61] She then passed ownership over to her son-in-law, Emil Schayer, [62] who promised to “retain the same reputation as Mrs. Greenwald had in handling the very best merchandise.” [63] The final mention of Deborah in Leadville’s newspapers was an announcement of her visitation from her home in Oklahoma on November 7, 1920. [64]

Elsie Greenwald Kahn [65] passed away on December 14, 1930 and was buried at Home of Peace Memorial Park, a Jewish cemetery in Los Angeles, California. [66] Deborah died on July 24, 1945 and was buried Hebrew Cemetery in Leadville next to her husband, Louis. [67] Julia Greenwald Schayer died in 1954 and was buried at Congregation Emanuel Cemetery in Denver. [68] Charlotte passed away on May 4, 1976 having never married and was buried at Fairview Cemetery in Shawnee, Oklahoma. [69]

1 “Death of Louis Greenwald,” Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, CO) March 3, 1913: 2.
2 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMD-6BW) Dinah Greenwald, Precinct 4-5, 11 Leadville city Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 46, sheet 6B, family 118, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125; William Korn, "Greenwald." Temple Israel Museum, 2013, http://www.jewishleadville.org/greenwald.html.
3 “Deborah Vigavano-Recardo Greenwald,” Find a Grave, Hebrew Cemetery id. 18471787 (Leadville, Colorado) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/18471787; William Korn, "Greenwald." Temple Israel Museum, 2013, http://www.jewishleadville.org/greenwald.html.
4 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMD-6BW) Dinah Greenwald, Precinct 4-5, 11 Leadville city Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 46, sheet 6B, family 118, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125; “Death of Louis Greenwald,” Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, CO) March 3, 1913: 2.
5 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-RPN) Jeanette Tobin in household of Thomas P Tobin, Precinct 15-17 Leadville city Ward 3, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 49, sheet 10A, family 208, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.
6 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMD-6B4) Julia Greenwald in household of Dinah Greenwald, Precinct 4-5, 11 Leadville city Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 46, sheet 6B, family 118, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.
7 “Death of Louis Greenwald,” Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, CO) March 3, 1913: 2.
8 Thomas B. Corbett, W.C. Hoye, and John H. Ballenger, Corbett, Hoye & Co.’s First Annual City Directory of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1880 (Democrat Printing Company, 1880): pp. 170.
9 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMW-G9X) Zenta Greenwald, Precincts 1 & 3 Denver city Ward 16, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 124, sheet 10A, family 194, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,122.
10 “Elsie Kahn,” Find a Grave, Home of Peace Memorial Park id. 193558120 (Los Angeles, California) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/193558120/elsie-kahn; “Sarah Greenwald,” Hebrew Cemetery (Leadville, Colorado) http://www.jewishleadville.org/tombstonedetails.php?PersonID=1046.
11 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMW-G9X) Zenta Greenwald, Precincts 1 & 3 Denver city Ward 16, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 124, sheet 10A, family 194, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,122; “Elsie Kahn,” Find a Grave, Home of Peace Memorial Park id. 193558120 (Los Angeles, California) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/193558120/elsie-kahn.
12 “Would Be Histrion Father Says Business,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 6, 1899: 7.
13 John H. Ballenger and William H. Richards, Ballenger and Richards’ Ninth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1888 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1888): pp. 131.
14 “L. D. Greenwald,” Leadville Daily Herald (Leadville, CO) November 15, 1882: 4.
15 Thomas B. Corbett and John H. Ballenger, Corbett & Ballenger’s Third Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1882 (Leadville: Corbett & Ballenger, Publishers, 1882): pp. 145; Thomas B. Corbett and John H. Ballenger, Corbett & Ballenger’s Fourth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1883 (Leadville: Corbett & Ballenger, Publishers, 1883): pp. 138; Thomas B. Corbett and John H. Ballenger, Corbett & Ballenger’s Eighth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1887 (Leadville: Corbett & Ballenger, Publishers, 1887): pp. 134.
16 “With the Recorder,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) July 16, 1891: 1.
17 “A Big Mining Strike,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) December 4, 1892: 10.
