Biography
Jacobs
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Abraham  |    John  |    Louis  |    Israel  |    Isidore  |    Samuel  |    Marlon

Abraham Jacobs
Born: Germany, 1850
Death: Unknown

Born in Germany during 1850, [1] Abraham Jacobs came to Leadville from Denver in 1880 where he had partnered with Phil Trounstine in a men’s clothing store located at 15th Street and Larimer. [2] In Leadville, he worked for a time as a clerk for Lew Shoenberg [3] at 120 E. Chestnut Street [4] where he also resided. [5] It is likely that Mr. Jacobs was scouting the business climate in Leadville as he only appears in Leadville directories for one year, never gave up his Denver operation or residence, and appears to have returned their before the winter of 1880. [6]

Abraham’s departure from Leadville as a resident did not coincide with his presence. He would eventually open a Leadville Branch of A. Jacobs & Co. and was partnered in several mining concerns with Sam and Gus Cohen [7] and Phil Trounstine, who also managed the A. Jacobs & Co. Leadville enterprise. [8]

A. Jacobs & Co. maintained operations in Leadville at least until the end of 1883. [9] There is a notice in the newspaper that Abraham secured the Colorado rights to sell Radam’s Microbe Killer, a patent medicine, [10] but there is no evidence of Abraham operating any retail outlet in Leadville after 1883.

Advertisement for A. Jacobs & Co.

Advertisement for A. Jacobs & Co. in the Leadville Daily Herald, October 31, 1883. P4.
Courtesy of the Colorado Historic Newspaper Collection.

Advertisement for A. Jacobs & Co.

Advertisement for A. Jacobs & Co. in the Leadville Daily Herald, November 18, 1883. P4.
Courtesy of the Colorado Historic Newspaper Collection.

John Jacobs
Born: Germany, 1854
Death: Unknown

Born in 1854 Germany, John Jacobs came to Leadville in 1880 from parts unknown. He lived in Abson Goldsol’s [11] pawnshop at 102 Chestnut Street [12] with two other notable Leadville Jews: Barnabas Harris [14] and Daniel Cohn. [14] John’s listed occupation is that of clothier working for the firm of Cohn & Harris who operated a small clothing shop in the same building. [15]

There is limited information on John and his time in Leadville. In 1881 John was convicted of assault and battery in the police court on March 21, 1881 and fined $15. The particulars of the case were not disclosed [16] and John is absent from Leadville records after the incident.

Louis Jacobs
Born: Germany, approximately 1844
Death: Unknown
Immigration: Unknown
Occupation: Dry Goods

Mrs. Louis Jacobs
Born:
Died:

Louis Jacobs was born in approximately 1844 in Germany. Jacobs first appears in the 1880 United States Census as a dry goods clerk [17] for J.E. Shoenberg [18] at 116 West Chestnut Street while living at 125 Harrison Avenue. [19] He remained with the Shoenberg firm in 1881 and moved his residence to 410 Harrison Avenue. [20]

In 1882, Louis moved his residence to the Louis Braham [21] clothing store, but continued to work for Joseph Shoenberg. [22] In 1883, Louis began working for the Braham enterprise and moved his residence to 322 Harrison Avenue. [23] Shortly after Braham and Jacobs created an ownership group that signed a nine-month lease on the Alma Lode mining property from the estate of Sol Levy [24] on April 28. The group claimed they would work the property until a substantial strike was discovered, although none was ever reported during this time. [25]

From 1884 to 1886 records for Louis in Leadville cannot be found but he remerges in 1886 working as a clerk for David May [26] and residing at 128 ½ East 3rd Street. [27] He continued to work for May’s Leadville operation into 1889, although he changed residences yearly during this period; to 138 West 4th Street in 1887, [28] and 134 East 8th Street in 1888, [29] although it is possible that the numbers of those addresses could have been mistakenly transposed and he continuously maintained the same residence during that period at either location.

The only reference to a Mrs. Jacobs is the couple’s attendance at the Strawberries and Ice Cream Festival given by the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society on June 9, 1886. It is unknown what happened to the first Mrs. Jacobs but in 1901 Louis married Goldie Appel at Denver on December 29, 1901, [30] and no records can be confirmed for John Jacobs following that event.

Israel Jacobs
Born:
Died:

Information for Israel Jacobs cannot be found prior to his arrival in Leadville during the year of 1889 when he is listed as a peddler residing at the Grand Hotel located at 129 Chestnut Street. [31]

Israel Jacobs had two documented stints in Leadville, in 1889 and again in 1892, and neither passed without controversy.

On August 6, 1889, Israel, working for an unknown enterprise, was called into a cabin while conducting sales calls in Stringtown by potential customers who wished to examine his goods. They bought one dollar worth of merchandise, then relieved Israel of his stock on hand and refused to return it. When Israel went to Leadville police to file a complaint, he was told he would need to pay for a warrant in order to have the thieves arrested. He then refused to pay the fee. [32] On October 22, Israel was arrested and jailed on a charge of threatening the life of Many Caue [33] and, although the details are not clear, it appears that this was related to the Stringtown theft. Israel disappears from Leadville records for some time after this.

Israel returned to Leadville in 1892 and formed a retail dry goods enterprise with Nathan Miller. [34] They opened a storefront at 127 West Chestnut, [35] where Nathan managed the store and Israel was responsible for outside sales, and took up residence at 105 E. 6th Street. [36] Israel was again arrested on June 13. In this incident he was charged with stealing some $200 worth of goods from the Miller & Jacobs store. [37] Israel attempted to take goods from the store’s stock to take on a peddling trip to Granite, which Nathan’s wife, Minnie refused, pushing him out the door and locking it. Israel then kicked the door in, and the police, having witnessed the incident, arrested him immediately. The case was dismissed due to lack of evidence, however the damage to Nathan and Israel’s relationship was irreconcilable. [38] The partnership dissolved and Israel left town soon after. [39] A dissolution notice appeared in the Herald Democrat less than a week after the incident declaring the demise of the Miller & Jacobs partnership and that all debts to the firm be paid directly to Nathan Miller at the exclusion of Israel. [40]

The Grand Hotel on Chestnut Street circa 1879.

Lower Right; The Grand Hotel on Chestnut Street circa 1879.
Courtesy of the Colorado Mountain History Collection at the Lake County Public Library.

00483CC. 1879. Colorado Mountain History Collection, Lake County Public Library, Leadville, Colorado. http://69.146.43.46:8081/pages/search.php .

