Biography
Leon
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Solomon Leon (Father of Julius, Hattie, Clara, Stella, and Corolone)
Born: Germany, 1834
Died: Denver, April 8, 1906.

Ella Leon (Wife of Sol)
Born:
Died:

Julius Leon
Born: Germany, 1850
Died:
U.S. Immigration: 1866

Nellie Leon (Wife of Julius)
Born: Michigan, 1862
Died:

Clara Leon
Born:
Died:

Stella Leon
Born:
Died:

Hattie Leon (Mrs. Joseph Heimberger)
Born:
Died:

Corolone Leon (Mrs. Henry Simon)
Born:
Died:

The trigenerational Leon family consisted primarily of Julius, Hattie and Cora Leon in Leadville augmented by the presence of his parents, Solomon and Ella. [1] The Leon’s, though very active in Leadville, split their time between Leadville, Denver, Salt Lake City, and their hometown of Louisville, Kentucky. Julius was a member of the Elks and owned popular candy stores and ice cream parlors in those cities. Daughters Hattie and Cora married prominent Jewish Leadville businessmen. Hattie began her time in Colorado working for the Golden Eagle clothing store chain, founded by Leopold Guldman, [2] in both their Leadville and Denver stores. [3] Julius was a member of the Elks. [4] These seem to be the three people in the family most often recorded in Leadville, although there is reason to believe that Solomon and Ella had as many as ten children, Clara and Stella (sisters to Julius) are the only other children known to have spent a significant amount of time there. Cora was apparently popular as a young miss; a patent application for a local mining claim known as the Cora Leon was filed by Patrick Walsh on September 2, 1886. [5]

Cora lived in Leadville for a brief time before a notice that Sigmund Simon, [6] a Leadville restaurateur, had left Leadville for Cora’s hometown of Louisville, Kentucky [7] with marital intentions for Cora appeared in the August 7, 1887 edition of the Herald Democrat. Another, more specific notice appeared in the August 23 edition:

“Louisville, Aug. 23”
“Colonel Joe Monheimer” “I am to be married to-night, otherwise I would be to the front. I arranged with Louie Janowitz for substitute services. Please nail him.” “Sig. Simon” [8]

It is unclear exactly where Cora married Sigmund Simon. From the timeline it was not likely that it was in Cora’s hometown of Louisville, Kentucky, as presumed by newspaper reports. The newly identified Mr. and Mrs. Sig Simon returned to Leadville on August 24. [9] Friends of the newlyweds hosted a reception commemorating their nuptials upon their return to Leadville on August 24. [10]

By 1888, it is likely that Hattie was spending more time in Leadville than in Denver. Evidence shows that she lived with the Schloss family at 218 West 5th Street while in Leadville. [11] After Cora married Sig Simon in 1887, Hattie took up residence with them. [12] Hattie was very active on the Leadville social scene and often appeared and parties and dances. On March 19, Hattie attended a party held by Jacob and Henrietta Schloss in their home at 218 West 5th Street. [13]

On April 15, 1889, Cora threw a lavish birthday party for Hattie at her home that included a five-course meal, awards for game winners, and a basket of flowers for all the ladies present. Many notable Jewish Leadvillians were present, most notably, Jacob O. Heimberger, Hattie’s future husband. [14] The couple was present at a more intimate setting; a luncheon given by Fanny Cohn with a small list of guests on May 13. [15] Jake and Hattie attended a reception at the Arkush [16] home on August 22. [17] Jake and Hattie were also both present at the Simchath Toras Ball on October 18. [18]

In 1890, Hattie was still known to be maintaining her Denver residence, but may have been spending more time in Leadville. She attended the Alpha Club dance at Leadville’s City Hall on July 24. [19] Hattie was close with Tillie Kahn [20] and often stayed with her family while in Leadville during this period. [21] On October 13, Hattie left her position with the Golden Eagle and began working for A. Z. Salomon & Co. [22]

Julius and Nellie Leon ran a boarding house at 1014 West 8th Street during their early years in Leadville, and though Leon was known for candy stores in Denver and Louisville, there is no mention of his having owned any such enterprise in Leadville before 1900. [23]

On February 9, 1891, while Hattie visited her parents in Louisville, Kentucky, she and her mother were in the midst of a visit from the seamstress when a man named William Johnson came by to see about a room. Hattie had left the room when moments later hert servant tended to the stranger’s request for a glass of water and left him alone in the parlor while she fetched it. The following is transcribed from the Daily Chronicle, and describes events as they happened after Hattie returned:

“…At that time Miss Hattie returned to the hall, and seeing that the stranger had been left alone in the room she hurried there and, just as she entered the door, saw him standing before the mantelpiece putting something into his pocket. Miss Hattie knew that she had just left her jewelry on the mantelpiece, and was reasonably certain that the fellow had stolen it. She demanded to know what it was he had put into his pocket, and he vigorously declared that he had put nothing into his pockets. The plucky young lady grappled with him, and thrusting her hand into his pocket drew out her bracelets, watch and chain and bonbonniere, worth in the aggregate at least $75. The fellow then hastily left, but Miss Hattie was determined that he should not escape so easily, and she followed him, keeping close to his heels as he hurried from street to street. After following him in all directions for a distance of twenty squares, looking for a policeman, she found Officer Mulley at Tenth and Madison (Louisville, Kentucky), and Johnson was arrested. The facts were detailed before Judge Thompson this morning, and he held Johnson to answer for grand larceny in $500. The grand jury being in session, the witnesses were sent before that body, and in less than an hour Johnson had been indicted and his case fixed for trial.” [24]

On July 31, 1891, Hattie attended the Assembly Ball at City Hall with Jake Heimberger. [25] It is unclear when Hattie and Jake became a couple, but they appeared to have run in the same Jewish social circles, and were frequently reported attending the same functions as early as 1888. This suggests that they may have had a long engagement. It was reported in the Herald Democrat on the wedding of Charolotte Schloss to Moses Stern that Hattie and Jake gave a set of silver knives and forks to the bride and groom as a joint gift on April 8, 1891. [26] On August 15, the couple attended a dance party given by Colonel Sam Mordy at the Soda Springs Hotel. [27]

On January 12, 1892, Hattie married Jake Heimberger who owned Leadville’s Herald Democrat newspaper from 1888 until 1904. [28] The nuptials tool place at the Denver [29] home of her aunt, Sarah Koch. [30] The Koch’s were also longtime residents of Leadville before moving to Denver in 1899. [31] The wedding, a grand affair, was presided over by Rabbi Friedman of Temple Emanuel in Denver. The couple returned to live in Leadville after the wedding. [32]

On November 15, 1894, Clara Leon attended a party hosted by Lizzie Schayer at her home. [33] The only mentions of the Julius’s sister, Stella, are in 1894. She attended the ball given by the Jewish Ladies Reading Club at the Vendome Hotel on October 18 [34] and was mentioned to have been an enthusiastic novice at the sport of ice skating in the December 16 edition of the Herald Democrat newspaper. [35] By the time she attended a luncheon at the Ellesmere on December 23, she was identified as one of the “merry skaters” among the group. [36] Hattie threw a New Year’s Eve party in honor of Clara at her home on December 31. [37]

Clara Leon was present at the Jewish Hop held at the Vendome Hotel on January 19. [38] Although little information exists for Clara and her time in Leadville, she served as a teacher for the Temple Israel Sunday School and her fellow teachers and students presented her with a silver clock when she left Leadville for her new home in Salt Lake City on January 24, 1894. [39] On August 11, Clara was again in town and was mentioned attending a card party hosted by Tillie Kahn. [40]

From 1894 through 1899, Julius was still splitting his time between Leadville and Denver, where his business concerns were headquartered. On October 30, 1900, Julius purchased the F.A. McLister confecitonary shop at 425 Harrison Avenue. He reopened the store as Leon’s Confectionary on November 1. Julius renovated immediately, adding a modern soda fountain and ice cream service. Julius had several successful candy stores and ice cream parlors in his hometown of Louisville and after spending more time with his sister and brother-in-law, Jacob Heimberger, decided to move to Leadville permanently. [41] On November 6, Julius hosted a special event where ladies were invited to sit and await the incoming election updates for the presidential race between incumbent William McKinley and William Jennings Bryan. [42] It is likely that Julius’ business ventures were scattered throughout the region, as far west as Salt Lake City during this period.

