Max Guldman (In Leadville 1886-1889) Nephew of Leopold
Born: December 29, 1867 (Germany)
Died: October 16, 1950 (Denver, CO)
Married to: Bertha Kohn 
Leopold Henry Guldman (In Denver 1879-1936)
Born: December 18, 1852 (Harburg, Bavaria, Germany)
Died: June 2, 1936 (Denver, CO)
Married to: Sarah Schoyer 1881- 1889 and Bertha Schoyer 1889-1936
Sarah Schoyer Guldman
Born: June 29, 1859 (Wisconsin)
Died: November 17, 1889 (Milwaukee, WI)
Married to: Leopold Guldman (1881, Milwaukee, WI)
Bertha Schoyer Guldman
Born: May 21, 1865 (Wisconsin)
Died: August 17, 1947 (Denver, CO)
Married to: Leopold Guldman (1891, Milwaukee, WI)
Born: June 1, 1882
Died: July, 1968
Married to: Amy Friedman (1909, Denver, CO) 
Helen Guldman Oberndorf
Born: August 12 or 22, 1884 (Denver, CO)
Died: July 29, 1973  (Cook County, Illinois)
Married to: Max Oberndorf 
Corinne Guldman Wolff
Born: July 27, 1893 (Denver, CO)
Died: March 27, 1987
Married to: Jacob Wolff 
Florence Guldman Schlesinger
Born: December 9, 1895 (Denver, CO)
Died: August 17, 1969 (Denver, CO)
Married to: Melvin Schlesinger 
Louise Guldman Friedman
Born: March 1, 1898 (Denver, CO)
Died: September 29, 1978
Married to: Lester Friedman 
Leopold Henry Guldman (December 18, 1852- June 2, 1936) began life in the small Bavarian city of Harburg. This small city still has a remnant of Jewish heritage in the form of a small Jewish cemetery. According to family memory his father Hajum Hirsch Guldmann was a “…hardworking and pious man…” who was a master butcher and practiced ritual animal slaughter as a schochet.  His mother’s name was Clara Rosenfeld.  By his late teenage years, Leopold had made the decision to “auswandern.” Like many Jewish subjects of the German states of 1860s and 70s, he was fleeing poverty, war, and general lack of opportunity. He came to America in May of 1870 at the age of 17. The ship on which he sailed departed from the German immigration port of Hamburg. According to a passport application filled out in 1907, Leopold stated that he could not remember the name of the ship on which he sailed but noted, “…I think it was [S.S.] Cumbria”. This follows with family oral history, which remembers the ship’s name as “Cimbria”.  On the same passport application, Leopold listed his places of residence as “Waterton [Watertown], Wisconsin 9 years” and Denver, Colorado.  Like nearly all new immigrants, Leopold spent time in New York upon his arrival before making connections with extended family in the American interior. The 1870 census reveals his residence as Watertown, Wisconsin, his occupation as “Clerk in Store” and his age as 17. He lived in the household of M. A. Herch of Württemburg, Germany who operated a dry goods store with a residence above. 
After spending 9 years in Watertown, Wisconsin. He moved to Colorado. Definitive evidence of Leopold’s arrival in Colorado is difficult to trace. City directories of Leadville do not exist until 1879 and Leopold did not appear in that year’s addition of Leadville’s directory. Denver city directories between 1877 and 1879 do not include Leopold Guldman either. He does not officially appear in Colorado until the Federal census of 1880. That year he lived in Denver at 231 Arapaho Street which according to the Denver City directory was called the Wentworth House.  His age was 27 years, profession “Dealer Dry Goods”, and was single.  He and his partner Wineman were proprietors of Golden Eagle Dry Goods House located at 391 Lawrence Street.  There was also “Golden Eagle Clothing House” listed the previous year in Leadville located at 23 Harrison Avenue in the 1879 Leadville City directory. This business was operated by Max and Isaac Kamak and it is unknown if there is any relation to the Golden Eagle store in Denver. The Leadville Golden Eagle store does not appear in the 1880 Leadville City directory. From 1881 to 1883, Golden Eagle sold brand name merchandise at Leadville stores, but did not have a dedicated storefront.