Isidore/Samuel Jacobs
Born: New York, 1842
Died: Denver, Colorado, 1893

Maria Scheer Jacobs
Born: Chicago, Illinois, 1850
Died:

Sam Jacobs and his wife, Maria, came to Leadville from Chicago, likely in 1877. The Jacobs’ were highly industrious with both engaged in successful cigar stands located around the city of Leadville. The couple were very active in the community, participated in local events, politics and some mining speculation. Sam was known to be a great party host [41] and was a founding member and officer of the Tabor Hose Company with the Leadville volunteer fire department, Leadville’s first fully organized firefighting unit. [42]

Records for the Jacobs are limited to a few newspaper articles in the 1870s, the couple first appearing in the city directories in 1880 with both listed as cigar merchants operating a stand at 220 Harrison Ave while they made their home at 111 E. 3rd. Street. [43] They remained there through 1881. [44] Sam was a member of the Elks, Progress, and Knights of Pythias lodges. [45] Maria sold tobacco and pipes alongside her husband. [46] The couple was known to sell a wide variety of Meershaum pipes, which they specialized in. Sam gave a very elegant Meerschaum pipe to Con Featherly during the Christmas holiday [47] and this was likely a promotional giveaway for the Jacobs’ cigar business.

On April 8, 1881 Sam’s firehouse responded to the second large fire in Leadville over the course of a week. This fire claimed most of the Denver Lodging House on Chestnut Street. [48] The following day, while inspecting the damage, Sam found a rooster on the third floor that had been overcome by smoke inhalation, but still survived. Sam took the bird back to the firehouse where it recovered and lived out his days in the company of the unit’s horses. [49] On May 28, Sam purchased one half of the Raymond Lode from Maurice Coffey for $100. [50] On December 3, Maria gave Sam a custom gold watch with Walthan works, monogrammed with his initials, in a casing made by local jeweler [51] Hiram Brodie. [52]. Sam and Maria were among the noted dancing couples that attended the Chanukah Ball at City Hall on December 29. [53]

In 1882 the couple moved their residence to 218 Harrison Ave. [54] Maria donated a meerschaum pipe to the Catholic Fair in January. [55] Sam became a member of the Harrison Hook & Ladder Company [56] and was unanimously elected to the post of Assistant Fire Chief on April 7. [57]

Sam was unanimously elected Assistant Chief of the Harrison Hook & Ladder Company on April 6, 1882. [58] He was at this post for the famous Palace of Fashion Fire, an act of arson which claimed most of the southeastern block of Chestnut at Harrison Avenue on May 19, 1882. The event and subsequent trial for arson and murder dominated the Leadville news the rest of the year and the spring of 1883. Five Leadville Jews, Reinhold Rosendorf, [59] J.A. Kamak, [60] Reuben Weil, [61] Fred Butler, [62] and Maurice Zippert, [63] stood accused of arson and murder, and were acquitted of all charges, due largely in part by the confession of Jack Brogan, one of Sam’s subordinate firemen who started the fire in an effort to see which of Leadville’s three firehouses would respond most quickly. Leadville’s volunteer fire departments were abolished within a few weeks following the fire.

Sam was a director of the newly formed Leadville Blues Baseball Club which was founded on May 2, 1882. [64] The appointment was short lived and Sam was replaced, in absentia, at the next monthly meeting. [65] In July, a new volunteer organization was formed, with the requirement that only veteran firefighters could join. This unit was largely ceremonial and represented the city in firefighting competitions. Sam was present, and elected an officer of the inaugural meeting of the Fireman’s Association of Leadville on July 17. The new volunteers were not permitted to answer general alarms and could only be pressed into service in an emergency, even then, only at the request of the professional fire department. [66] It does appear that the organization did not disband, and continued to appear at fire drill competitions, and Sam continued with the unit although he was noted to be “…one of the oldest firemen in Leadville”. [67]

On February 3, 1883 Sam won a piano in a drawing that in turn he immediately gave to Maria. [68] On September 10, Sam and two other volunteer firemen responded to a house fire at Hemlock and 6th Street. Although the home was completely destroyed, the firefighters did keep the conflagration from spreading to other structures. [69] The couple was among many guests at the Lyon’s wedding reception at Turner Hall on October 29. [70] Sam and Maria now operated two cigar shops, one in St. Anne’s Rest at 220 Harrison Avenue and another in Shaw’s at 619 Harrison Avenue. [71]

Sam testified in the case of The People V. Jack Brogan in October of 1882, although this arson trial was not for the Palace of Fashion Fire of May 19th, but a later fire Brogan set for the same reasons. This case has the Palace of Fashion controversy. Brogan, was ultimately convicted of attempted arson in this case where he attempted to set fire to the Famous Shoe store. [72] In May of 1882, five Jewish businessmen stood accused of a similar fire in which the Palace of Fashion, the Hotel Windsor and the southern side of Chestnut Street burned to the ground. The matter was set for trial in March of 1883. After the Palace of Fashion trial began in 1883, Brogan, already convicted of the Famous Shoe arson, confessed to the Palace of Fashion fire while serving his sentence at the state penitentiary in Canon City. [73] Brogan’s confession directly exonerated two of the five defendants, Reinhold Rosendorf and his roommate, Maurice Zippert. The other three, Palace of Fashion manager Fred Butler, and his two employees, J.A. Kamack and Reuben Weil, were found not guilty by the jury. [74] Brogan and his two accomplices were all Leadville volunteer firemen. [75]

The immediate aftermath of the fire did not reflect well on any of the three houses. Newly elected Alderman C. C. Joy was on the scene of the Palace of Fashion fire. Horrified and appalled by the behavior of Leadville’s finest, Joy was not at all reserved in his response to the firemen’s demeanor. He was quoted by witnesses as publicly castigating the firemen on site, calling them “a set of drunken sons of bitches”, and witnesses accused Joy of physically assaulting one fireman, Andrew King. [76]

On May 20th, all three houses of the Leadville Volunteer Fire Department held an indignation meeting at which all members were present. The heart of the meeting was to discuss action that should be taken against Alderman Joy. Tempers did flare and the matters were not likely soothed by the presence of a former city alderman, Mitchell Dawes, who spoke negatively of Joy and further exacerbated the crowd. Andrew King, the fireman assaulted by Joy, was indeed injured in the exchange and suffered three broken ribs as result of Joy kicking him several times. In hindsight, one can fairly speculate that the overall conduct and performance of the fire department during the Palace of Fashion fire was certainly unacceptable, although the assault by Alderman Joy was certainly inappropriate, and a distraction that did not aid in the extinguishing of the fire. [77]

The meeting resulted in the submission of a letter to the city council by the senior members of the three firehouses that admonished Joy for his behavior and threatened to disband if something wasn’t done about it:

“Gentlemen- At an indignation meeting of the Fire Department of the City of Leadville, held this 20th day of May, 1882, it was unanimously voted to express our deep indignation of the remarks and treatment received at the hands of Alderman C.C. Joy. Your ordinances require us at all time, especially at a fire, to be under the directions of our chief engineer and his assistant.

We therefore ask of you whether the expressions given utterance to by said Alderman, calling the fireman ‘a set of drunken sons of bitches’, and his actions in knocking down and kicking one of our members, is an expression and the feeling of your honorable body. If this be the case, you cannot consistently expect us to any longer remain members of the Leadville fire department.