In 1901, Julius and Nellie moved their residence to 322 Harrison Avenue. [43] Julius sold tickets for a Tabor benefit function that took place on February 17. [44] It is not clear when Julius’ parents, Ella and Sol, moved to or left Leadville, however Ella’s first mention there is in attendance of a party hosted by Mrs. Freedheim [45] at her home on July 13. [46] In July, Julius and his store were featured in a unique article in the Herald Democrat, which profiled a family visiting many of the storefronts on Harrison Avenue. The following is an excerpt from the story:

“Say Uncle,” exclaimed Charley. “Polly and I had a bet coming up on the train and I lost; got any good candy stores in town?” “We’ve got one even Denver can’t beat for quality, my son. Just come over and I’ll introduce you to Mr. Leon, of Leon’s confectionary store, who does all the candy makin’ for the district, and you can pick out anything Polly wants.” After meeting Mr. Leon, who proved to be a very affable gentleman, Polly was soon delighted with a box of his fine candies, but even then she was not satisfied. She insisted that she was tired and thirsty, and she wanted one of Mr. Leon’s ice cream sodas with Leon’s ice cream, which she said was the best she had ever eaten. “Thank goodness,” said Polly, on leaving the store. “I know where to get fresh home-made candies, for they’re the only kind I like.” “Nothing like being suited.” Said Uncle Josh. “Leon’s all right and he does a big trade around these parts.” [47]

Julius attended a party for Hattie Cohn at the Cohn family home on August 10. The party was Dutch themed and guests wore costumes. [48] On August 17, Julius and his sister, Hattie, held a party for their mother at the candy store. [49] Ella attended a luncheon given by Fanny Cohn at her home on September 4. [50] Julius transferred mining property to Nellie, his wife, on October 19, “For consideration of ‘One dollar and love and affection”. [51] The Whist Club gave Ella a small surprise party at Hattie’s home on October 30. [52] On December 23, W. H. Nash gave a reception for the Colorado College Glee and Mandolin clubs at Leon’s Candy after their performance at the Tabor Opera House. [53]

On June 4, 1902 Julius sat on a Leadville jury that acquitted C.A. Walker in the shooting of Jay Taylor during a scuffle at a boarding house in Stumptown. Walker was attacked from behind and assaulted by the much smaller Taylor. Judge Owens urged the jury to find Walker not guilty due to the defensive nature of the shooting. [54] Julius spent the day picnicking with the Kahn family at Twin Lakes on September 7, 1902. [55]

The Herald Democrat noted that Julius’ Candy and Ice Cream parlors, operating under the name of “Leon’s Candy”, were the “…swellest candy and ice cream parlors in this part of the state”. Leon’s was also noted to have the best oyster cocktails in Leadville. [56] Julius served a midnight luncheon for those who attended the hop for the High School Dancing Club at Armory Hall on August 23, 1902. [57]

Advertisement for Leon’s Candy which appeared in the December 2, 1900 edition of the Herald Democrat Newspaper.

Advertisement for Leon’s Candy which appeared in the December 2, 1900 edition of the Herald Democrat Newspaper.

“Leon’s Oyster Cocktails”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat.
December 2, 1900. Page 8.

In the summer of 1904, Jake Heimberger became infected with a case of le grippe (influenza). He passed from the disease on June 2, 1904, leaving Hattie a widow. The following letter to Hattie and Julius appeared in the June 5, 1904 edition of the Herald Democrat:

The following letter to the widow of the late J.O. Heimberger and her brother, Mr. Julius Leon, is so expressive of the general sympathy that it is given in full:

Denver, June 2, 1904

We wish to express to you our deepest and most heartfelt sympathy- also to the children. We only heard of the sad news today. Our late sorrow was nothing compared to yours. We can not forget the friends who were kind to us in our affliction, and so may we offer you the comfort of the following words:

The God of Love will sure indulge
The flowing tear. The heaving sigh,
When death inflicts the fatal wound.
When Tender Friends and kindred die.
Yet not one anxious, murmuring thought
Should with our mourning passions blend.

Nor should our bleeding hearts forget.
The Almighty, ever-living Friend.
Beneath a numerous train of ills.
Our feeble flesh and heartmay fall;
Yet shall our hope in thee, our God,
O’er every gloomy fear prevail.
Our Father, God! To thee we look
Our Rock, our Portion and our Friend;
And on thy covenant love and truth
Our sinking souls shall still depend.
May God’s tender sympathy comfort you and His strength uphold you in the prayer of your sincere friends.