18 John H. Ballenger and William H. Richards, Ballenger and Richards’ Ninth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1888 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1888): pp. 131; John H. Ballenger and William H. Richards, Ballenger and Richards’ Tenth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1889 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1889): pp. 129; John H. Ballenger and William H. Richards, Ballenger and Richards’ Twelfth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1891 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1891): pp. 130.
19 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMD-6BH) Charlotta Greenwald in household of Dinah Greenwald, Precinct 4-5, 11 Leadville city Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 46, sheet 6B, family 118, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.
20 “Our City Schools,” Leadville Evening Chronicle (Leadville, CO) November 23, 1889: 4; “Schools of the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 17, 1892: 4.
21 “Greenwald’s Woes,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 11, 1899: 5.
22 “Mining Transfers Recorded Yesterday,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 21, 1892: 2.
23 “Simchas Torah,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 19, 1892: 4.
24 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-RPN) Jeanette Tobin in household of Thomas P Tobin, Precinct 15-17 Leadville city Ward 3, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 49, sheet 10A, family 208, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125; “Death of Louis Greenwald,” Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, CO) March 3, 1913: 2; “Thomas P. Tobin,” Find a Grave, Fairview Cemetery id. 100594849 (Shawnee, Oklahoma) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/100594849/thomas-p-tobin.
25 William Korn, "Greenwald." Temple Israel Museum, 2013, http://www.jewishleadville.org/greenwald.html.
26 William Korn, "Greenwald." Temple Israel Museum, 2013, http://www.jewishleadville.org/greenwald.html.
27 “Died of Apoplexy,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 20, 1893: 5.
28 “Sarah Greenwald,” Hebrew Cemetery (Leadville, Colorado) http://www.jewishleadville.org/tombstonedetails.php?PersonID=1046.
29 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMW-G9F) Ester Greenwald in household of Zenta Greenwald, Precincts 1 & 3 Denver city Ward 16, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 124, sheet 10A, family 194, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,122.
30 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMW-G9X) Zenta Greenwald, Precincts 1 & 3 Denver city Ward 16, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 124, sheet 10A, family 194, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,122.
31 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMW-G9N) Sam Greenwald in household of Zenta Greenwald, Precincts 1 & 3 Denver city Ward 16, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 124, sheet 10A, family 194, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,122; "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMW-G9J) Julius Greenwald in household of Zenta Greenwald, Precincts 1 & 3 Denver city Ward 16, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 124, sheet 10A, family 194, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,122; "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMW-G9V) Issac Greenwald in household of Zenta Greenwald, Precincts 1 & 3 Denver city Ward 16, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 124, sheet 10A, family 194, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,122.
32 “The City Council Session,” Leadville Evening Chronicle (Leadville, CO) September 19, 1894: 1.
33 “Notices of Intention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) December 30, 1894: 2; “Mining Application No. 4595,” Leadville Evening Chronicle (Leadville, CO) June 9, 1896: 2.
34 “He Wants a Share,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 9, 1895: 8.
35 “The Fall Term of County Court,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 8, 1898: 2.
36 “The Fall Term of County Court,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 8, 1898: 2.
37 “Would Be Histrion Father Says Business,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 6, 1899: 7.
38 “Greenwald’s Woes,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 11, 1899: 5.
39 “Personal Mention,” Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, CO) November 6, 1899: 8.
40 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMD-6BW) Dinah Greenwald, Precinct 4-5, 11 Leadville city Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 46, sheet 6B, family 118, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.
41 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQMD-6BW) Dinah Greenwald, Precinct 4-5, 11 Leadville city Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 46, sheet 6B, family 118, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.
42 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) November 23, 1899: 8.
43 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) November 24, 1899: 8.
44 “The Carson Trial,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 18, 1900: 8; “He was a Peacemaker,” Herald Democrat (January 21, 1900: 6.
45 “Greenwald Again in Trouble,” Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, CO) January 22, 1900: 4.