Respectfully submitted,
Committee
Harrison Hook and Ladder Co., by
C. E. Wyman
Sam Jacobs

Committee
H.A.W. Tabor Hose Co,. by
M. Dawes
F.H. Officer

Committee
Humphrey Hose Co., by
Matt Medill
Harry B. Kantner [78]

Reports of the firemen and their impropriety were rampant in the days to follow. Accusations included firemen looting, removing bottles of liquor which they then drank during the performance of their duties, and even a report of one firefighter who turned his hose away from the flames and into a crowd of spectators. In response to the letter, the Leadville City Council abolished the volunteer system in favor of professional firemen within days of the incident. [79] As an officer of the volunteer system, Sam was welcomed into the new professional fire department. [80] Sam was also in attendance for the celebratory dinner after the acquittal of the Jewish men accused in the Palace of Fashion Fire on March 23, 1883. [81]

Later, in December, Sam’s 220 Harrison Avenue location was heavily damaged by water as a result of a large fire next door at the Texas House. [82] This was not the only serious incident that affected Sam’s businesses in December. On the 27th, Sam was tending his cigar stand in St. Anne’s Rest on Harrison Avenue when a shootout between Mat Wells and John Kerr commenced in the Saloon. The two men were clearly not experienced gunfighters and when the smoke cleared, Kerr had been fatally wounded and six bystanders were injured including one elderly man who also passed as a result. Sam escaped injury but both the saloon, and the cigar stand suffered heavy damages. [83]

Sam was an avid baseball fan and continued to support the White Stockings (which officially became the Cubs in 1906) after leaving his native Chicago for Leadville. On July 21, Sam predicted the White Stockings would indeed capture the National League pennant. [84] Sam’s prediction was accurate as Chicago finished the season with a 55-29 record, three games ahead of the Providence Grays, [85] who would have the distinction of winning the first World Series in 1884 before folding after the 1885 season. [86] Maria won a fine silver tea set in competition against Mrs. Hall at the county fair on July 10, although the newspaper article does not clarify what event the ladies competed in. [87]

In 1883, [88] the couple attended the Hebrew Ladies Ball at Germania Hall on January 19. [89] The news noted that Sam had a “streak of luck”, although does not specify whether it was in business, mining or gambling. It was enough of a windfall that he purchased two elegant Roman bracelets, each set with five diamonds, for Maria. [90] The couple was present at the Purim Masque Bal on March 22. [91] Sam endorsed Fred Schaefer’s candidacy for Leadville City Alderman. [92] Sam was chosen as the official scorekeeper for a billiards match between Robert M. Day of Kokomo and John Tyler of Leadville. Day won the match and the $500 purse. [93] Reports show that Sam was partnered in the Raymond mine on Battle Mountain, which had a significant mineral deposit of gold and silver near the surface. [94] The owners leased the mine to Judson Kelly in May. [95] Maria attended the Letter Carrier’s Ball on May 9, [96] and the sixth annual Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society Ball on October 8. [97] Sam was a floor attendant for the Fireman’s Ball on October 11, the proceeds were used to by new uniforms for the firefighter drill team. [98] Sam and Maria were guests at the wedding of Colonel Fritz Lottes and Caroline Krezdorn on November 25 where they gave the happy couple a silver pincushion as a gift. [99] Sam and Maria were both present at that year’s Chanukah Festival at City Hall on December 29. [100]

In 1884, Sam went to work as a barkeeper for Bertrand Leppel. [101] It does appear that Sam temporarily suspended the operation of his cigar stands. Sam was in Denver and had been called as juror for the trial of Fiedler V. London Mining Company where he was appointed foreman the day before the trial. According to Sam, he ran into friend, John Herrick, General Manager of the London Mining Company, at the Hotel Windsor (Denver) that evening, and during their conversation requested a loan of $25 which Sam would repay upon his return to Leadville. Concerned for any accusations of impropriety, Herrick told Sam he would need to check with his lawyer, who not only instructed his client to deny the loan and ignore Sam, but reported the request to the judge. [102] Sam was sentenced to three months imprisonment and a $500 fine in US District Court at Denver on January 4, 1884. [103] Sam did not appeal the decision and began his three-month stint in the Denver County Jail on January 7. [104]

A few weeks after his conviction, the Leadville Daily Herald allowed Sam an editorial response to the charges:

Denver, Colo., January 26, 1884.

Editor Herald:

Dear Sir- My Attention has been called to the above article published in the Leadville News, and I ask a little of your valuable space in order to correct an error, as it may convey a wrong impression to the many friends in Leadville, I congratulate myself that I still retain, under adverse and malicious prosecution. I was not found guilty of “Tampering with the Jurors,“t but merely of making an individual remark in reply to the question of one of the jurors, outside of the jury room. Which by some designing hearer was wafted to the ears of certain parties interested in the case, and to show their virtuous zeal for the purity of the jury box, and also having gained their case, immediately made ill use of the expression, and the fact that I requested a loan of enough money to return to Leadville from one of the parties to the suit, being acquainted with him, and which loan would have been repaid on my return to Leadville, to make me the scapegoat, as to clear their skirts of any suspicion that might exist in the minds of the public. I, conscious of my innocence, introduced nothing in defense, and thus fell victim to these would be upholders of the majesty of the law and persecutors of myself. My conduct was only unbecoming to a jury, and solely through my ignorance, and for that I was punished as an example to future jurors to say nothing. But conscious of my own integrity I believe that

Stone walls do not a prison make
Nor iron bars a cage

And this and time will make all things right and vindicate me with all my friends.

Respectfully Yours,
SAM JACOBS” [105]

During Sam’s absence Maria was present for the annual Purim Bal Masque on March 11 dressed in a costume described by the papers as “Patti”, [106] and attended the Policeman’s Ball at City Hall on May 23. [107] Maria was present at the Strawberries and Ice Cream Festival, given by the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Association on June 12, [108] and was present among three hundred members of the Patriotic Sons of America for their Fourth of July celebration. [109] Maria attended the Letter Carrier’s Ball on May 16, [110] and the Simchath Torah festival on October 10. [111]

During 1885 the couple received less attention in the newspapers than previous years but did remain socially active. [112] The Couple Attended the Grand Festival and Dance for the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society on June 12 [113], the Turn Verien Society rail excursion and the Simchath Torahs Ball at City Hall on September 25. [114] Similarly quiet in 1886 [115] when Sam and Maria attended the wedding of Louis Mueller and Sophia Gers on January 21. [116] Sam was chosen as a delegate to the Republican Convention. [117] Couple attended the annual Purim Bal Masque on March 25, [118] as well as David and Fannie Heller’s 25th Wedding Anniversary party on October 8, 1886, where they gave the long tenured couple silver salt and pepper shakers for a gift. [119]