In the early 1880s the Golden Eagle continued to operate in Denver and gain patrons, producing social and economic success. On September 4, 1881, Leopold married Sarah Schoyer in Milwaukee.  His children with Sarah were Milton born on June 1, 1882, and Helen born August 12, 1884, both in Denver. His children with Bertha were Corinne born July 27, 1893, Florence born December 9, 1895, and Louise born in 1898, also all born in Denver. 
Along with economic and social success Leopold gained respect and scorn around Denver for humanitarianism during Denver’s Anti-Chinese Riots. On October 31, 1880, a mob was chasing a Chinese man from his store in “Hop Alley”, a few blocks from the Golden Eagle. When the man ducked into Leopold’s store for refuge, Leopold hid the man behind a coat rack. Leopold cleverly directed he mob to move on when questioned, and ultimately hid the Chinese man for several more days as violence prevented safe passage for Chinese in Denver. This incident inspired the Chinese population to frequent the Golden Eagle store and Leopold gained a good reputation for his ethics. 
The Denver store on Lawrence street was successful and, by 1883, Leopold again looked to further growth opportunities in Leadville. As early as 1882 a brand advertised as “Golden Eagle” was sold at a clothing store located at 214 Harrison Avenue by the name of “Thorne & Schaefer”.  This was likely a brand that Leopold shipped to Leadville, but he did not have branch storefront yet. The next year, a Golden Eagle branch storefront in Leadville opened for a year. In January of 1883, the store was located at 613 Harrison Avenue and J. E. Galbaith was listed as the agent.  This was the only year the store operated at 613 Harrison Avenue, and by 1885 613 Harrison had become a millinery store.
The business landscape of Leadville was very dynamic at this time. After the one year absence of a Golden Eagle store on Harrison avenue in 1884, Golden Eagle again appears in Leadville in 1885. This store was listed in the directory with the name “L.H. Guldman 621 Harrison Avenue”, one door down from the store location in 1883. Newspaper advertisements from 1885 and 1886 refer to the store as Golden Eagle. Leopold is not listed as a resident of Leadville however and continued to live in and conduct the business from Denver. Two clerks were employed at the Leadville store, Ada Taughenbaugh and Herman Wolf.  In 1886, the store was listed in the Leadville directory as “Golden Eagle Cloak and Suit House” managed by Max Guldman, Leopold’s nephew.  Max was born in Bavaria in 1868 and was chosen to run the branch store although he was only between 18 and 20 years of age.  The store published a number of ads in Leadville papers throughout 1886, 1887, and 1888. An advertisement in the Herald Democrat in early summer 1886 claimed that, “The only line of white suits in Leadville is at the Golden Eagle, Seventh and Harrison Arevenue.” 
Leadville was a vibrant and important city during the years the branch Golden Eagle store operated. In July of 1886, the store was nearly the victim of a criminal heist. In late June manager Max Guldman noticed a suspicious loafer lurking around the outside of the store late at night. When Max approached the character, he said he was up to “nothin’” and disappeared into the night. Max went to the police with a description of the man he encountered and a few days later a constable found the suspect. He was pressed for an explanation of his suspicious night wanderings by police and soon admitted that he and a number of accomplices were planning to break in and steal items from a number of businesses on Harrison Avenue, including Golden Eagle. He admitted the “gang” of thieves he was associated with marked access points to buildings using coded markings. The article concluded, “…This is a strong hint to the officers of the necessity of opening another campaign on the bums and prowlers.” 
By 1887, Max Goldman was no longer manager, but the Golden Eagle in Leadville was still listed at 621 Harrison Avenue. It was managed that year by Ezekiel Arkush. Competition in the clothing business was stiff in the early days and Leadville began to see the first decline in prosperity in the late 1880s. The May, Shoenberg, and Monheimer clothing merchant families began to depart Leadville at this time due to economic factors. Advertisements for the store in 1887 include the statements “Why pay fancy prices when you can buy at New York prices”  and “The Golden Eagle is the proper place to get your winter cloak” . 
