Londoner

Wolfe Household

 

Wolfe (Head)

Born 1839 – 1846?

Born in New York

Married to Fannie Anthony

Father and mother from Austria or Germany

Immigrated in 1849?

Married 1879

Brother of Julius Londoner, Moses, and Joseph

 

Fannie Anthony (Wife)

Born 1860

Born in New York

Father and mother from New York

Married 1879

 

Fannie B Londoner (Daughter)

Born 1880

Born Colorado

 

 

Herman (Son)

Born 1881

Born Colorado

 

Ruth Londoner (Daughter)

Born 1885

Born Colorado

 

Dorothy (Daughter)

Born 1893

Born in Colorado

 

Frances C Anthony – Mother in Law (Fannies mom)

Born 1828

Born in New York

 

(There may be an Emma Londoner, relation unknown. She is listed with Wolfe in the 1870 census) [1]

 

 

Wolfe Londoner was one of Leadville’s earliest pioneers.  According to different census records, Londoner was born between 1839 and 1846 in Austria or New York.[2] However, other newspaper articles and interviews with his brother, Julius, suggest he was born earlier in New York.[3]   Regardless, Londoner’s parents were of Austrian or German descent.[4]   Wolfe had three brothers, Julius, Moses and Joseph. [5]  Julius and Moses were born around 1830 [6] and 1848,[7] respectively.  There is no record regarding Joseph’s birthdate.  Londoner grew up in New York before moving out west to Colorado in 1860.[8]   Along the way in Kansas he attempted to steal a ride on a government “freighting train” but was promptly thrown off.  He completed the rest of the journey on foot, “That walk changed him from a city stripling into a hardy, robust man, and he declares

Names associated with this surname:

  • Wolfe Londoner
  • Fannie Anthony
  • Fannie B Londoner
  • Herman Londoner
  • Ruth Londoner
  • Dorothy Londoner
  • Frances C Anthony
  • Emma Londoner?
  • Julius Londoner
  • Sophia (Surname unknown)
  • Harry Londoner
  • Moses Londoner
  • Rebeccah Londoner
  • Amy/Annie Londoner
  • Blanche Londoner
  • Joseph Londoner

that it was the making of him.”  He settled in California Gulch and started a grocery store catering to miners.[9]   California Gulch was Leadville’s original mining settlement where most mining occurred.  The original allure to the area was gold, but California Gulch never had a gold rush comparable to the silver boom that occurred the late 1870s.  It was silver which brought Leadville, the “Silver City,” into existence. Londoner is unique among many of the Leadville pioneer Jews because he was here so early and most of his activity in the area occurred before the creation of Leadville following the Silver Boom.  In the early 1860s Londoner was host to the first governor of the territory of Colorado, William Gilpin.  “In 1861 or 1862, the election was unusually exciting for a small community, and Governor Gilpin, out of his usual custom, took an active interest in the campaign.  One of his appointments was in California gulch, and at the time appointed he presented himself at the store of Wolfe Londoner.  Wolfe, though a republican, interested himself in getting up a good meeting for the governor, and sent a messenger up and down the gulch to announce that a meeting would be held at the

hotel early in the evening…”[10]   Londoner must have had one of more prominent businesses in California Gulch for the governor to choose his establishment for the event.

 

The community of California Gulch turned into Leadville in 1878 after the discovery of promising silver lodes nearby.  In March, 1879, Wolfe gave an interview to the Leadville Daily Chronicle expounding his opinion on the future of the city,

 

“[Interviewer]: What is your candid opinion of the camp?”

“[Londoner]: It is the greatest one I ever saw.  I went over that whole district in 1860, the time of the gold excitement there, but we never dreamed of carbonates then.  I don’t think there will be less than a hundred thousand people in there before the next two months.  The town is making permanent improvements, such as the introduction of water, gas, and many substantial buildings are taking the places of the cabins and huts.  Business men are all doing well, and the one great feature about it is that no man who goes there can withstand the excitement.  I think it is the greatest camp in the world.” [11]

Londoner’s grocery store appears in Leadville’s very first city directory in 1879, and was located at the corner of Main and upper Chestnut.[12]   The following article from the Leadville Daily Herald, describes how the site for the grocer was chosen and how the Londoner business fared in its early years.