In 1886 the couple moved [120] their home again to 123 W. 4th. [121] On Memorial Day, when most people took time to honor soldiers, Sam took time to place fresh flowers on the graves of fallen Leadville firemen. [122] Sam, now foreman of the Leadville competitive firefighter corps, brokered a deal with Mayor George B. Cook that entitled team members to draw pay for victories as many members had to take time off work to practice for competitions. [123] Four members of Sam’s team were badly injured during a practice session on August 3. The team was on a practice run on Harrison Avenue, in front of a crowd of spectators when a small dog ran into the street, the dog was kicked and then retreated. Moments later, another larger and somewhat aggressive dog also ran onto the course. When a fireman attempted to kick the dog away, he slipped, causing several other men to fall in the path of the succeeding hose cart. The injuries were serious enough to warrant medical attention, which was administered at the Tabor Grand Hotel. Two of the four men suffered serious injury; one broke his leg and another damaged his knee. The incident resulted in a mayoral ban on dogs along Harrison Avenue during practice runs. [124] Sam was among a contingent of Leadvillites who presented a gold badge to William Allen, who was honored for his service as the captain and trainer for the Leadville Running Hose Team. [125] Sam ran for the office of city Alderman in March. [126] In June, he was among a group of Leadville residents who awarded a custom diamond badge to C. E. Joy in celebration of his election to a third term as city alderman. [127] Although it was likely a sarcastic note in the personals column, the Herald Democrat mentioned that Sam had been called upon to deliver a lecture on temperance in August. [128] Maria attended the Simchos Torah Festival on October 10. [129] In November Sam left Leadville for is hometown of Chicago, to purchase new fixtures for the saloon he intended to open on West 5th Street in 1888. [130] Sam was among several members of the Leadville competitive firemen’s team to report that he had not yet been reimbursed for his expenses. [131]

Sam opened his new saloon in 1888 at 102 East 5th Street. [132] The couple attended a welcome home party for Mrs. L.D. Shoenberg and Mathilda Baer on February 3, at city hall. The two ladies returned to Leadville after an extended European holiday. [133] In July, the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle reported an incident that occurred in Sam’s saloon while imbibing in libations with an old friend. It is unclear as to whether Jacobs became intoxicated or was the victim of some kind of poisoning, and thus the article is transcribed here for the reader to find their own conclusion:

Mr. Jacob’s Joke

Mr. Sam Jacobs was standing in his doorway on Thursday when he espied a gentleman he had not seen for a number of years. Mr. Jacobs is nothing if not generous, and after renewing old acquaintances, he invited the stranger to take a drink. The Stranger was obliging and accompanied Mr. Jacobs to his palatial resort. After various old time topics had been discussed and the red fluid had been washed away, the stranger said: “Well, you have set ‘em up now have a drink with me.” Mr. Jacobs started to reach for the bottle when he was very much amazed to see the stranger put his hand in a rear pocket and produce a flask, saying at the same time, “I insist on you smiling with me.”

Mr. Jacobs was seen later by a reporter for this paper, and was able to sit up and take a little nourishment.

“ You can talk about frogs in Hell with broken backs, “ Said Mr. Jacobs, “but they are not a marker to me. The man was an old friend of mine, and I was never so astonished in my life. I think a trip to Glenwood Springs would benefit my health”.

Mr. Jacobs then sat back on the embroidered cushions where he was reclining and begged to be let alone. [134]

Sam was part of the decision to send the Tabor Hose Company to a grand competition in Aspen in the spring Spring of 1888. [135] In anticipation of the upcoming presidential election, Sam went about town offering to wager $500 on Benjamin Harrison to any and all takers. [136] Milton Charles bet his beard against Benjamin Harrison with Billy Loomis and Billy Martin. After his loss, Martin and Loomis let Charles keep his beard intact, until one cold day when they saw Sam Jacobs without a cover for his balding head, and thus, cashed in on their bet and by having Charles shave his beard, which they made into a wig for Sam. [137] Sam did have a sense of humor and enjoyed practical jokes. In the next example he snuck firecrackers into the bunghole of a barrel that one of his customers was seated upon. The detonation of said fireworks caused the man to jump to the ceiling over the saloon porch. Sam made up afterwards by treating his victim to beer and pretzels. [138]

Sam did not participate in the 1888 Fourth of July celebration which drew some 8,000 Leadvillites to Harrison Avenue. The paper claimed Sam was lost to “domestic duties” and “rural retirement”. [139] A week later Sam and Jack Harverly hosted a large party at the Saddle Rock Restaurant but the occasion for such was not mentioned. [140] Sam presented each of his Knights of Pythias brothers with a boutonnière following their participation in the city Fourth of July parade; the newspaper noted that participants were not permitted to wear flowers while performing. [141] Later that month Sam had an addition constructed in the rear of his saloon, [142] this was likely to accommodate a gambling parlor. Sam had an interest in aeronautics and financed the building of a hot air balloon for a global expedition. [143] Sam also was invested in a mine near Red Cliff which had a significant strike in July that initially produced three carloads of ore for the Leadville smelters. [144] The property was one of fifteen claims between Red Cliff and Minturn that Sam and his partners originally began working in 1880. [145]

In 1889 [146] Sam was visited by City Marshall O.M. White and Police Magistrate L.F. Long on June 12. He was found to have been running a gambling parlor, arrested, and was told if he gave the men a $25 bond he would not have to go to jail. Sam paid the bond in-house to avoid arrest and the following morning paid an additional $15 fine to the police court. This raised serious questions with the city council, who believed Sam and the other gambling house owners were told that if they paid a regular monthly fee they would be permitted to continue operating their gaming enterprises “without molestation” from city officials. This became more intriguing when in July, when the City Council filed charges against Mayor Robert J. Coleman, City Marshall O.M. White, and Police Magistrate L.F. Long with “Conduct unbecoming a judicial officer and prejudicial to good order and morality”. In three separate charges, Long was accused of imposing a fee on three different gambling halls owned by Andrew Grundle, Sig Simons, and Sam Jacobs, that would allow the gambling establishments to “…be allowed to operate a gambling hall without molestation on the part of the police force of the city of Leadville. [147] The three men were called in front of the City Council to answer the charge of conduct unbecoming a public official. After the council heard the testimony of Sam, Grundle, and Simons, who explained that Long and White never implied that this was a licensing fee, but a fine imposed for illegal activity. The three witnesses told similar stories and the following is a transcript of the illustration of events as Sam Jacobs saw them:

(Sam Jacobs) “… Long and White called at my place on June 12 a little after 8 o’clock in the evening, when the conversation turned on gambling and they said they knew it was going on and they were going round on their own responsibility to see if they could collect money as revenue for the city from gambling. I was asked what fine I considered right and I replied that I thought $25 was enough. They left, were gone about an hour, when they returned, and the marshal said “You can consider yourself under arrest and that you can either go with us or put up a bond.” I put up $25. Next morning I appeared at police court and was fined $15 and costs. Long said I must not think that this was a guarantee, as I was liable to be pulled and fined again if caught gambling.”

(City Council) “They said that the city was going behind in its finances and $25 would be the fine?”

(S.J.) “They did not say it in that way; they asked me what would be right.”

(C.C.) “Did you pay the $25 before you were arrested?”

(S.J.) “I did not.”

(C.C.) “Two or three days did not intervene between the first interview and the time you were arrested?”

(S.J.) “No sir; I was arrested the same evening.”

