Biography
Leavick
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Sigmund Leavick
Occupation: Jeweler, life insurance agent
Born: May 7, 1842
Birthplace: Russia
Died: July 17, 1907

Kate Bensadon Leavick
Occupation: N/A
Born: March 22, 1849
Birthplace: Louisiana, United States
Died: November 4, 1927

Henrietta Leavick
Occupation: N/A
Born: Est. 1875
Birthplace: Texas, United States
Died: N/A

Samuel Leavick
Occupation: Dry goods
Born: 1877
Birthplace: Texas, United States
Died: 1933

Joseph Leavick
Occupation: Undertaker
Born: 1880
Birthplace: Texas, United States
Died: N/A

Ada Leavick
Occupation: N/A
Born: Est. 1884
Birthplace: Colorado, United States
Died: N/A

Sigmund Leavick was a jeweler and insurance agent who resided in Colorado for much of the latter half of his life. He was born on May 7, 1842, [1] in Russia to unknown Russian parents. [2] Though his familial relations are unclear, it is likely that he and Felix Leavick, who both resided in Leadville at the same time, were in some way related either as brothers or cousins. The circumstances of Sigmund’s arrival in the United States are not known either; however, prior to his arrival in Leadville, Sigmund lived in Galveston, Texas, where he owned a jewelry and watchmaking business. [3] While in Texas, Sigmund married Kate Bensadon, born in Louisiana on March 22, 1849. [4] The couple had three children: Henrietta, born 1875; Samuel, born 1877; and Joseph, born 1880, all in the Lone Star State. [5]

Sigmund, Kate, and their children arrived in Leadville in 1880 where Sigmund opened a jewelry and watchmaking business at 103 Chestnut Street. [6] By 1881, Sigmund had given up the jewelry business and shifted his profession to travel agent, albeit briefly. [7] Though no member of the household was especially involved in local social events, Sigmund did concern himself with local politics. By March 1881, he had become a delegate for the third ward alderman vote. [8] Later that year he earned a seat at Leadville’s Republican Convention. [9]

Sigmund and his family did not remain in Leadville for long. By September 1881, he had mail arriving for him in Fairplay at the same time as Felix Leavick was assisting and investing in various mining endeavors throughout Park County. [10] By 1882, the Denver city directory recorded Sigmund working as an agent for Equitable Life Assurance Society in that city. [11] His eldest son, Samuel, began working as early as 1891 as a clerk for H. L. Kohn. [12] Following the trend of being in the same places at the same time, Felix was also recorded in the 1882 Denver city directory and would maintain a permanent but separate residence from Sigmund’s family for many years. [13]

Sigmund and Kate welcomed their fourth and final child, Ada, in 1884 while living in Denver. [14] She would marry sometime prior to 1907 to an individual with the family name Light. [15] Of Sigmund and Kate’s remaining children, little is known of their lives in Colorado. On May 14, 1891, Henrietta married David A. Simon at Castle Rock, Colorado, the ceremony officiated by Justice Philip Crawshaw of that city. [16] Her whereabouts after their marriage are not known. Joseph would eventually settle in Kansas City, where he remained until at least 1922 working as an undertaker. [17] Samuel made his way to Ohio where he married Daisy Douglas [18] and worked as a district manager for Periodical Publishing. [19] He passed away in 1933 and is buried at Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati. [20]

Sigmund passed away on July 17, 1907 at the age of 65, his obituary describing him as “a pioneer of Colorado” and “one of the oldest real estate and insurance men of Denver.” [21] Kate died nearly 20 years later on November 4, 1927. [22] Both are buried at Congregation Emanuel Cemetery in Denver.

Felix F. Leavick
Occupation: Mining investor, manager, engineer, surveyor, and assayer
Born: December 1845
Birthplace: Poland/Russia
Died: March 28, 1916

Though the relation between Felix Leavick and Sigmund Leavick is not entirely certain, it is likely they were related either as brothers or at least cousins. Their family name, Leavick, is rare and they being present in the same locations at the same times in Colorado is difficult to waive as a coincidence. Despite the uncertainty of his familial relationships, a great deal of information is available on his time in Colorado, albeit mostly regarding his professional life. Over the course of roughly 34 years, Felix became a respected mining investor, owner, engineer, surveyor, and assayer throughout the western United States, though his intense work ethic and limited social life resulted in a somewhat unassuming and relatively unknown figure in mining history.