 

“Three years ago, when the principal part of the business of Leadville was done on Chestnut street, the idea of any business being done on Stray Horse road, which was then a mere trail through the woods, was considered ridiculous; but when Wolfe Londoner came up from Leadville he noticed that every evening the miners, in coming to town to make their purchases, took the trail down the gulch to its junction with Harrison avenue.  A grocery store must go for business to the place where the customers are, and, recognizing this fact, in the spring of 1879 two lots were purchased on Third street, then Main, and the erection of a substantial log building commenced at once.  Many of the logs from which the building was constructed were out on the ground.

The building comprised two store rooms and apartments in the second story. Although the location was then considered away out of the center of business, the extra store room and the apartments were rented as soon as the building was erected.  One store room was occupied as the store, and a stock of fifty thousand dollars worth of goods was ordered as a starter.  The store was opened early in May, and the sales commenced with a rush. It was impossible to open the goods fast enough to satisfy the demand.  The store was never full of goods, and although a full stock of goods had been ordered it was nearly three months before everything necessary to satisfy the demands of customers was in stock.  Joe Londoner, the resident partner was at work night and day, without a moment’s res for six months, but at the end of that time he had built up a business second to none in the city.  His future progress was equally rapid, and at the commencement of the present year the firm is warranted in claiming the first place in the grocery line of Leadville.  Early last year Wolfe Londoner retired from the firm, another brother, Julius, taking his place.  The acquisition was

Wolfe Londoner

 an excellent one. The large experience of Julius and the energy and enterprise of Joe form a combination that insures success.  The business of the past year

warrants this statement, for notwithstanding all drawbacks it has steadily increased.  Very soon after the establishment, was opened it was found necessary to erect a warehouse, and within the first year even this was found insufficient.  Now a substantial brick extension covers the rear portion of the lot, making a continuous storeroom one hundred and twenty-feet in length, every part of which is filled with goods.  The stock carried by this house averages more than sixty thousand dollars in value and there is not a month in which the sales do not reach from thirty-five to forty-five thousand dollars, the majority of which is cash over the counter.  The remarkable success of the firm is typical of Leadville, and is a standing monument to the industry, enterprise and intelligent management of the younger member of the firm, by whom it was in the beginning built up and put in the way to attaining its present position in the lead of the grocery trade of Leadville.  Such

establishments would be a credit to any city, and there is no one who does not feel a pardonable pride in this model establishment.  The sales during the past year have been over six hundred thousand dollars, a single month having reached as high as fifty-five thousand dollars.  There is no other example of such wonderful success in the camp.“[13]

 

The following year the store moved to 214 East 3rd Street.[14]   That year his brother, Joseph, helped Wolfe run the store.[15]   In 1879 Wolfe was married to Fannie Anthony, from New York.[16]   After 1880 Londoner left Leadville and moved to Denver where he opened another branch of the Londoner grocery store and began a career in politics.[17]

 

In Denver Wolfe and Fannie had several children: Fannie B., Herman, Ruth, and Dorothy. They were born in 1880, 1881, 1885, and 1893.  The 1900 census reveals that Londoner’s mother in law,  Frances C. Anthony lived with the family.[18]   In Denver, Londoner’s political career experienced some short lived, and ultimately questionable success.  Londoner was

elected mayor of Denver in 1888.  However, immediately after his election there were questions regarding the authenticity of the results.  His opponents quickly filed charges and an investigation soon took place.  A court subsequently found Londoner guilty of voter fraud and decided he should step down.  Londoner refused and promptly appealed to the Colorado Supreme Court.  Apparently, Londoner was not initially deterred by this setback and decided to run for governor in 1890, a foray which was ultimately unsuccessful.[19]   The Colorado Supreme Court refused his appeal and he was forced to step down as Mayor in February 1891.[20]

 

After his foray into politics Londoner continued to live in Denver, managing his grocery store.  His brothers, Moses and Joseph continued to manage the Leadville branch of the Londoner chain.  In 1912 Wolfe passed away due to an apoplectic attack.  Papers in Leadville mourned his passing as one of the city’s first pioneers.[21]

 

This stereoview produced by Roberts & Fellows (publishers, card #731 in this series) shows the view looking west on Main Street, which is now called East 3rd Street. This photo dates to 1879-1880.