(C.C.) “Was gambling going on in your house at that time?”

(S.J.) “No, sir.”

(C.C.) “Were there promises made?”

(S.J.) “None.”

(C.C.) “Did you give them any money personally?”

(S.J.) “Not a cent.”

(C.C.) “Had you any understanding with them as to your fine?”

(S.J.) “Only what I said myself.”

(C.C.) “You had either go to jail or give $25 as bonds?”

(S.J.) “Yes sir.”

(C.C.) “Did they make any promise to you or agreement about the future?”

(S.J.) “None.”

(C.C.) “Did they ever demand any money from you to permit you to gamble?”

(S.J.) “No sir.” [148]

The mayor, magistrate and city marshal were found not guilty. [149] The incident left Sam feeling a bit uncomfortable in normal social interactions, the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle reported on July 12 that Sam had “…withdrawn himself from the vulgar public gaze…” [150] after opening his “gentlemen’s club.” [151]

Sam’s mining ventures had begun to pay substantially in 1889. Both the Cleopatra and Spirit mines near Red Cliff had 200 tons of ore that yielded $100 per ton in gold and silver, and predicted another 500 tons would be extracted from the recent strike. [152] Sam built a delegation of old volunteer firemen to participate in Denver’s firefighter competition. The city of Leadville did not field a team, but an independent delegation was formed by Sam, Will Bacon, and Walter Pollard. [153] Sam became a founding member of the Leadville Gun Club which was formed on September 12. [154] Sam received a gift of two interlocked deer antlers, trophies that once adorned the heads of two young bucks who fought to the death, and a rare find, from Surrock & Lindsay on September 19. [155] Maria attended the Simchath Torah Ball on October 18, [156] in addition to a Masquerade Ball on Halloween, dressed as a “washer woman”. There she was awarded a puff box for the most grotesque costume. [157] In October, local hunter W.C. Swinburne killed his first bear, a 800-pound grizzly. Impressed by the feat, Sam hung the bear outside his saloon on East 5th Street. [158] In the locals section of the November 11 Carbonate Chronicle, Sam noted that he was opposed to taking cold baths that time of year. [159]

In 1890, Sam accepted a position as the manager of The Leadville Club Rooms [160] located at The Rialto [161] located at 322 Harrison Avenue. [162] Sam treated his customers to a free turkey lunch to celebrate the re-opening of his cigar stand at 102 East 5th Street on March 6. [163] The re-opening was short-lived and the Rialto folded on May 14, the same notice announces Sam’s retirement. [164] Maria returned to Chicago for the first time in eleven years to visit friends. [165]

Sam dissolved his last saloon partnership in Leadville on May 14, 1890, citing retirement. [166] After 1890, newspaper articles on Sam and Maria begin to dwindle, [167] though Sam was present at the third annual Leadville Firemen’s Ball on November 2. [168]

In 1892, Maria’s sister, Olivet Scheer, married Julius Mahnke on April 5. Sam and Maria hosted the wedding reception at their home. [169] Maria was appointed to the position of Head of Housekeeping for the Brown Palace in Denver. Reports say the couple will remove to Denver permanently when the hotel opened. [170] The couple officially moved from Leadville to their new rooms at the Brown Palace Hotel in Denver on June 18, 1892. [171] The hotel had been open every day since August 12, 1892. [172]

The couple’s time in their new surroundings came to an abrupt end on March 23, 1893 when Sam was killed in a buggy accident. [173] The following article was extracted from the Herald Democrat and explains the details of the incident:

Well Known Here

Sam Jacobs Receives Fatal Injuries by Being Thrown From a Buggy

Sam Jacobs Though Wounded Internally Won’t Believe Himself Badly Hurt

Denver, March 24. Joe Lowe and Samuel Jacobs took a pleasure drive last evening, behind a spirited horse, which formerly belonged to the fire department. Near the corner of Fifteenth and California Streets the animal became frightened at something, and began to run away. Both men grabbed for the lines and in the struggle which ensued Mr. Jacobs was thrown out onto the pavement. The police ambulance took him to the Brown Palace, where he resides, and at which place he died at 2 o’clock this morning. The horse ran against a post and broke his neck. Lowe was not injured.

Dr. J. Wallace Collins, who was passing at the time of the accident, was called in, and after careful examination saw nothing to indicate any serious result to Mr. Jacobs. The latter, however, refused to remove his clothing to allow a closer examination, but insisted he was not badly hurt. Dr. Collins did not prescribe for him.

Mr. Jacobs, who apparently was not badly injured and chatted pleasantly, was taken to the apartments of his wife, who is the housekeeper at the Brown Palace. Here he refused to allow Police Surgeon Wheeler to examine him, still insisting he was not badly injured. Here, however, he rapidly lost consciousness, and after spitting considerable blood he sank into a state of coma, from which he never rallied. The efforts of Dr. Flemming, who was hastily summoned, were unavailing.

The remains of the dead man were prepared and ready for shipment to Chicago, but the coroner interfered as there had been no death certificate issued. The doctors who attended Mr. Jacobs refused to sign a certificate because of his objection to being thoroughly examined. He undoubtedly died from internal injuries received in the runaway, and the coroner, after examining the body, decided to hold no inquest but to permit burial. [174]

This was not Sam’s first serious accident with fire horses, and that experience may have clouded his judgment about further medical examination in this fatal one. A decade earlier he had a similar accident with a Leadville fire-horse, coincidentally also named Sam, [175] kicked Jacobs in the head at State (2nd) Street and Harrison. [176]

Sam may have been the first founding member of the B.O.P.E. Lodge 236 to die. A stained glass member memorial is currently exhibited within the lodge, and Sam Jacobs is the first name listed on the first panel. [177] On December 3, 1893, Members of the Elks lodge 236 gathered at the Tabor Opera House in Leadville for Sam’s memorial service. The following are excerpts retrieved from the Herald Democrat describing moments of this event:

We as an order, have been called upon twice to submit to the severance of fraternal associations by the visitation of death to Brothers Samuel Jacobs and William Kellogg. By fraternal ties and obligations they opened their hearts to the inspection of their brothers, and disclosed the bright, sparkling gems of nobleness of character and benevolence of soul that well fitted them to belong to the Order of Elks. The brotherhood discovered the real good in their composition, that the world could only in a slight measure see. The memory of the good that was in them we cherish; their loss to our order and the community we deplore.