Felix Leavick was born in either Poland or Russia in December 1845. [23] The variation in birthplace is based on his response to census enumerators [24] and his obituary [25] and displays the complexity of the changing borders and nationalities in eastern Europe during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Like Sigmund, the names of Felix’s parents are not known. It is also not known when or where he first arrived in the United States. The first indication of his presence in the country is a record of his discharge from the 9th Infantry Regiment in North Platte, Nebraska on June 17, 1870. [26] At the time, the regiment was in part guarding the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad line through the state.

Some years after his discharge from the military in Nebraska, Felix made his way to the Black Hills of South Dakota where he met Thomas F. Walsh [27] whom he partnered with in mining endeavors there. [28] He and Walsh first arrived in Leadville in 1878 [29] where the pair joined with J. Daly to purchase the City Hotel on East Chestnut Street [30] which they expanded and renamed as the Grand Hotel. [31] But by 1880, neither Felix Leavick, Thomas Walsh, nor J. Daly were proprietors of the hotel, the positions passing on to James Streeter and Howard C. Chapin. [32] Instead, Felix [33] and Walsh [34] had started their careers in mine investment [35] in Leadville and the surrounding area with their first noted prospect being the New York Lode on the Mosquito Range in 1881. [36]

Photograph of the Grand Hotel on Chestnut Street purchased by Leavick, Walsh, and Daly. Originally named the City Hotel, the trio renamed it and added more rooms.

Photograph of the Grand Hotel on Chestnut Street purchased by Leavick, Walsh, and Daly. Originally named the City Hotel, the trio renamed it and added more rooms.

Courtesy of Denver Public Library Digital Collections.

Chestnut St. and Carbonate Hill, Leadville, Colo., 1879-1880, photographic print on card mount, 12 cm x 18 cm, Denver Public Library Digital Collections, Denver Public Library, Denver, accessed April 20, 2021, https://digital.denverlibrary.org/digital/collection/p15330coll21/id/10443.

Midway through 1881, Felix relocated to Park County where he remained until 1882, assisting in the erection of various mining structures, including a new mill (possibly Lunt Mill) [37] at London Junction near Alma. [38] By September 1881, he, along with Walsh and many others, paid $78,000 for the K. P. and U. P. mines on Mosquito. [39] Felix became superintendent of the K. P. a month later, though his direct involvement with the mines appears to have ended soon after. [40] Like Sigmund, Felix relocated to Denver in 1882 where he maintained a permanent residence for over 30 years. [41] Unlike Sigmund, however, Felix retained an interest in Park County and would return a decade later to pursue further enterprises.

Prior to permanently moving to Denver, Felix met Jennie Franklin, daughter of Fannie and Phillip Franklin who were members of Congregation Emanuel in the city. [42] Felix and Jennie married on February 27, 1881, the ceremony officiated by G. L. Sopris, JP. [43] By December 1881 the couple had their first child, a daughter named Leah. [44] Two sons soon followed: Leon in February 1883 [45] and Silas in December 1884. [46] Their final child, Philip, was born well after the others, in August 1893. [47] Felix becoming a husband and father likely played a large part in his reason for temporarily leaving Park County and settling in the Denver area.

Felix did not attend many social functions while in Colorado, or at least none that local newspapers reported on. He may have simply been uninterested in socializing, as evidenced by an article in Telluride’s The Daily Journal which provides a rare glimpse into his personality, describing him as “extremely quiet and conservative.” [48] His only mention in Jewish newspapers, for example, is simply a blurb in the American Israelite reporting that he had moved into a new residence in Denver in 1895. [49] Jennie and the children, on the other hand, appear as attendees or guests at numerous Jewish events or as members of Jewish organizations, typically reported through local or national Jewish periodicals. For example, Jennie became a treasurer for the Council of Jewish Women on May 1, 1901. [50] Leon received his Confirmation during Shavuot services in 1898 [51] and Silas sang at a temple social in 1907, [52] both of which took place at Temple Emanuel in Denver. The Jewish Outlook, Denver’s Jewish newspaper, frequently reported on Leah’s social life such as a small party she hosted [53] and of her being the target of a practical joke on April Fool’s Day in 1907. [54] Despite being more socially active than Felix, Jennie and the children were still rarely mentioned in local non-Jewish newspapers, resulting in an unfortunate lack of information regarding their lives.