46 “Big Six in Court,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) March 2, 1901: 8; “New Mills of Camp,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) March 3, 1901: 1.
47 For more information on the Flaks family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/flaks.html
48 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) June 6, 1901: 9; “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) June 9, 1901: 7.
49 “Suits Brought in District Court,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) June 21, 1901: 9.
50 “Schayer-Greenwald Wedding,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) July 13, 1901: 1; "United States Census, 1920," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MX22-TD5) Julia Schayer in household of Emile R Schayer, Denver, Denver, Colorado, United States; citing ED 240, sheet 5B, line 87, family 108, NARA microfilm publication T625 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992), roll 162; FHL microfilm 1,820,162.
51 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 1, 1901: 6.
52 “No Shroud Pockets,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) July 18, 1902: 1; “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 6, 1903: 4; “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) December 23, 1906: 6.
53 “Great Bargains,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) March 31, 1907: 6.
54 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 6, 1907: 10.
55 "United States Census, 1910," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MK4J-L6N: accessed 11 January 2019), Elsie Kahn in household of David S Kahn, Pueblo Ward 7, Pueblo, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 173, sheet 11A, family 521, NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1982), roll 124; FHL microfilm 1,374,137.
56 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) March 7, 1911: 3.
57 "Colorado Statewide Marriage Index, 1853-2006," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9B27-22Q?cc=1932434&wc=M6YP-RWL%3A228701901: 20 May 2014), Graham, Ralph M. and Grill, Harry S. Image 2727 of 4351; State Archives, Denver.
58 “Death of Louis Greenwald,” Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, CO) March 3, 1913: 2.
59 “Louis Greenwald,” Hebrew Cemetery (Leadville, Colorado) http://www.jewishleadville.org/tombstonedetails.php?PersonID=1045.
60 “Zundel Greenwald,” Find a Grave, Golden Hill Cemetery id. 60688715 (Lakewood, Colorado) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/60688715/zundel-greenwald.
61 “Card from Mrs. Greenwald,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 19, 1916: 6.
62 For more information on Emil Schayer and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/schayer.html .
63 “E.R. Schayer,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 20, 1916: 3.
64 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) November 7, 1920: 2.
65 For more information on Elise Greenwald Kahn, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html .
66 “Elsie Kahn,” Find a Grave, Home of Peace Memorial Park id. 193558120 (Los Angeles, California) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/193558120/elsie-kahn.
67 “Deborah Greenwald,” Hebrew Cemetery (Leadville, Colorado) http://www.jewishleadville.org/tombstonedetails.php?PersonID=1044.
68 “Julia G. Schayer,” Find a Grave, Congregation Emanuel Cemetery id. 170777602 (Denver, Colorado) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/170777602/julia-g_-schayer.
69 “Lottie Greenwald,” Find a Grave, Fairview Cemetery id. 98172058 (Shawnee, Oklahoma) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/98172058/lottie-greenwald.

Bibliography

Ballenger, John H. and Richards. Ballenger and Richards Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville. Leadville: Ballenger and Richards. Via Lake County Public Library.

Corbett, Thomas B. and John H. Ballenger. Corbett & Ballenger’s Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville. Leadville: Corbett & Ballenger. Via Lake County Public Library.

Corbett, Thomas B. and W.C. Hoye, John H. Ballenger. Corbett, Hoye & Co.’s First Annual City Directory of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1880. Democrat Printing Company, 1880. Via Lake County Public Library.

Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection. Search criteria, “Lake County” “Greenwald” “Julia Schayer” “Elsie Kahn” “Zundel.” Accessed January 11, 2019. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org/

Colorado State Census, 1885. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

Colorado Statewide Marriage Index, 1853-2006. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

Find a Grave. Accessed January 11, 2019. https://www.findagrave.com/.

Korn, William. "Greenwald." Temple Israel Museum. 2013. http://www.jewishleadville.org/greenwald.html.

United States Census, 1900. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

United States Census, 1910. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

United States Census, 1920. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

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