During the ceremonies, also, the roll call of the honored dead was called. As the names of Samuel Jacobs and William Kellogg were called, there was a profound silence for a moment, when the exalted ruler announced, in slow and solemn tones, “They are dead.” [178]

Maria did continue to visit friends and relatives in Leadville after Sam’s death. [179] In 1894, Maria was bound, gagged and robbed in Denver on November 8. She reportedly had large amount of cash on her person, but the offenders found little of it. [180] She did continue to return to Leadville for visits with friends. [181] Although a death date cannot be confirmed for Maria, both she and “Issie”, as Sam was known to his family, are interred in the Cohen family mausoleum at Waldheim Cemetery in Chicago. [182]

It is not clear when Maria died, the 1900 United States Census places her as an employee in the home of Nathaniel “Maxey” Tabor, but records become more scarce after this. There is brief mention of the couple in the Kusel family biography written in 1973, which notes that Maria and Sam are interred in the Cohen family mausoleum at Waldheim Cemetery in Chicago. [183]

Samuel Jacobs
Born: New York, 1862.
Died:

Mrs. Jacobs
Born:
Died:

Infant Jacobs
Stillborn: Leadville, April 14, 1893

Samuel Jacob’s “The Merchant Tailor” was born in New York in 1862. It is not known precisely when the family moved to Central City, Colorado, however they appear in the 1870 United States Census there, and the Jacob’s eldest daughter, Sarah, was born in New York in 1868. [184] From there the family moved to Denver some time prior to 1885 where Sam’s father, Isaac, worked as a gardener. [185] By 1885 the family had relocated again to Boulder, Colorado. [186] It is likely that Sam left the comforts of the family’s Boulder home in 1891 to pursue a career in the clothing business at the higher climbs of Leadville. [187] There he began working as a tailor for Kenneth Matheson’s firm at 605 Harrison Avenue and rented a room at 132 East 7th Street. [188]

Sam was married, but no information on Mrs. Jacobs can be found. Sam and his wife had a stillborn baby boy in Leadville on April 14, 1893, who was interred at the Leadville Hebrew Cemetery. [189] The Infant Jacobs is one of six children in the Leadville Hebrew Cemetery whose gravesite cannot be located.

Sam appears to have focused on developing his trade more than on social activities, although he did occasionally appear at social functions. He was on the roll of attendees for the Strawberries and Ice Cream Festival given by the Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Association on June 15, 1893. [190] At some point during that year Sam left the Matheson firm and partnered with Sam Ehrlich [191] in their own clothing enterprise. This partnership was short-lived; Ehrlich dissolved the partnership in December with plans to move his family to Salt Lake and start a new business there. In the weeks to follow, Ehrlich opened new accounts all over town, contracted clothing to be made for his children, and then departed Leadville for Utah without paying for any of his debt. [192] Subsequently Ehrlich was arrested in Ogden, Utah, and extradited to Leadville where he stood trial for his improprieties. [193]

In 1894, Sam opened his own clothing store his own store at 218 Harrison Avenue. [194] Sam was elected to the office of physician for the Woodman of the World Silver Camp Number 12, and accepted his position in a ceremony on January 6. [195] In 1895 Sam’s business was in full swing and he employed a staff of five tailors who also shared his home with him at 225 West 5th Street. [196]

On February 6, 1896, Sam closed the doors on his Leadville operations and moved about 100 miles south to Victor, Colorado [197] and appears to have eventually made his way back to Denver by 1905. [198] By all evidence, Sam was quite successful in Leadville, and his advertisements are frequently exhibited throughout the Temple Israel Museum’s literature and exhibition material today.

1896 advertisement for Sam Jacob’s clothing operation.

1896 advertisement for Sam Jacob’s clothing operation.
Courtesy of the Colorado Historic Newspaper Collection.

“Sam Jacob’s Grand Offer!”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 8, 1896. P7.

Marlon Jacobs
Born:
Died:

The only reference to Marlon Jacobs in Leadville is his appearance at the Purim Bal Masque on February 25, 1892, where he was dressed as a “Wandering Jew”. [199] This may be a whimsical tribute to Marlon’s lifestyle.