After settling down in Denver and finding his bearings with his new family, Felix became involved in numerous mining ventures throughout the state. Muriel Sibell Wolle, an artist and university professor known for her artwork depicting mines and mining towns in the western United States, interviewed a miner in Fairplay knowledgeable about the history of the surrounding mines who described Felix as having “prospected in almost every mining district in the state.” [55] Based on the available primary sources on Felix’s activities throughout the state, the miner’s assertion could very well be accurate.

By 1887, Felix had become an important agent of the Immortal Mining Company based out of St. Louis, Missouri. [56] His primary role was superintendent at the Immortal mine in Custer County, Colorado. [57] His work at the Immortal resulted in one of the few small controversies in his career resulting from a case of “backcapping” [58] at the mine. [59] The full details are, unfortunately, not clear, but the Immortal Mining Company requested his presence in St. Louis for questioning in connection to the events. The company quickly exonerated Felix of any wrongdoing, however, and affirmed that he “has been entirely satisfactory.” [60] An update on the controversy published in the Silver Cliff Rustler clarified that the trouble caused at the mine was the result of a “few dastardly backcappers who still cumber this part of the moral vineyard with their presence.” [61] With his exoneration, Felix remained in the employ of the company at least until February 1888. [62]

Felix’s most notable mining investment in Colorado was the Hill Top (alternatively spelled Hilltop) and Last Chance mines located on Mounts Sherman and Sheridan, respectively, west of Fairplay and below the ridge separating Park from Lake County. The mines had been in operation since the 1880s mining silver, but Felix helped revitalize the pair after he invested in them in 1892, one year prior to the silver crash resulting from the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act under President Grover Cleveland. The Hill Top mine in particular did produce silver even after the crash; however, lead and zinc were equally important products [63] which managed to keep the mine operational off-and-on as late as 1930. [64]

Felix held a variety of positions and responsibilities at the Hill Top mine. By early 1897, The Fairplay Flume described him as the general manager of the Hill Top mines [sic]; [65] by May of the same year, the newspaper referred to him as “President Leavick of the Hill Top Mining and Milling Company” [66] and in December, curiously, as vice-president. [67] By October 1897, Felix began to oversee the construction of a new 100-ton concentration mill, presumably at or near the mining camp located in Horseshoe Gulch, an estimated 13,000 feet from the Hill Top mine. [68] The mill (possibly named the Chance mill but typically referred to as the Leavick mill) primarily served Hill Top utilizing two tramways to transport the ore, but also served other mines in the area including the Last Chance.

Remains of the mill near Leavick which serviced the Hill Top and Last Chance mines. Photograph taken between 1940 and 1950.

Remains of the mill near Leavick which serviced the Hill Top and Last Chance mines. Photograph taken between 1940 and 1950.

Courtesy of Denver Public Library Digital Collections.

Leavick, 1940-1950, photoprint, 21 cm x 26 cm, Denver Public Library Digital Collections, Denver Public Library, Denver, accessed April 15, 2021, https://digital.denverlibrary.org/digital/collection/p15330coll22/id/9853/rec/26.

Remnants of one of the Hill Top tramways which transported ore to the mill located at or near the town of Leavick.

Remnants of one of the Hill Top tramways which transported ore to the mill located at or near the town of Leavick.

Courtesy of the National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum.

Alternate view of a tramway which transported ore between the Hill Top mine and the mill near Leavick. Photograph possibly taken in the 1930s.

Alternate view of a tramway which transported ore between the Hill Top mine and the mill near Leavick. Photograph possibly taken in the 1930s.