MR. AND MRS. S. E. GREGORY. [58]

Hattie and her mother, Ella Leon, left Leadville for a new home in Salt Lake City on November 12, 1904. [59]

Touching Tribute

“Touching Tribute”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1904. Page 4.

In 1905, Julius moved his residence to a room at 68 Clarendon Block. [60] It is not clear if Nellie remained in Leadville or went on to Salt Lake City with Ella and Hattie. Julius was present in court when seven boys, ranging in age from nine to fifteen years old, and one fourteen year old girl, were all convicted of breaking into his vacant, but furnished home at 531 East 7th Street where they held a party. The girl and four boys were either paroled immediately or given suspended sentences as first time offenders, however the remaining three boys were sentenced to the State Industrial School for Boys in Golden, Colorado, where they were to remain until their twenty-first birthdays. [61] This was not Julius’ only encounter with juvenile mischief in 1905. The following appeared in the July 6 edition of the Herald Democrat:

SMASHED PLATE GLASS FRONT

Either by thoughtlessness or with a desire to create a panic among the many passersby, a youth exploded a large cannon cracker in front of Leon’s candy store some time Tuesday evening resulting in the destruction of the large plate glass window. The police were notified and, it is said, the culprit is not only known but has admitted to the deed.

The cracker was placed in the hole of one of the hitching posts standing in the ditch in front of the store. The explosion was so great as to break off about a foot of the post and hurl it eight feet back through the window. It is believed that the cracker was larger than the ordinance allowed and it is further said that an arrest will be made today.” [62]

In 1905, Leon’s Candy became one of the first candy operations in the United States to offer china and crystal tableware made entirely from sugar and had samples proudly displayed in the store window. [63] At the May board of trade meeting, Julius was appointed to a committee for planning the City of Leadville’s Fourth of July celebration. [64] Julius had a sense of competitiveness as evidenced by a $100 bet he made with Art Lumsden on July 1. Julius maintained that he would be able to perform any daring feat suggested. With the circus in town, Lumsden bet that Julius would not enter the tiger cage. Julius took the bet with the opportunity to cancel it if he did so by 4:45PM. Julius immediately went to the animal trainer to find out if he was in any legitimate danger, and when the response to his question was “…don’t the bills say they are just from the jungles?” Julius hurried off to cancel his bet, but was a few minutes late when he found Lumsden who declined the cancelation. [65] It is not known if Lumsden let Julius off the hook, but Julius survived the wager. Julius was an usher for the wedding of his sister-in-law, Caroline Rose Heimberger [66] to Grayson J. Kahn of Trinidad, Colorado, at Temple Israel Synagogue on September 18, 1905. Lena Simon, the daughter of Caroline’s sister-in-law, Cora (Leon) Simon, [67] served as a bridesmaid. The legal wedding ceremony was conducted by Judge W. H. Harrison, which was followed by a more traditional ceremony in Hebrew which Sol Levy [68] performed. Over 200 people attended the wedding, and the couple moved to Trinidad after their honeymoon. [69]

On February 21, 1906, yet another incident occurred in Julius’ proximity. John A. Sheridan fell victim to a heart attack in front of the candy store. The victim was removed to the offices of Dr. Sol Kahn where he died a short time later. [70] On March 29, Julius was granted power of attorney on behalf of Hattie. [71] It is not clear but it can be reasonably assumed that this was connected to the dealings of her late husband’s estate. Julius was summoned to Denver on Sunday, April 8. His father Sol, suffering from an undisclosed illness, passed on that day and Julius arrived at his father’s Denver home in time to say his farewells. [72] Julius hosted a bake sale at his store for the ladies of the Methodist church on Saturday, June 13. [73]

Julius was a pallbearer for the funeral of Stella Berger, [74] a fellow Temple Israel congregant, who passed suddenly at the age of twenty-three [75] due to complications following the birth of her daughter a few weeks earlier. [76] Late in his Leadville tenure, Julius became Secretary of the Temple Israel congregation. H. Fischlowitz of St. Louis made an appearance at Temple Israel in cooperation with the orthodox Kneseth Israel [77] congregation to give a discussion on “Zionism”. The event took place on March 21 and Temple Israel sage Adolph Schayer [78] argued the counterpoint on the subject. [79] In May, Julius once again served on the board of trade committee for Leadville’s Fourth of July celebration. At a meeting on May 29, Julius reported that he had personally raised $700 of the $1700 secured by the committee. [80] On August 1, the newspapers announced that Julius had sold his candy store to E. O. Kuhlmeyer who would operate the establishment going forward. [81] The deal was only a brief success, Julius held a mortgage on the property and by November, Kuhlmeyer defaulted. On November 14, Julius was granted a replevin [82] by Justice Thomas which restored ownership of the store and its contents to Julius. [83] It is unclear what was done with the property, but shortly thereafter Julius moved to his new home in Salt Lake City. [84]