1 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch A. Jacobs, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0091; FHL microfilm 1,254,091.
2 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Denver for 1880”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Denver, CO; USA. 1880. P213.
3 For more information on the Shoenberg family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/shoenberg.html
4 TB Corbett, WC Hoye and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, Hoye and Co’s First Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1880”. Democrat Printing Company; Leadville, CO: USA. 1880. P328.
5 Year: 1880; Census Place: Leadville, Lake, Colorado; Roll: 91; Page: 314C; Enumeration District: 073 Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census[database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 U.S. Census Index provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints © Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved.
6 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Denver for 1881”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Denver, CO; USA. 1881. P293.
7 For more information on the Cohen family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/cohen.html
8 “Land Office Business”. Leadville CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. September 29, 1883. P8.
9 “A. Jacobs & Co.”. Leadville, Co. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. November 18, 1883. P4.
10 “Cause Of Diseases”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 21, 1889. P2.
11 For more information on Abson Goldsol, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/goldsoll.html
12 Year: 1880; Census Place: Leadville, Lake, Colorado; Roll: 91; Page: 313A; Enumeration District: 073 Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 U.S. Census Index provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.
13 For more information on Barnabas Harris and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/harris.html#barnabas
14 For more information on Daniel Cohn and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/cohn.html
15 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Denver for 1880”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Denver, CO; USA. 1880. P111.
16 “Police Court”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. March 22, 1881. P1.
17 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch J. Jacobs, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0091; FHL microfilm 1,254,091.
18 For more information on Joseph Shoenberg and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/shoenberg.html
19 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Denver for 1880”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Denver, CO; USA. 1880. P201.
20 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Second Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1881”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P169.
21 For more information on Louis Braham and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/braham.html
22 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1882”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P166.
23 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1883”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1883. P159.
24 For more information on Sol Levy and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/levy.html
25 “Mining Industry”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. April 28, 1883. P8.
26 For more information on David May and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/may.html
27 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1886. P150.
28 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1887”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887. P155.
29 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1888”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1888. P150.
30 Ancestry.com. Colorado, County Marriage Records and State Index, 1862-2006 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016.
31 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO; USA. 1889. P147.
32 “Went Through Him”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 6, 1889. P2.
33 “Threatening To Kill”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 22, 1889. P3.
34 For more information about Nathan and Minnie Miller and their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/miller.html
35 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO. USA. 1892. P192.
36 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO. USA. 1892. P151.
37 For more information on Nathan Miller and his family, please visit http://www.jewishleadville.org/miller.html
38 “Police Court Pickings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 2, 1892 P8.
39 Matt Hulstine. Miller. Leadville, CO. USA. Temple Israel Foundation. http://www.jewishleadville.org/miller.html
40 “Notice Of Dissolution Of Partnership”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 6, 1892. P7.
41 “Positive Facts”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 25, 1889. P5.
42 “The Fire Department”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. January 1, 1881. P4.
43 TB Corbett, WC Hoye and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, Hoye and Co’s First Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1880”. Democrat Printing Company; Leadville, CO: USA. 1880. P202.
44 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Second Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1881”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P169
45 “Death Of Sam Jacobs”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 25, 1893. P7.
46 “Shaws”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 19, 1883. P4.
47 “Social”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 25, 1880. P4.
48 “Another Incendiary Fire”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. April 8, 1881. P1.
49 “Personal Points”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Democrat. April 9, 1881. P8.
50 “Mining Transfers”. Leadville, Co. USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. May 28, 1881. P6.
51 “Affection’s Token”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 4, 1881. P4.
52 For more information on Hiram Brodie and the Goldstein & Brodie jewelry enterprise, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/brodie.html
53 “Selected Social Scraps”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 30, 1881. P4.
54 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1882”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P166.
55 “The Catholic Fair”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 4, 1882. P4.
56 “Tabor Hose Company”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. February 5, 1882. P1.
57 “Leadville, Laconics. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. April 7, 1882. P4.
58 “Leadville Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 7, 1882. P4
59 For more information on Reinhold Rosendorf, please visit http://www.jewishleadville.org/rosendorf.html
60 For more information on J.A. Kamak and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kamak.html
61 For more information on Reuben Weil, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/weil.html
62 For more information on Fred Butler and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/butler.html
63 For more information on Maurice Zippert, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/zippert.html
64 “Our Baseball Club”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 2, 1882. P1.
65 “Base Ball Meeting”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 3, 1883. P1.
66 “Coals Of Fire”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. July 18, 1882. P4.
67 “Among The Firemen”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. August 4, 1883. P5.
68 “Chips”. Leadville, Co. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. February 6, 1883. P3.
69 “Destructive Fire”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. September 15, 1883. P7.
70 “Lewis Lyon’s Reception”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. October 31, 1882. P4.
71 “Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 12, 1882. P4
72 “District Court”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. October 12, 1882. P4.
73 Don L Griswold, and Jean Harvey Griswold, History of Leadville And Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude To Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. P965-69.
74 Jeffrey Grant. “Rosendorf”. Leadville, CO. USA. Temple Israel Foundation. 2017. http://www.jewishleadville.org/rosendorf.html
75 Jeffrey Grant. “Zippert”. Leadville, CO. USA. Temple Israel Foundation. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/zippert.html
76 Griswold. Colorado Historical Society. 1996. P969.
77 “Indignation Meeting”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. May 21, 1882. P4.
78 “City Council”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. May 24, 1882. P1.
79 Griswold. Colorado Historical Society. 1996. P970.
80 “The Firemen’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 25, 1888. P3.
81 “A Love Feast”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. March 24, 1883. P2.
82 “A Large Fire”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 7, 1882. P4.
83 “Deadly Attack” Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 28, 1882. P4.
84 “Mince Meat”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. July 22, 1882. P4.
85 "1882 Chicago White Stockings Season." Wikipedia. August 28, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1882_Chicago_White_Stockings_season.
86 "Providence Grays." Wikipedia. August 29, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Providence_Grays.
87 “Local Laconics”. Leadville, Co. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. July 11, 1882. P4.
88 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1883”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1883. P159.
89 “Hebrew Ladies’ Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. January 20, 1883. P4.
90 “Conglomerate”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 24, 1883. P4.
91 “Purim”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. March 23, 1883. P4.
92 “Hearty Endorsement”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. March 29, 1883. P4.
93 “The Billiard Match”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 12, 1883. P5.
94 “The Raymond”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 2, 1883. P8.
95 “Land Office Business”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 9, 1883. P5.
96 “The Carrier Pigeons”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. May 10, 1883. P4.
97 “The Sixth Annual Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. October 9, 1884. P4.
98 “The Fireman’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 11, 1888. P3.
99 “Lottes Kreezdorn”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 2, 1883. P6.
100 “Selected Social Scraps”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville, Daily Herald. December 30, 1883. P4.
101 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1884”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1884. P145.
102 “Jacobs In Jeopardy”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. October 30, 1883. P2.
103 “Joyless Jacobs”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. September 5, 1884. P4.
104 “Tuesday’s Tickings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. January 12, 1884. P4
105 “Sam Jacobs”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 29, 1884. P1.
106 “Tuesday Night’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. March 15, 1884. P5.
107 “The Policeman’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. Marh 24, 1884. P7.
108 “The Hebrew Festival”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. June13, 1884. P4
109 “The P.O.S. of A. Doings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. July 6, 1884. P4.
110 “The Letter Carrier’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 17, 1884. P12.
111 “The Law’s Holiday”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. October 11, 1884. P6.
112 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1885”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1885. P145.
113 “The Hebrew Ladies”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 13, 1885. P2.
114 “Hebrew Hop”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. September 26, 1885. P4.
115 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1886. P150.
116 “Cupid’s Conquest”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 25, 1886. P3.
117 “Republican Primaries”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 20, 1886. P1.
118 “The Purim Bal Masque”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. March, 25, 1886. P4.
119 “Sanctioned By Silver”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 10, 1886. P4.
120 “Personal.” Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. December 21, 1886. P2.
121 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1887”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887. P155.
122 “For The Soldiers’ Graves”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. May 30, 1888. P7.
123 “Tabor Hose Meeting”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. May 23, 1887. P4.
124 “Fire Laddies Laid Out”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 4, 1887. P3.
125 “Pleasant Presentation”. Leadville,CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 8, 1887. P4.
126 “Designated Delegates”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 9, 1887. P4.
127 “Badge Presentation”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. June 6, 1887. P4.
128 “Positive Facts”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 31, 1887. P3.
129 “Celebration Of Simchos”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 11, 1887. P3.
130 “Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 1, 1887. P3
131 “The Aldermanic Meeting” Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 23, 1887. P4.
132 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1888”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1888. P150.
133 “Banquetting The Brides”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 4, 1888. P4.
134 “Mr. Jacob’s Joke”. Leadville, Colorado. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 26, 1888. P5.
135 “Firemen’s Tournament Talk”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 28, 1888. P3.
136 “A Significant Circumstance”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 3, 1888. P4.
137 “A Most Novel Wager”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 24, 1888. P4.
138 “On Roudebush”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 2, 1888. P3.
139 “Fourth Of July Celebration”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 5, 1888. P8.
140 Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. April 10, 1880. P2.
141 “The Indians Jubilant”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 12, 1888. P8.
142 “Building Going On”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 28, 1888. P5.
143 “Great Leadville Staple”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 13, 1888. P5.
144 Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 13, 1888. P5.
145 “Leadville Weekly Herald”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. April 10, 1880. P2.
146 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Tenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1889”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1889. P147.
147 “Fully Exonerated”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. July 15, 1889. P3.
148 Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 12, 1889. P3.
149 Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 12, 1889. P3.
150 “Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 12, 1889. P8.
151 For the sake of clarity, a “gentlemen’s club”, in Victorian era culture was a house for gambling, drinking and smoking, not the modern strip club we use the term for in modernity.
152 “Mining Matters”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 5, 1889. P2.
153 “Firemen’s Tournament”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 13, 1889. P4.
154 “An Important Meeting”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 13, 1889. P4.
155 “A Dead-Lock”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 19, 1889. P4.
156 “The Simchath Tora Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 19, 1889. P4.
157 “Merry Masqueraders”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 31, 1889. P7.
158 “His First Bear”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. October 21, 1889. P6.
159 “Positive Facts”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. November 11, 1889. P1.
160 “A New Manager”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 13, 1890. P5.
161 “The Rialto”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 11, 1890. P4.
162 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO; USA. 1890. P217.
163 “A Grand Free Turkey Lunch”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 6, 1890. P8.
164 “Dissolution Notice”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 16, 1890. P3.
165 “Hotels And Personals”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 13, 1890. P4.
166 “Dissolution Notice”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 16, 1890. P3.
167 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twelfth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1891. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1891. P148.
168 “Fire Ladies Night”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 3, 1891. P5.
169 “Mahnke-Scheer Nuptials”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 7, 1889. P5.
170 “Appointed Head Housekeeper”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 10, 1892. P7.
171 “In The Social World”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 19, 1892. P5.
172 "Denver CO Hotels | The Brown Palace Hotel & History." The Brown Palace Hotel and Spa. 2018. https://www.brownpalace.com/hotel/history
173 “Resolutions Of Condolence”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 16, 1893. P5
174 “Well Known Here”. Leadville, Colorado. USA. Herald Democrat. March 25, 1893. P1.
175 “A Narrow Escape”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 13, 1882. P4.
176 “Retrospection”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 1, 1883. P5.
177 Jeffrey Grant: Visited current Elks Lodge 236 in Leadville on August 30, 2018 and was permitted in their meeting room to examine exhibits.
178 “Was A Lodge Of Sorrow”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 5, 1893. P5
179 “About People You Know”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 30, 1893. P4.
180 “They Robbed A Woman”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 9, 1894. P2.
181 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 19, 1895. P6.
182 Maria’s internment in the Cohen mausoleum is noted in Cyril and Margret Kusel’s family biography written in 1973: Kusel Family History. Miami, FL. USA. January 19, 1973. Sam’s internment was confirmed by a Waldheim cemetery employee during a phone interview on September 28, 2018.
183 Cyril O. Kusel, and Margret A. Kusel. Kusel Family History. Miami, FL. USA. January 19, 1973. Pp 2-3.
184 Year: 1870; Census Place: Central City, Gilpin, Colorado Territory; Roll: M593_95; Page: 270A; Family History Library Film: 545594
185 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1890”. 2011. Brigham Young University Internet Archive. Provo, UT; USA. P642.
186 The National Archives at Washington, D.C.; Washington, D.C.; Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007; Record Group Number: 29; Series Number: M158; NARA Roll Number: 2
187 The National Archives at Washington, D.C.; Washington, D.C.; Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007; Record Group Number: 29; Series Number: M158; NARA Roll Number: 2
188 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Thirteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1890”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1892. P151.
189 James Nelson Funeral Book. Book No. 2. Page No. 47. Colorado Mountain History Collection at the Lake County Public Library. Leadville, CO. USA.
190 “Berries And Ice Cream”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 16, 1893. P2.
191 For more information on the Ehrlich family please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/ehrlich.html
192 “Samuel In Salt Lake”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 6, 1894. P5.
193 For more information on Samuel Ehrlich and his arrest, please see http://www.jewishleadville.org/ehrlich.html .
194 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Fifteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1894”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1894. P147.
195 “After Happy Holidays”. Leadville, Co. USA. Herald Democrat. January 7, 1894. P5.
196 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Sixteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1895”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1895. P154.
197 “Removed To Victor”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 1, 1896. P8.
198 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Thirty-Second Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Denver for 1905”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Denver, CO; USA. 1905. P637.
199 “Merry Masqueraders”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 26, 1880. P2.