This detail of the above stereoview clearly shows Londoner's store with the sign,

"Wolfe Londoner Groceries & Mining Supplies".

The store was located at 214 East 3rd Street.

Julius Household

 

Julius Londoner

Born 1828-1830

Born in Prussia

Married to Sophia

 

Sophia (Surname unknown)

Born 1849

Born in Bohemia

 

Harry (Son)

Born 1869

Born in Colorado

Julius Londoner was born in New York during 1830.[22]   He was the son of Herman Londoner from Germany (Herman Londoner, would eventually move to Denver[23]  to be with the rest of his family, however, he was not involved in Leadville).[24]   Julius was also the brother of Wolfe, Moses, and Joseph.  Julius attended public and private school in New York City.[25]   He had fond memories growing up in 1830s and 40s New York with his brother Wolfe.  In the late 1840s the family first began to adventure out west, traveling to San Francisco crossing the Panama isthmus.  Julius spent a few years in San Francisco before returning to New York in 1850. He later returned to San Francisco in 1854 this time via Nicaragua.  After returning east, Julius set out on an arduous journey to Colorado.[26]

Julius arrived in California Gulch in 1860 and was commissioned by Abraham Lincoln to be the areas first postmaster.[27]   He then moved to Nevada where he lived until 1867.  Afterwards he returned to Colorado.[28]   Julius, as with his brother Wolfe, is one of Leadville’s earliest Jewish pioneers.  Like Wolfe, he was more active in California Gulch prior to the founding of the city of Leadville.  The 1870 census record reveals that Julius was married to Sophia (surname unknown) from Bohemia, they had one child, Harry, in 1869.[29]   The date of their marriage is unknown.  Other newspaper articles reveal that the Londoner’s had more children[30] but they do not show up in other records and their names are unknown.

Julius appears in the 1881 and 1882 Leadville city directories.  In 1881, he is listed working with his brother Joseph, at 214 E. 3rd Street.[31]   The name of their store was Londoner Bros., and they specialized in grocery and wholesale.  In 1882, Julius worked with his other brother, Moses, at the same address.[32]   Julius no longer appears in directories after these dates, but he does materialize in several newspaper articles over the following years.  In 1883, it is revealed that the “firm of Londoner Bros.” was dissolved.[33]   This explains why Julius no longer appeared in directories with his brother Moses.

Julius Londoner was fairly involved in Leadville society.  He appears in articles attending parties and improving the town.  In November, 1880, Julius was on a town committee to improve the neighborhood around his grocery store.[34]   During January, 1883, Julius and his wife attended a New Year’s Party at Sam Meyers. [35] Other prominent Leadville Jewish families such as the Monheimers, Schlosses, Kahns, Baers, Cohns, and Loebs were in attendance. Julius also attended the celebratory dinner dedicated to the conclusion of the Palace of Fashion affair in March, 1883.[36]   After the partnership between Julius and Moses dissolved in 1883, Julius moved to Denver where he continued to pursue his business interests for the next two decades.[37]

 

In 1910 at the age of 80, Julius finally retired from business in Denver and decided to go and live with his daughter, a Mrs. Harry Cohen in Chicago.[38]  The Herald Democrat, interviewed Julius on this occasion and he offered a colorful depiction of his experiences in the West.

“After fifty years of residence in Colorado Julius Londoner, brother of Wolfe Londoner and the first postmaster of California Gulch in the days before Leadville was “struck,” is about to retire from active life and will make his future home with a married daughter in Chicago.