In 1888, Leopold continued to do business in Leadville with E. Arkush as manager. Clerks at the store that year were Adah Coleman, Miss L. Johnson, and A. Schoyer, who was likely a relation to Leopold’s wife Sarah Schyoer. The enterprise continued into 1889 in the same location with Mr. Arkush as manager, but this would prove to be the last year the branch store operated. By 1890, neither Golden Eagle, Mr. Arkush, nor any member of the Guldman family can be located in the Leadville city directories.
On November 17, 1889, Leopold’s wife Sarah passed away at the age of 30 in Milwaukee for unknown reasons. She was buried in Denver’s Congregation Emanuel Cemetery. 
The year 1890 would be an important year for Leopold. A few months after Sarah’s death, he prepared to pull the Golden Eagle store out of Leadville. The following advertisement in the Herald Democrat was published in January:
THE GOLDEN EAGLE.
L. H. Guldman, Proprietor.
Denver, Colo. January 15, 1890
A. Schoyer, Esq.
Care Golden Eagle Cloak and Suit House,
Dear Sir: Close out entire stock of merchandise regardless of cost or value. Do not refuse any reasonable offer on anything. Sacrifice all fixtures with the understanding that they are to be taken away Feb. 1, 1890. I have notified Mr. Sprague will vacate store Feb. 1, 1890. Let the ladies of Leadville “reap the harvest.” Brand-new goods at their own price. Yours truly,
L. H. Guldman
(Dictated) Per J. W.” 
A similar ad appeared daily in Leadville newspapers until the end of January 1890 and the Golden Eagle departed Leadville to focus on efforts in Denver and the growing gold camp of Cripple Creek. Leopold was also naturalized in Denver on January 22, 1890.
Leopold married Sarah’s sister Bertha Schoyer on March 3, 1891. Like the first Guldman-Schoyer wedding this one also took place in Milwaukee.
In 1903, the Guldman family appears on a list of donors to the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives. The top donors of over $100 include “Mr. L. H. Guldman, David May, and Simon Guggenheim”, all successful Colorado businessmen. Max Strauss and Philip Zang of Denver beer brewing significance are also on the list. 
In 1914, Leopold was arrested in Germany. The Walsenburg World elaborated, “L. H. Guldman, Denver millionaire was arrested as a spy in Mannheim, Germany, just after he had made preparations to depart.”  Further information on this event could not be located.
The Guldmans traveled extensively starting in the late 1890s. Leopold applied for passports in the years 1897, 1900, 1906, 1911, and 1922.  Passports at that time were only valid for a few years. Extant records reveal the Guldman family travelled in a first class cabin on the ship Kaiserin Auguste Victoria of the “Hamburg-Amerika Line” in June of 1911,  and in a first class cabin on the ship Deutchland of the same steamship line in 1926.  In 1922 Leopold applied to visit the British Isles, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Switzerland, Austria-Hungary, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Norway, Madiera Isles (off the coast of Portugal), Spain, Gibraltar, Algeria, and Monaco.  The trip lasted nearly 9 months and when he returned, Leopold took the opportunity to inform the Denver Jewish community of his experiences, specifically in his homeland. The Denver Jewish News of November 1922 published Leopold’s impressions and opinions on Germany after he returned from the 1922 tour of Europe:
“Mr. Guldman has returned to America, ‘God’s country’ he says. ‘Only those who are foolish enough to go to Europe realize how serious conditions are there. In Germany where we spent part of the time they hate Americans. Our presence is deeply resented but because our dollar is worth so much they can’t manage to run expense beyond reason no matter how they raise the cost of what they have to sell. As an example of how much one can get for very little of our money, I will cite a dinner party I gave at the best hotel in Frankfort am Main to eighteen guests. We had two rooms and a special corp of servants. Fourteen courses with three kinds of wine, champagne and liquors were served, the flowers were exquisite and an orchestra furnished music. The cost was $64.
‘Everybody is at work in Germany but with the value of the mark what it is nobody can make enough to live out.’
Mr. Guldman spoke forcibly about government conditions, the Socialist being in the majority. ‘Little children echo the thoughts of their parents in their hatred to France, and unless conditions improve another war may be possible, and, if so, Russia will become an important factor. Money is scarce and the only hope for Germany economically would be an extension of time regarding reparation.’