Courtesy of the National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum.

The nearby mining camp located in Horseshoe Gulch, interchangeably referred to as the Chance Camp, Last Chance Camp, Horseshoe Mining Camp, or simply Horseshoe, was renamed to Leavick in late 1896 in honor of Felix. [69] With the revitalization of the mines and construction of a post office in Leavick within that same time span, the camp became a town and boasted a sizeable population, enough to warrant numerous amenities and services. [70] The town had a school house, [71] a general store, [72] and at least three boarding houses and one hotel by 1903. [73] It also reportedly had a dentist, a seasonal barber, and a baseball team. [74] Leavick and its mill would become the nexus for the nearby mines, as well as the terminus of the Fairplay, South Park & Hill Top Railroad which transported the processed ore out of Horseshoe Gulch. [75]

Photograph taken in front of Leavick’s schoolhouse. From left to right, standing: Lucille Rudd, Alice McLaughlin (teacher), Williams children and seated Rossman’s children.

Photograph taken in front of Leavick’s schoolhouse. From left to right, standing: Lucille Rudd, Alice McLaughlin (teacher), Williams children and seated Rossman’s children.

Courtesy of South Park Historical Foundation.

School, ca. 1899, photograph, Leavick, South Park Historical Foundation, South Park, accessed April 20, 2021, https://parkcoarchives.org/photos/photos3/photos_leavick.html.

Photograph showing structures at Leavick, possibly taken between 1890 and 1900. If accurate, the town was inhabited and the nearby mines still active.

Photograph showing structures at Leavick, possibly taken between 1890 and 1900. If accurate, the town was inhabited and the nearby mines still active.

Courtesy of Denver Public Library Digital Collections.

Leavick, looking northwest to Mount Sheridan, 1890-1900, copy photonegative, 10 cm x 13 cm, Denver Public Library Digital Collections, Denver Public Library, Denver, accessed April 15, 2021, https://digital.denverlibrary.org/digital/collection/p15330coll22/id/9854/rec/20.

Muriel Sibell Wolle and her dog Chipper overlooking the remnants of the town of Leavick. Date unknown.

Muriel Sibell Wolle and her dog Chipper overlooking the remnants of the town of Leavick. Date unknown.

Courtesy of Denver Public Library Digital Collections.

M. S. W. and her dog, Chipper, @ Leavick, n.d., photoprint, 6 cm x 8 cm, Denver Public Library Digital Collections, Denver Public Library, Denver, accessed April 15, 2021, https://digital.denverlibrary.org/digital/collection/p15330coll22/id/86155.

Header for an article about the Horseshoe mining camp, later known as the town of Leavick.

Header for an article about the Horseshoe mining camp, later known as the town of Leavick.

Courtesy of Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection.

Horseshoe. Fairplay Flume (Fairplay, Park County, Colorado). Friday, December 10, 1897. Page 2.

Felix’s mining investments were not limited to Park County or even to Colorado, however. By 1888 he had become proprietor of the Cavern mine [76] and manager of the nearby Mansfield mill in Clear Creek County; [77] by 1901 he had mining interests in Summit County at the Jumbo, Corporal, and Extension groups; [78] and by 1909 he had major interests in the Favorite group in San Miguel County, near Ophir. [79] His interests outside of Colorado included mines throughout the western United States, including in Arizona, [80] New Mexico, [81] and Texas, [82] though an article found in a Telluride newspaper, The Daily Journal, grandiosely indicated that he “engaged in mining in all the Rocky Mountain states.” [83] Notably, Felix was temporarily the owner of the Huachuca mine in Cochise County, Arizona, in close proximity to Tombstone. [84]

Felix had an expansive skillset beyond mine management and investment, though management and investment were his primary professional responsibilities. Additionally he was also a renowned surveyor and assayer who had keen senses for valuable mining plots which had been abandoned or overlooked after disappointing results. An article in the Silverton Standard displayed this with a tinge of sensationalism regarding the Favorite mines and his interest in them:

During the summer of 1909 Felix Leavick of Denver, while looking over the Ophir field with a view of investing for himself and associates decided to examine the Favorite group. The lead streak was plainly evident, but the appearance of the immense quartz vein on the hanging wall attracted his attention and being an expert with the pan he decided to make some pan tests. The result showed free gold from every test. He at once concluded that another mine had been overlooked from laxity in assaying and testing. He lost no time in securing a working option on a liberal basis from the owners and at once began taking out ore, which is being treated at the old Suffolk mill, to which it is conveyed by a new 300 foot aerial tram, recently constructed, and it pays a neat profit. [85]

The article went on to claim that the mill treated between 30 to 60 tons of ore per day, each ton producing $90 of gold, and concluded by stating that “It begins to look as if Ophir had found Camp Bird No. 2.” [86] Unfortunately for Felix, the mine never reached such lofty expectations.

Felix continued to work in the mining industry throughout his remaining time in Colorado, but by 1909 he began to pass the reins to his eldest son, Leon, who took charge of the assay office at the Favorite group of mines. [87] Three years later, the family’s residency in the state came to an end. Felix, Jennie, Leah, Silas, Philip, and Leon (despite his involvement with the Favorite mines) moved to San Francisco by 1912 where they remained for the rest of their lives. Felix seemingly went into retirement after the move and his children began to pursue their own careers outside of the mining industry.

Felix [88] and Jennie [89] both passed away in 1916 and are buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, a multi-denominational cemetery in Colma, California. Leon and Silas died in 1947 and 1962, respectively, and are buried alongside their parents at Cypress Lawn. [90] Philip died in 1975 and is buried at the veterans’ section of Olivet Memorial Park after a service held at Sinai Memorial Chapel in San Francisco. [91] Leah, who married Carl James Humphreys, also died in San Francisco in 1975. [92] She is presumably buried at Cypress Lawn alongside her husband. [93]