 

Mr. Londoner is nearly 80 years of age.  He was born in New York City, November 17, 1830.

 

Mr. Londoner’s memory of old New York is really wonderful.  “We lived near the Mechanics’ school,” said he, while reminiscing, just previous to his departure, “Wolfe and I attended the school but before that we [went] to public school No. 1, on William street, near Duane, the first public school established in New York city.”

 

This was the starter of Mr. Londoner’s long and interesting and yet most modest account of himself, his life and the often thrilling vicissitudes of his long career.  In brief, he told of having learned the mercantile business, of his having started for California with his father and brother in 1850, of the

ocean voyage to Chagres, on the Isthmus of Panama which is where Colón now is, of his walk across the isthmus, of his arrival, of his stay in the Golden Gate city until his return to New York, his second trip to California by way of Nicaragua. Then his vivid description of the cleaning out of the San Francisco thugs and grafters by the vigilance committee, his return to New York and later return west, this time to St. Louis.

 

He then related his first experience in Colorado, which he reached in stage coach in 1860, his life in California gulch, where he was the first postmaster, under appointment of Abraham Lincoln: of his residence in Nevada, where he became acquainted with a rising young reporter on the Virginia City Chronicle, by name, Mark Twain, and at length of his coming back to Denver and entering into business in partnership with his other at the old store, Fifteenth and Wake streets.  This was in 1867 and Mr. Londoner has continued to reside here practically ever since.

During their career in California Gulch the Londoner brothers were engaged in the mercantile business and were among the best known residents of the community.  Those were the days of placer operations in the gulch and all that between the present day Leadville and Oro was occupied by a turbulent mass of humanity.

 

The Londoners continued in business here until the boom burst.  They retired from the rlocal field with an ample fortune between them.  Since they have been in business in Denver they have continued on their successful career.

 

Wolfe Londoner occasionally visits Leadville. He was here at the time of the Seventy – Niners’ – reunion last year Julius, however, has not been here for many years.”[39]

 

Julius had a long and eventful history in the West.  He experienced a great deal of change in society during his life, witnessing the change from California Gulch to bustling Leadville, and finally moving to metropolitan Denver. Five years after moving to Chicago, Julius passed away after a long life.[40]   He son, Chas. I. Londoner, transported the body back to Denver[41] where he is now buried in Congregation Emanuel Cemetery.[42]

Moses Household

 

Moses Londoner

Born 1848

Born in New York

Parents from New York

Married to Rebeccah (maiden surname unknown.)

 

Rebeccah Londoner

Born 1852

Born in Pennsylvania

Parents from Germany

Married to Moses Londoner

 

Amy/Annie Londoner

Born 1875

Born in Missouri

Daughter of Moses and Rebeccah

 

Blanche Londoner

Born 1878

Born in Missouri

Daughter of Moses and Rebeccah

Moses Londoner was born in New York in 1848.[43]   He was the brother of Wolfe, Julius and Joseph.  His census records claim his parents were born in New York.[44]  However, his siblings’ records show their parents hailing from Austria or Germany. [45]  Prior to moving out west in the 1870s, Moses met and married Rebeccah (surname unknown) from Pennsylvania. Rebeccah was born in 1852, her parents were immigrants from Germany.  During the 1870s the Londoners were briefly in Missouri and they had two daughters, Amy/Anne in 1875 and Blanche in 1878.[46]

Moses Londoner and his family moved to Leadville in 1880.[47]  He may have decided on moving to Colorado to work with his brothers who were already in the area.  From 1880 to 1881[48] Moses partnered with Richard Eckles at Londoner & Eckles, a wholesale and grocery store.  In 1882 Moses began working with Julius at Londoner Bros., another grocery company.[49]  In 1883 and 1884 Moses ran his own grocery store at 214 – 216 East 3rd Street.[50]   During 1885 Moses is listed in the city directory under two business partnerships, Londoner and Kern (grain, flour, and wholesale), and Londoner and M J Walsh (grocers).  The same year, Henry Londoner is listed as one of Moses’ clerks at the Londoner – M. J. Walsh store.  Henry could have been Harry, Julius’ son (possibly incorrect spelling on census record) or another Londoner relative.[51]   From 1886 to 1892 Moses worked with M J Walsh at 214 – 216 East 3rd Street.[52]