After Julius left Leadville, he was involved in the case of a missing person, Henry E. Huck, who was the brother-in-law of retail magnate Marshall Fields Jr. The following is an accounting of Julius’ involvement from the Herald Democrat edition of November 27, 1907:

“Chicago dispatches tell of the anxiety felt by the widow of Marshall Field Jr., on account of the absence and mysterious silence of her only brother, Henry E. Huck, who was last heard from when he left his ranch near Grants, N.M., equipped for a hunting trip three months ago.

Julius Leon, the former Leadville confectioner, now of Salt Lake City, who is now here on business, last night sent Mrs. Field some information which will no doubt tend to relieve her feelings.

On the evening of October 25, young Huck was introduced to Mr. Leon by a mutual friend. Leon cashed two checks for him, which were drawn by another person. The young man showed Mr. Leon pictures of his sister, Mrs. Field, and her family. He then said he was on his way to New York, but did not mention that his family had not heard from him. Since that evening Leon has not heard anything from him, and had forgotten the incident until he read in a newspaper of Mrs. Field’s search for him.

Mr. Leon describes Huck as a young man 23 years of age, with blonde hair, five feet, seven inches in height and slender. He wore a light suit of clothes and an automobile overcoat. On account of his eccentricities Huck was cut off by his father with only $15,000 of the $3,000,000 estate.”