1 Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/10590635/sigmund-leavick#source: accessed April 2, 2021), memorial page for Sigmund Leavick (May 7, 1842–July 17, 1907), Find a Grave Memorial no. 10590635, citing Congregation Emanuel Cemetery, Denver, Denver County, Colorado, USA, maintained by Digginrellies (contributor 46522347).
2 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MFDJ-8PM: April 2, 2021), Sigmund Leaveck, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78, sheet 375B, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), FHL microfilm 1,254,091.
3 Galveston News (Galveston, TX: The Galveston Daily News), November 7, 1874, P3.
4 Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/10590640/kate-leavick#source: accessed April 2, 2021), memorial page for Kate Bensadon Leavick (March 22, 1849–November 4, 1927), Find a Grave Memorial no. 10590640, citing Congregation Emanuel Cemetery, Denver, Denver County, Colorado, USA, maintained by Digginrellies (contributor 46522347).
5 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MFDJ-8PM: accessed April 2, 2021), Sigmund Leaveck, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78, sheet 375B, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), FHL microfilm 1,254,091.
6 T. B. Corbett, W. C. Hoye and J. H. Ballenger, Corbett, Hoye & Co.’s First Annual City Directory of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville, for 1880 (Leadville, CO: Democrat Printing Company, 1880), P226.
7 T. B. Corbett and J. H. Ballenger, Corbett & Ballenger’s Second Annual Leadville City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville, for 1881 (Leadville, CO: Corbett & Ballenger Publishers, 1881), P187.
8 The Primaries (Leadville, CO: Leadville Democrat), March 26, 1881, P8.
9 Dougan and Schloss (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald), March 27, 1881, P4.
10 Advertised Letter List (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), September 8, 1881, P3.
11 T. B. Corbett and J. H. Ballenger, Corbett & Ballenger’s Tenth Annual Denver City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Denver for 1882 (Denver, CO: Corbett and Ballenger Publishers, 1882), P355.
12 J. H. Ballenger and W. H. Richards, Ballenger & Richards’ Nineteenth Annual Denver City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Denver for 1891 (Denver, CO: Ballenger & Richards Publishers, 1891), P855.
13 Corbett and Ballenger, Corbett & Ballenger’s Tenth Annual Denver City Directory, 1882, P355.
14 "Colorado State Census, 1885," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K8WD-2T3: accessed April 2, 2021), Ada Leanck in entry for Sigmund Leanck, 1885; citing NARA microfilm publication M158 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), FHL microfilm 498,503.
15 Obituary (Denver, CO: The Jewish Outlook), July 26, 1907, P9.
16 Married (Castle Rock, CO: The Castle Rock Journal), May 20, 1891, P4.
17 Local News (Denver, CO: Denver Jewish News), September 20, 1922, P6.
18 Ohio, U.S., County Marriage Records, 1774-1993, database with images, Ancestry (https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=61378&h=39678&tid=&pid=&queryId=fbfc518d5cc9f505fb9d813c4da3b382&usePUB=true&_phsrc=RNi694&_phstart=successSource: accessed April 3, 2021), marriage between Samuel Leavick and Daisy Douglas, Hamilton, Ohio, United States; citing Marriage Records, Ohio Marriages (Ohio: Various Ohio County Courthouses, n.d.), film number 000384149, P336.
19 Williams’ Cincinnati Directory Embracing A Full Alphabetical Record of the Names of the Inhabitants of the City, Including Avondale, Bond Hill, California, Carthage, Clifton, College Hill, Delhi, Evanston, Fern Bank, Hartwell, Hyde Park, Kennedy Heights, Linwood, Madisonville, Mt. Airy, Mt. Washington, Oakley, Pleasant Ridge, Riverside, Sayler Park, Westwood and Winston Place. Also a Classified Business Directory and a Directory of Householders (Cincinnati, OH: The Williams Directory Company, 1932), P990.
20 Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/78981227/samuel-leavick#source: accessed April 2, 2021), memorial page for Samuel Leavick (1877–1933), Find a Grave Memorial no. 78981227; citing Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA, maintained by Find a Grave (contributor 8).
21 Obituary (Denver, CO: The Jewish Outlook), July 26, 1907, P9.
22 Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/10590640/kate-leavick#source: accessed April 2, 2021), memorial page for Kate Bensadon Leavick (March 22, 1849–November 4, 1927), Find a Grave Memorial no. 10590640; citing Congregation Emanuel Cemetery, Denver, Denver County, Colorado, USA, maintained by Digginrellies (contributor 46522347).
23 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM9-7H8: accessed April 15, 2021), Felix F Leavick, Precincts 6 & 11 Denver city Ward 10, Arapahoe, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 83, sheet 12A, family 224, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972), FHL microfilm 1,240,119.