In addition to his business activities, Moses was involved in Leadville’s social life.  In 1882 Moses attended the Williamson – O’Brian wedding at the St. George Episcopal Church (across the street from Temple Israel).  Amy was one of the ushers, and Moses gifted a walnut writing desk to the newlyweds.[53]   In 1886 Moses was the secretary of the Argenta Reading Club.[54]   During February, 1888 the Londoner’s held a farewell party for their daughter Amy, who was heading off to school.[55]   During 1893, Moses was on the planning committee for Leadville’s Fourth of July celebrations.[56]

 

In 1893 the silver market crashed and Leadville ceased to be a boomtown.  Subsequently Moses moves to Denver where he appeared in the 1900 census with his family.[57]   Moses passed away in 1907 while living in Denver.[58]   It is unknown what became of his family members.

This advertisement for Londoner & Eckles was in

the Leadville Daily Herald, November 2, 1880.

This image from the Carbonate Chronicle in early 1880 shows the Londoner & Eckles Groceries & Liquors store on Oak Street, which was originally called Upper Chestnut Street. This business was owned by Moses Londoner and Richard A. Eckles.

Joseph Londoner

 

Joseph Londoner was a brother or close relative of Wolfe, Julius, and Moses.[59]   Unfortunately, there is not much documentation on his origins or date of birth.

 

Regardless of his origins Joe is first listed in the 1880 Leadville City directory working with his brother Wolfe at Londoner & Bros., a grocery store located at 214 East 3rd Street.  At this time, Joseph lived at the Northeast corner of Harrison Avenue and 2nd Street.[60]   In 1881, Joseph continued to work for Londoner Bros., he and Julius took over the business when Wolfe moved away.[61]   The following year Joe started his own grocery at 401 Harrison avenue at the corner of 4th Street.   Joe was partnered with D. J. Swinney.[62]  Joe operated his grocery business alone from 1883 to 1884 before disappearing from the city directories.[63]

In Leadville, Joe frequently appeared in the city newspapers for various events.  The first of which was his arrival to Leadville in May, 1879, “The youngest and handsomest of the illustrious house of Londoner, … Joe, came in on last night’s coach, and is already imbued with the genuine Leadville enthusiasm. He will soon open one of the largest grocery houses in the West, here. Joe is a ‘daisy,’ and will soon rank among our most popular merchants.”[64]    In addition to his business prowess, Joe was an avid billiard player.  He appears in a few articles in connections with the game, and seems to have been fairly competent.  A Carbonate Chronicle article reported on one of Joe’s billiard adventures in a match with Sam Maltby in August, 1883.

“Since the amateur contests between Schaefer and Sexton closed, no event in sporting circles has created such intense interest as the friendly match between Joe Londoner and Sam Maltby, which took place at the Clarendon last evening. In accordance with custom, the principals, at 8 p. m. shook hands and took a drink. Sam Leonard acted as referee, and Sam Chapin as marker. The science displayed by the contestants in chalking their cues challenged the administration of the spectators, and elicited several invitations to drink, all of which were accepted.

 

The bar-keeper announced that the tables would be charged for whether used or not; so the game was called promptly, interrupted only by short stops at water stations…”[65]

Joe may have indulged too much in billiards and in September, 1883, he swore off the sport for good.[66]   Unfortunately, Joe experienced a calamity later that year in November, when his store burnt down.  Prior to the fire, Joe had restocked his store for the holidays, “[estimating] his entire stock as being worth $12,500, while his total insurance to only $7,500.”[67]   The fire may have been the reason his address moved to 130 West 8th Street in the 1884 Leadville City Directory.[68]   After the fire, Joe remained in Leadville one more year.[69]   It is not known where he moved afterward.  It is possible he went to Denver where his older brother’s Wolfe and Julius were living.