1 United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls.
2 For more information on Leopold Guldman and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/guldman.html
3 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1890”. 2011. Brigham Young University Internet Archive. Provo, UT; USA. P730.
4 “Elks For Salida To Install A Lodge”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 18, 1902. P6.
5 “Applicants For Mineral Patents”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 3, 1886. P3.
6 For more information on Sigmond and Cora Simon and their family please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/simon.html .
7 “A Happy Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 25, 1887. P4.
8 “Duty’s Solemn Call”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 23, 1887. P3.
9 “A Happy Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 25, 1887. P4.
10 “Local Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 25, 1887. P4.
11 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 5, 1890. P4.
12 “Ball Room And Parlor”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 19, 1888. P4.
13 “A Pleasant Reception”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 20, 1888. P3.
14 “An Elegant Reception”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. April 16, 1889. P3.
15 “Entertained At Luncheon”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 13, 1889. P8.
16 For more information on the Arkush family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org./arkush.html .
17 “The August Calendar”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 26, 1889. P3.
18 “The Simchath Tora Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 19, 1889. P4.
19 “Mirth In Midsummer”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 25, 1890. P4.
20 For more information on Tillie Kahn and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html .
21 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1890. P5.
22 “In The Social Swim”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 14, 1890 P4.
23 “Colorado Courage”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 10, 1891. P4.
24 “Colorado Courage”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 10, 1891. P4.
25 “Assembly Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 1, 1890. P5.
26 “Merry Wedding Bells”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 8, 1891. P4.
27 “Society’s Giddy Whirl”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 16, 1891. P5.
28 For more information on Jacob Oppenheim Heimberger and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/heimberger.html .
29 “Some Social Nuggets”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 10, 1892. P3. 30 "Colorado Statewide Marriage Index, 1853-2006”. FamilySearch:February 2018,
31 For more information on Sarah Koch and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/koch.html .
32 “A Newspaper Man Married”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 14, 1892. P5.
33 “Friends And Neighbors”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 18, 1894. P5. For more information on Lizzie Schayer and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/schayer.html .
34 “An Evening Of Pleasures”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 19, 1894. P5.
35 “Skating In The Clouds”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 16, 1894. P2.
36 “The Merry Yuletide Days”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 23, 1894. P5.
37 “Ushered In The New Year”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 6, 1895. P3.
38 “Jolly Reign Of Winter”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 20, 1895. P4.
39 “Jolly Reign Of Winter”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 21, 1895. P4.
40 “Woman & Home”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 11, 1895. P5. For more information on Tillie Kahn and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html .
41 “M’Lister Sells Out”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 31, 1900. P8.
42 “Ladies, Tonight”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 6, 1900. P8.
43 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Second Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1901”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1901. P217.
44 “Go Like Hotcakes”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 12, 1901. P6.
45 For more information on the Freedheim family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadvile.org./freedheim.html .
46 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 14, 1901. P6.
47 Norman D. Lloyd. Polly’s Uncle Josh: He Does the Handsome Thing by the Wedded Ones. Herald Democrat. Leadville, CO. USA. July 28, 1901. P9.
48 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 11, 1901. P6.
49 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 18, 1901. P6.
50 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 8, 1901. P12.
51 “For The Record”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 20, 1901. P3.
52 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 3, 1901. P9.
53 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 29, 1901. P8.
54 “Killing Justified”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1902. P3.
55 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 7, 1902. P11.
56 “The Sweet Tooth”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 1, 1903. P5.
57 “Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 23, 1903. P7.
58 “Touching Tribute”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1904. P4.
59 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 13, 1904. P10.
60 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1905”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1905. P198.
61 “Off To Golden Bad Boys Sent”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 8, 1905. P5.
62 “Smashed Plate Glass Front”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 6, 1905. P4.
63 “Hand Painted China”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 4, 1905. P11.
64 “Sounded Bugle Note For Patriotic Celebration”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 18, 1905. P2.
65 “Leon’s Wager”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 2, 1905. P9.
66 For more information on Rose Heimberger, and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/heimberger.html .
67 For more information on Cora Leon Simon and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/simon.html .
68 For more information on Sol Levy and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/levy.html .
69 “Pretty Wedding At The Temple”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 19, 1905. P8.
70 “Remains To Be Shipped East”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 26, 1906. P6.
71 “Location Certificate”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 30, 1906. P6.
72 “Sad Errand”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 12, 1906. P4.
73 “Home Cooking Sale”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 13, 1906. P8.
74 For more information on Stella Berger and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/berger.html .
75 “Funeral Of Mrs. Berger”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 19, 1907. P6.
76 Matt Hulstine. Berger. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville CO. USA. 2015.
77 For more information on the Orthodox Jewish congregation in Leadville, known as Kneseth Israel, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/orthodoxtimeline.html
78 For more information on Adolph Schayer and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/schayer.html .
79 “Church Services”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 31, 1907. P2.
80 “Fourth Of July Celebration Will Be Big Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 30, 1907. P2.
81 “Call On The New Firm”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 1, 1907. P8.
82 A procedure whereby seized goods may be provisionally restored to their owner pending the outcome of an action to determine the rights of the parties concerned.
83 “Replevin On Candy Store”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 15, 1907. P5.
84 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 11, 1907. P5.

Bibliography

“A Pleasant Reception”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 20, 1888.

“An Elegant Reception”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. April 16, 1889.

“An Evening Of Pleasures”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 19, 1894.

“A Happy Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 25, 1887.

“A Newspaper Man Married”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 14, 1892.

“Applicants For Mineral Patents”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 3, 1886.

Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2004. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls.

“Assembly Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 1, 1890.

“Ball Room And Parlor”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 19, 1888.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1888”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1888.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Tenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1889”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1889.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Seventeenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1889”. 2011. Brigham Young University Internet Archive . Provo, UT; USA.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eighteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1890”. 2011. Brigham Young University Internet Archive . Provo, UT; USA.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1890”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1890.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Nineteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1891”. 2011. Brigham Young University Internet Archive. Provo, UT; USA.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twelfth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1891”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1891.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twentieth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Denver for 1892”. 2011. Brigham Young University Internet Archive . Provo, UT; USA.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Thirteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1892”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1892.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Fifteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1894”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1894.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Sixteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1895”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1895.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eigteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1897”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1897.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Nineteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1898”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1898.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twentieth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1899”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1899.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-First Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1900”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1900.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Second Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1901”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1901.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1902”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1902.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1903”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1903.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1904”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1904.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1905”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1905.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1906”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1906.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1907”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1907.

“Call On The New Firm”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 1, 1907.

“Church Services”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 31, 1907.

Clark, WM, Root WA and Anderson, HC. “Clark, Root and Co’s First Annual City Directory of Leadville and Business Directory of Carbonateville, Kokomo and Malta for 1879”. Daily Times Steam Printing House And Book Manufactory; Denver, CO: USA. 1879.

“Colorado Courage”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 10, 1891.