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“Cupid’s Conquest”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 25, 1886.

“Deadly Attack” Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 28, 1882.

“Death Of Sam Jacobs”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 25, 1893.

"Denver CO Hotels | The Brown Palace Hotel & History." The Brown Palace Hotel and Spa. 2018. https://www.brownpalace.com/hotel/history.

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“Dissolution Notice”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 16, 1890.

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“Lewis Lyon’s Reception”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. October 31, 1882.

“Local Laconics”. Leadville, Co. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. July 11, 1882.

“Leadville Weekly Herald”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. April 10, 1880. P2.

“Lottes Kreezdorn”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 2, 1883.

“Mahnke-Scheer Nuptials”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 7, 1889.

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“Mince Meat”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. July 22, 1882.

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The National Archives at Washington, D.C.; Washington, D.C.; Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007; Record Group Number: 29; Series Number: M158; NARA Roll Number: 2

“Notice Of Dissolution Of Partnership”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 6, 1892.

“On Roudebush”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 2, 1888.

“Our Baseball Club”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 2, 1882.

“Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 12, 1882.

“Personal.” Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. December 21, 1886.

“Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 1, 1887.

“Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 12, 1889.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 19, 1895.

“Personal Points”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Democrat. April 9, 1881.

“Pleasant Presentation”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 8, 1887.

“Police Court”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. March 22, 1881.

“Police Court Pickings”. Leadvile, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 2, 1892

“Positive Facts”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 31, 1887.

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"Providence Grays." Wikipedia. August 29, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Providence_Grays.

“Purim”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. March 23, 1883.

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“Republican Primaries”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 20, 1886.

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“Sanctioned By Silver”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 10, 1886. P4

“Selected Social Scraps”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 30, 1881.

“Selected Social Scraps”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville, Daily Herald. December 30, 1883.

“Shaws”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 19, 1883.

“Social”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. December 25, 1880. P4.

“Tabor Hose Company”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. February 5, 1882.

“Tabor Hose Meeting”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. May 23, 1887.

“Tuesday Night’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. March 15, 1884.

“The Aldermanic Meeting” Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 23, 1887.

“The Billiard Match”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 12, 1883.

“The Carrier Pigeons”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. May 10, 1883.

“The Catholic Fair”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 4, 1882.

“The Fire Department”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. January 1, 1881.

“The Fireman’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 11, 1888.

“The Firemen’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 25, 1888.

“The Hebrew Festival”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. June13, 1884.

“The Hebrew Ladies”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 13, 1885.

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“The Letter Carrier’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 17, 1884.

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“The P.O.S. of A. Doings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. July 6, 1884.

“The Purim Bal Masque”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. March, 25, 1886.

“The Raymond”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 2, 1883.

“The Rialto”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 11, 1890.

“The Simchath Tora Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 19, 1889.

“The Sixth Annual Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Herald. October 9, 1884.

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"United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch A. Jacobs, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0091; FHL microfilm 1,254,091.

"United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch J. Jacobs, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0091; FHL microfilm 1,254,091.

“Was A Lodge Of Sorrow”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 5, 1893.

“Well Known Here”. Leadville, Colorado. USA. Herald Democrat. March 25, 1893.

“Went Through Him”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 6, 1889. P2.

Year: 1870; Census Place: Central City, Gilpin, Colorado Territory; Roll: M593_95; Page: 270A; Family History Library Film: 545594

Year: 1880; Census Place: Leadville, Lake, Colorado; Roll: 91; Page: 313A; Enumeration District: 073 Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 U.S. Census Index provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc.

Year: 1880; Census Place: Leadville, Lake, Colorado; Roll: 91; Page: 314C; Enumeration District: 073 Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census[database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 U.S. Census Index provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints © Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved.

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