24 "United States Census, 1900," Felix F Leavick.
25 Funeral Notices (San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Call), March 29, 1916, P14.
26 U.S., Returns from Regular Army Infantry Regiments, 1821-1916, database with images, Ancestry (https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=2229&h=14435106&tid=&pid=&queryId=dcd7fbcc91a6c71bd5e1db8785b01d28&usePUB=true&_phsrc=RNi721&_phstart=successSource: accessed April 15, 2021), Felix Leavick, 9th Infantry; Returns from Regular Army Infantry Regiments, June 1821-December 1916 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), microfilm serial: M665, roll: 104.
27 Thomas F. Walsh was an Irish immigrant and Colorado mining investor who became fabulously wealthy after discovering the Camp Bird Gold Mine near Ouray, Colorado. Due to his success, Walsh would rub elbows with two US Presidents, including William McKinley, and the infamous King Leopold II of Belgium.
28 Favorite Mining Company Contemplates Development (Telluride, CO: The Telluride Journal), October 28, 1909, P1.
29 Favorite Mining Company Contemplates Development, October 28, 1909, P1.
30 W. M. Clark, W. A. Root and H. C. Anderson, Clark, Root & Co.’s First Annual City Directory of Leadville and Business Directory of Carbonateville, Kokomo and Malta for 1879 (Denver, CO: Daily Times Steam Printing House and Book Manufactory, 1879), P46, 95, 157.
31 Evalyn Walsh Mclean, Father Struck it Rich (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1936), P18.
32 T. B. Corbett, W. C. Hoye and J. H. Ballenger, Corbett, Hoye & Co.’s First Annual City Directory of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville, for 1880 (Leadville, CO: Democrat Printing Company, 1880), P345.
33 The New York Lode (Leadville, CO: Leadville Democrat), January 12, 1881, P6.
34 Fairplay Flume (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), May 5, 1881, P3.
35 Corbett, Hoye, and Ballenger, 1880, P226, 367.
36 Fairplay Flume, May 5, 1881, P3.
37 Successful Concentrators (Aspen, CO: The Rocky Mountain Sun), November 18, 1882, P3.
38 The Mines (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald), November 10, 1882, P3.
39 Mining and Milling (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), September 8, 1881, P3.
40 Mining and Milling (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), October 20, 1881, P3.
41 T. B. Corbett and J. H. Ballenger, Corbett & Ballenger’s Tenth Annual Denver City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Denver for 1882 (Denver, CO: Corbett and Ballenger Publishers, 1882), P355.
42 Find a Grave, database with images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/10590747/fannie-franklin: accessed April 15, 2021), memorial page for Fannie Franklin (unknown – October 11, 1912), Find a Grave Memorial no. 10590747; citing Congregation Emanuel Cemetery, Denver, Denver County, Colorado, USA, maintained by Digginrellies (contributor 46522347).
43 Colorado, County Marriage Records and State Index, 1862-2006, database with images, Ancestry (https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=61366&h=229891&tid=&pid=&queryId=b1fe433dcefb1b1610efaf6f85e2d6ed&usePUB=true&_phsrc=RNi711&_phstart=successSource: accessed April 14, 2021), marriage between Felix Leavick and Jennie Franklin, Denver, Colorado, United States; citing Marriage Records, Colorado Marriages (Denver: State Archives, n.d.), film number 001690099.
44 "United States Census, 1900," Leah Leavick in household of Felix F Leavick.
45 "United States Census, 1900," Leon Leavick in household of Felix F Leavick.
46 "United States Census, 1900," Silas Leavick in household of Felix F Leavick.
47 "United States Census, 1900," Philip Leavick in household of Felix F Leavick.
48 Favorite Mining Company Contemplates Development (Telluride, CO: The Daily Journal), October 27, 1909, P4.
49 Notes, Etc. (Cincinnati, OH: The American Israelite), October 17, 1895, P5.
50 Council of Jewish Women (Cincinnati, OH: The American Israelite), May 16, 1901, P3.
51 Denver, Colo. (Cincinnati, OH: The American Israelite), June 9, 1898, P3.
52 The Temple social Sunday evening… (Denver, CO: The Jewish Outlook), October 4, 1907, P9.
53 Local Items (Denver, CO: The Jewish Outlook), December 27, 1907, P7.
54 Local Items (Denver, CO: The Jewish Outlook), April 12, 1907, P8.
55 Muriel Sibell Wolle, Stampede to Timberline: The Ghost Towns and Mining Camps of Colorado (Denver: Sage Books, 1949), P98.
56 Mr. Leavick Exonerated. Silver Cliff, CO: Silver Cliff Rustler. November 17, 1887.
57 Drill Taps (Silver Cliff, CO: Silver Cliff Rustler), February 16, 1888, P1.
58 The term “back-capping” is never defined. It likely meant someone who maligns others, either publicly or quietly.
59 Drill Taps (Silver Cliff, CO: Silver Cliff Rustler), November 10, 1887, P1.
60 Mr. Leavick Exonerated, November 17, 1887, P1.
61 Drill Taps, November 10, 1887, P1.
62 Drill Taps, February 16, 1888, P1.