"Colorado Statewide Marriage Index, 1853-2006," database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:KNQ4-DCN : 16 February 2018), Jacob O Heinberger and Hattie Leon, 12 Jan 1892, Denver, Denver, Colorado, United States; citing no. 12430, State Archives, Denver; FHL microfilm 1,690,087.

Corbett, TB, Hoye, WC and Ballanger, JH. “Corbet, Hoye and Co’s First Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1880”. Democrat Printing Company; Leadville, CO: USA. 1880.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Second Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1881”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881.

Corbett, TB and Ballanger, JH. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Third Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. In The City Of Leadville For 1882”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882.

Corbett, TB and Ballanger, JH. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Tenth Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. In The City Of Denver For 1882”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Denver, CO; USA. 1882.

Corbett, TB and Balanger, JH. “Corbett, and Ballenger’s Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1883”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA; 1883.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1884”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1884.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1885”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1885.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1886.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Eigth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1887”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887.

“Duty’s Solemn Call”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 23, 1887.

“Elks For Salida To Install A Lodge”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 18, 1902.

“Entertained At Luncheon”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 13, 1889.

“For The Record”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 20, 1901.

“Fourth Of July Celebration Will Be Big Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 30, 1907.

“Friends And Neighbors”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 18, 1894.

“Funeral Of Mrs. Berger”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 19, 1907.

Grant, Jeffrey P. Koch. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2017. http://www.jewishleadville.org/koch.html

Grant, Jeffrey P. Simon. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2019. http://www.jewishleadville.org/simon.html .

“Go Like Hotcakes”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 12, 1901.

“Hand Painted China”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 4, 1905.

“Home Cooking Sale”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 13, 1906.

Hulstine, Matt. Berger. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2016. http://www.jewishleadville.org/berger.html .

Hulstine, Matt. Kahn. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2017. http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html .

Hulstine, Matt. Levy. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2017. http://www.jewishleadville.org/levy.html .

“In The Social Swim”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 14, 1890.

“In The Social Swim”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle.

“Jolly Reign Of Winter”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 20, 1895.

“Jolly Reign Of Winter”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 21, 1895.

“Killing Justified”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1902.

Korn, William. Heimberger. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2014. http://www.jewishleadville.org/heimberger.html .

Korn, William. Schayer. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2014. http://www.jewishleadville.org/schayer.html .

“Ladies, Tonight”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 6, 1900.

“Leon’s Oyster Cocktails”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 2, 1900.

“Leon’s Wager”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 2, 1905.

Lloyd, Norman D. Polly’s Uncle Josh: He Does the Handsome Thing by the Wedded Ones. Herald Democrat. Leadville, CO. USA. July 28, 1901.

“Local Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 25, 1887.

“Location Certificate”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 30, 1906.

“M’Lister Sells Out”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 31, 1900.

Mark, Trevor. Guldman. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. http://www.jewishleadville.org/guldman.html

Mark, Trevor. Freedheim. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2019.

Mark, Trevor. Knesteth Israel. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2018.

“Mirth In Midsummer”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 25, 1890.

“Off To Golden Bad Boys Sent”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 8, 1905.

“Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 20, 1900.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 5, 1890.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1890.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 13, 1904.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 11, 1907.

“Pert Personal Pickings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 7, 1887.

“Pretty Wedding At The Temple”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 19, 1905.

“Remains To Be Shipped East”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 26, 1906.

“Replevin On Candy Store”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 15, 1907.

“Sad Errand”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 12, 1906.

“Skating In The Clouds”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 16, 1894.

“Smashed Plate Glass Front”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 6, 1905.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 14, 1901.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 11, 1901.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 18, 1901.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 8, 1901.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 3, 1901.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 29, 1901.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 7, 1902.

“Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 23, 1903.

“Society’s Giddy Whirl”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 16, 1891.

“Some Social Nuggets”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 10, 1892.

“Sounded Bugle Note For Patriotic Celebration”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 18, 1905.

“The August Calendar”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 26, 1889.

“The Simchath Tora Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 19, 1889.

“The Sweet Tooth”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 1, 1903.

“The Merry Yuletide Days”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 23, 1894.

“Touching Tribute”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1904.

“Ushered In The New Year”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 6, 1895.

Wachtel, Eleanor. Arkush. Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville, CO. USA. 2019.

“Woman & Home”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 11, 1895.

Temple Israel Foundation
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