1 U.S. Census Bureau. 1870 Census.

2 U.S. Census Bureau. 1870, 1900, and 1910 Colorado census records.

3 “Lake CO. Pioneer Goes to Chicago.” Herald Democrat, May 6, 1910. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

4 U.S. Census Bureau. 1870, 1900, and 1910 Colorado census records.

5 Ibid.

6 U.S. Census Bureau. 1870 Census.

7 U.S. Census Bureau. 1900 Census.

8 “Was Pioneer in Colorado.” Herald Democrat, November 25, 1912. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

9 Ibid.

10 “The Herald.” Leadville Daily Herald, November 3, 1880. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

11 “Leadville and Ten Mile.” Leadville Daily Chronicle, March 4, 1879. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

12 1879 Leadville City Directory.

13 “The Boss Grocery.” Leadville Daily Herald, January 1, 1881. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

14 1880 Leadville City Directory.

15 Ibid.

16 U.S. Census Bureau. 1900 Census.

17 “Was Pioneer in Colorado.” Herald Democrat, November 25, 1912. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

18 U.S. Census Bureau. 1900 Census.

19 “For Governor In 1890, Hon. Wolfe Londoner.” Silver Cliff Rustler, July 2, 1890. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

20 “A Famous Case.” Herald Democrat, February 7, 1891. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

21 “Was Pioneer in Colorado.” Herald Democrat, November 25, 1912. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

22 U.S. Census Bureau

23 Congregation Emmanuel Cemetery, Denver.

24 Cook County Death Records

25 “Lake CO. Pioneer Goes To Chicago.” Herald Democrat, May 6, 1910. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid.

28 Ibid.

29 U.S. Census Bureau. 1870 Census.

30 Ibid.

31 1881 Leadville City Directory.

32 1882 Leadville City Directory.

33 “Dissolution.” Leadville Daily Herald, March 20, 1883. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

34 “East Third Street.” Leadville Daily Herald, November 18, 1880. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

35 “Sylvester Evening.” Carbonate Chronicle, January 6, 1883. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

36 “A Banquet.” Leadville Daily Herald, March 22, 1883. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

37 “Lake CO. Pioneer Goes To Chicago.” Herald Democrat, May 6, 1910. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

38 Ibid.

39 39 “Lake CO. Pioneer Goes To Chicago.” Herald Democrat, May 6, 1910. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

40 “Julius Londoner Dead, Was Colorado Pioneer.” Herald Democrat, November 2, 1915. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

41 Ibid.

42 Congregation Emanuel Cemetery, Denver.

43 U.S. Census Bureau. 1900 Census.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.

46 Ibid.

47 1880 Leadville City Directory.

48 1880 – 1881 Leadville city directories.

49 1882 Leadville City Directory.

50 1883 – 1884 Leadville city directories.

51 1885 Leadville City Directory.

52 1886 – 1892 Leadville city directories.

53 “Williamson – O’Brian.” Leadville Daily Herald, May 14, 1882. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

54 “Literature and Music.” Herald Democrat, September 29, 1886. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

55 “Social and Personal.” Herald Democrat, February 12, 1888. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

56 “The Glorious Fourth.” Herald Democrat, May 28, 1893. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

57 U.S. Census Bureau. 1900 Census.

58 “Colorado News Items.” Wray Gazette, January 11, 1907. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

59 “The Boss Grocery.” Leadville Daily Herald, January 1, 1881. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

60 1880 Leadville City Directory.

61 1881 Leadville City Directory.

62 1882 Leadville City Directory.

63 1883 – 1884 Leadville city directories.

64 “Personal.” Leadville Daily Chronicle, May 5, 1879. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

65 “Exciting Contest.” Carbonate Chronicle, August 11, 1883. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

66 “Positive Facts.” Carbonate Chronicle, September 8, 1883. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

67 “Furious Flames.” Leadville Daily Herald, November 27m 1883. Accessed May 31, 2017. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org

68 1884 Leadville City Directory.

69 Ibid.

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