63 “Hilltop Mine,” United States Geological Survey, accessed April 14, 2021, https://mrdata.usgs.gov/mrds/show-mrds.php?dep_id=10016202.
64 Wolle, Stampede to Timberline, P98.
65 County News (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), February 26, 1897, P2.
66 Local Clean-Ups (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), May 14, 1897, P3.
67 Horseshoe: The Best Camp in the State for the Capitalist and Poor Man (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), December 10, 1897, P2.
68 The Great Horseshoe Mining Camp (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), October 1, 1897, P2.
69 Horseshoe. Fairplay Flume (Fairplay, Park County, Colorado). Friday, December 10, 1897. Page 2.
70 The 1900 US Census does not list Leavick and none of the residents of the town were recorded, even simply as Park County or Colorado residents. It is possible that census enumerators simply missed the town. So far there have been no reputable sources which provide an accurate population number.
71 Personal and Local (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), July 23, 1897, P3.
72 Local and Personal (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), January 18, 1898, P3.
73 Leavick (Fairplay, CO: The Fairplay Flume), April 3, 1903, P3.
74 Wolle, Stampede to Timberline, P98.
75 Horseshoe. Fairplay Flume (Fairplay, Park County, Colorado). Friday, December 10, 1897. Page 2.
76 The Colorado Miner (Georgetown, CO: The Colorado Miner), May 12, 1888, P3.
77 Mining (Idaho Springs, CO: The Idaho Springs News), May 18, 1888, P4.
78 Mines and Mining (Breckenridge, CO: The Summit County Journal), August 31, 1901, P1.
79 Mining Mention (Telluride, CO: The San Miguel Examiner), August 28, 1909, P1.
80 Felix Leavick (Tombstone, AZ: Tombstone Prospector), October 3, 1899, P1.
81 Rosita News (Silver Cliff, CO: Silver Cliff Rustler), January 9, 1890, P1.
82 Mining (El Paso, TX: El Paso Daily Herald), February 9, 1897, P3.
83 Favorite Mining Company Contemplates Development, October 27, 1909, P4.
84 Felix Leavick, October 3, 1899, P1.
85 Interesting Mining News from the Ophir District (Silverton, CO: Silverton Standard), May 7, 1910, P1.
86 Camp Bird No. 2 refers to the incredible success of the Camp Bird Gold Mine near Ouray, found by Thomas F. Walsh who was Felix’s early business partner in the Black Hills of South Dakota and in Leadville.
87 Mining Science Says (Telluride, CO: The San Miguel Examiner), November 20, 1909, P9.
88 Find a Grave, database with images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/54294703/felix-leavick: accessed April 15, 2021), memorial page for Felix Leavick (December 1845 - March 28, 1916), Find a Grave Memorial no. 54294703; citing Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, San Mateo County, California, USA, maintained by Larry White (contributor 46875221).
89 Find a Grave, database with images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/54294684/jennie-leavick: accessed April 15, 2021), memorial page for Jennie Leavick (June 1863 - 1916), Find a Grave Memorial no. 54294684; citing Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, San Mateo County, California, USA, maintained by Larry White (contributor 46875221).
90 Find a Grave, database with images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/54294728/silas-leavick: accessed April 15, 2021), memorial page for Silas Leavick (December 1884 - 1962), Find a Grave Memorial no. 54294728; citing Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, San Mateo County, California, USA, maintained by Larry White (contributor 46875221).
91 Funerals (San Francisco, CA: The San Francisco Examiner), March 15, 1975, P14.
92 California, U.S., Death Index, 1940-1997, database with images, Ancestry (https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=5180&h=3513491&tid=&pid=&queryId=8358dc42ee281dec005ae359b38d3883&usePUB=true&_phsrc=RNi714&_phstart=successSource: accessed April 14, 2021), Leah Humphrey death index, San Francisco, California, United States; citing California Death Index, 1940-1997 (Sacramento: State of California Department of Health Services, n.d.).
93 Find a Grave, database with images (https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/87841321/carl-james-humphreys: accessed April 14, 2021), memorial page for Carl James Humphreys (February 4, 1880 – July 18, 1948), Find a Grave Memorial no. 87841321; citing Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, San Mateo County, California, USA, maintained by Graves (contributor 47171280).

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To cite any of the information in this biography, please use the following reference.

AUTHOR: Quinn Whittington
EDITOR: William Korn
SOURCE: Jewish Surnames/Leavick
PUBLISHED BY: Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO; USA. 2021
STABLE URL: http://www.jewishleadville.org/leavick.html

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