‘Unless this is done conditions will inevitably get worse before they get better, and at the present moment Europe is on the edge of the abyss and only a slight jar is need to send her over. Meantime, my advice to Americans is to stay out of Europe, to be content with America, with Colorado and with Denver, which when all is said and done, is the best place on earth.’” 
Leopold’s thoughts on the matter would prove to be prophetic as the advent of war in Europe came less than 20 years after he made the above observations. While he had strong convictions about pre-war Germany, Leopold did not stay away from Europe as he suggested to others. The family was on a yearlong trip to Europe and Africa in 1927 according the Craig Empire,  and is listed as a passenger on the ship Europa which returned to New York from Europe on July 2, 1930. 
The Guldman family were generous to local Jewish hospitals and organizations. In 1925, Leopold gave $50,000 toward the effort to build and expand the “Beth Israel Hospital and Home Society”, an institution for old and sick patients in Denver.  He also donated $5,000 toward the renovation and restoration of buildings in Denver’s Rude Park in the middle 1920s.  The Guldman Community center was another family funded effort which began in the 1920s on West Colfax.  This grew into an important recreation institution among the Denver Jewish community and went on to operate a mountain ranch and ski program.  Leopold passed away in Denver on June 2, 1936 and Bertha in 1948. The Golden Eagle store continued to exist for a short time after Leopold’s death but ultimately closed in 1937. His son-in-law, Lester Friedman (Louise’s husband) made an effort to continue the store, but economic factors drove the business to close in 1941. 
The Golden Eagle stores did not expand outside of Colorado or operate long after Leopold’s death. From a modest beginning in a small Bavarian city, Leopold gained every advantage of America during the most important development period for Colorado. As a contemporary of David May and other prominent German Jews of Colorado’s history, Leopold played an important role, as others of his generation. Today the Guldman legacy lives on in Denver Hospitals and charitable organizations.
1 Year: 1910; Census Place: Denver Ward 10, Denver, Colorado; Roll: T624_116; Page: 8A; Enumeration District: 0129; FHL microfilm: 1374129 Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006.
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6 JewishGen, comp. JewishGen Online Worldwide Burial Registry (JOWBR) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008.
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9 JewishGen, comp. JewishGen Online Worldwide Burial Registry (JOWBR) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008.
10 Abrams, Jeanne. "Leopold Henry Guldman .” 2014
11 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 36; Volume #: Roll 0036 - Certificates: 31214-31913, 01 May 1907-08 May 1907 Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2007.
12 Year: 1870; Census Place: Watertown Ward 1, Jefferson, Wisconsin; Roll: M593_1719; Page: 388A; Family History Library Film: 553218 Source Information Ancestry.com. 1870 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.
13 Denver City Directory 1880 p. 184
14 Year: 1880; Census Place: Denver, Arapahoe, Colorado; Roll: 88; Page: 242B; Enumeration District: 011
15 Denver City Directory 1880 p. 184
16 "Wisconsin Marriages, 1836-1930," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XRXH-MJM : 11 February 2018), Leopold H. Goldman and Sarah Soyer, 04 Sep 1881; citing reference cn 294; FHL microfilm 1,013,968.
17 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 488; Volume #: Roll 488 - 21 May 1897-31 May 1897 Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2007.
18 Breck pp.69-70
19 “Advertisements” Leadville Daily Herald, August 19, 1882 p 4
20 Leadville City Directory 1883
21 Leadville City Directory 1885
22 Leadville City Directory 1886
23 Year: 1910; Census Place: Denver Ward 10, Denver, Colorado; Roll: T624_116; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 0129; FHL microfilm: 1374129
24 “Advertisements” Herald Democrat, June 19, 1886 p 4
25 “A Robber Run In” Carbonate Chronicle, July 5, 1886 p 7
26 “Advertisements” Herald Democrat, October 9, 1887 p 1
27 “Advertisements” Herald Democrat, September 18, 1887 p 6
28 Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. Original data: Find A Grave. Find A Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi.
29 “Advertisements” Herald Democrat, January 18, 1890 p 4
30 “List of Subscribers to the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives” Jewish Outlook, Volume 3, Number 13, January 26, 1906 p. 7
31 “State News” Walsenburg World, Volume XXVI, Number 37, September 10, 1914 p. 6
32 ancestry.com passport applications
33 Staatsarchiv Hamburg; Hamburg, Deutschland; Hamburger Passagierlisten; Microfilm No.: K_1818
34 Staatsarchiv Hamburg; Hamburg, Deutschland; Hamburger Passagierlisten; Microfilm No.: K_1867
35 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 1809; Volume #: Roll 1809 - Certificates: 109726-110099, 09 Jan 1922-10 Jan 1922 Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2007.
36 “Stay at Home” Denver Jewish News, Volume 8, Number 45, November 8, 1922 p. 8
37 “Neighborhood Gossip” Craig Empire, Number 29, September 7, 1927 p. 4
38 Year: 1930; Arrival: New York, New York; Microfilm Serial: T715, 1897-1957; Microfilm Roll: Roll 4769; Line: 20; Page Number: 19 Ancestry.com. New York, Passenger and Crew Lists (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010.
39 Breck, The Centennial History of the Jews of Colorado 1859-1959 p. 209
40 Breck, The Centennial History of the Jews of Colorado 1859-1959 p. 192
41 Breck, The Centennial History of the Jews of Colorado 1859-1959 p. 211
42 Uchill, Pioneers, Peddlers, and Tsadikim p.228
43 Abrams, Jeanne. “Leopold Henry Guldman” 2014
Breck, Allen duPont. The Centennial History of the Jews of Colorado 1859-1959. Denver, CO: The Hirschfeld Press, University of Denver Department of History Series, 1960.
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Uchill, Ida. Pioneers, Peddlers, and Tsadikim. Denver, CO: Sage Books Publishing By Alan Swallow, 1957.
WM Clark, WA Root And HC Anderson. “Clark, Root and Co’s First Annual City Directory of Leadville and Business Directory of Carbonateville, Kokomo and Malta for 1879”. Daily Times Steam Printing House And Book Manufactory; Denver, CO: USA. 1879.
Corbett, TB, Hoye, WC and Ballanger, JH. “Corbet, Hoye and Co’s First-Tenth Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. In The City Of Leadville For 1880-1890”. Democrat Printing Company; Leadville, CO: USA. 1880-1890.
1879 Corbett, Hoye. “1877-1880 Corbett, Hoye & Co.’s 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th Annual Denver City directory: City directory of all residents and businesses in the Denver area in the years 1877 and 1880.” News Printing Company; Denver, CO: USA. 1879-1880
Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Leadville, Lake County, Colorado. Sanborn Map Company, Sep, 1883. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/sanborn01031_001/.
Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Leadville, Lake County, Colorado. Sanborn Map Company, Sep, 1886. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/sanborn01031_001/.
Jackson, William Henry. Western History Collection, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll21/id/10131/rec/88
Luke, Wellington O. Western History Collection, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/2404/rec/68
Census Records Accessed via familysearch.com and ancestry.com:
1870 United States Federal Census
1880 United States Federal Census
1900 United States Federal Census
1910 United States Federal Census
Leadville Daily Herald (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)
Herald Democrat (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)
Denver Jewish News (Denver, Arapaho County, Colorado)
Jewish Outlook (Denver, Arapaho County, Colorado)
Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)
Craig Empire (Craig, Moffat County, Colorado)
Walsenberg World (Walsenberg, Huerfano County, Colorado)
Svensk-Amerikanska Western (Denver, Arapaho County, Colorado)
Abrams, Jeanne. "Leopold Henry Guldman" In Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present, vol. 3, edited by Giles R. Hoyt. German Historical Institute. Last modified September 10, 2014. http://www.immigrantentrepreneurship.org/entry.php?rec=206
National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 1809; Volume #: Roll 1809 - Certificates: 109726-110099, 09 Jan 1922-10 Jan 1922 Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2007.
Ancestry.com. New York, Passenger and Crew Lists (including Castle Garden and Ellis Island), 1820-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010.
Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. Original data: Find A Grave. Find A Grave. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi
JewishGen, comp. JewishGen Online Worldwide Burial Registry (JOWBR) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008.