Temple Israel

Herman Powell
Born: March 19, 1854
Died: April 11, 1912
Married to: Mamie Bacon (Denver 1893)
In Leadville: 1880-1888

Adolph Powell
Born: 1857
Died: Unknown
Married to: Unknown
In Leadville 1882-1885

Adolph and Herman Powell were German-Jewish brothers who spent their middle to late 20s as merchants in Leadville. Herman remained longer in the Carbonate city and was better documented than his brother Adolph. Both brothers worked for and remained in contact with Leadville’s Metz merchant family for much of their lives. [1] While several individuals with the family name Powell are present in Leadville during the 1880s, Herman can be easily tracked due to his high-profile business and active social life. The Americanized spelling “Powell” is likely a re-interpretation of a more Germanic name such as “Pawel or Powel” pronounced with a “v” sound in place of the “w”.

Herman arrived in the United States from Sandberg, Germany on August 23, 1871 on “a Hamburg American line streamer”. [2] As context, this was 7 months after the end of the Franco-Prussian war; an important precursor to the First World war. Herman’s home city of Sandberg (formerly in Bavaria) unified with greater Germany after the war in 1871, but the region was war-torn and treacherous for a young traveler. Whether this war was a factor in Herman’s migration cannot be known for certain. In a 1907 Passport Application, Herman listed he had lived in New York, Chicago, Leadville, and Denver between 1871 and 1907. It is likely these cities were listed in chronological order; his probable port of entry was Castle Garden, New York, he was naturalized in Chicago in 1876, appeared in Leadville by 1880, and moved to Denver in 1888. [3] The immigration and movement of Adolph are not as clear, but his journey likely paralleled his older brother. According to an immigration document, he was naturalized with Richard Metz as a witness in Cook County Illinois on October 29, 1880. [4] Adolph was also listed in the 1880 United States Census as a resident of Chicago as a boarder in the Metz family residence. [5]

The earliest evidence of Herman’s presence in Leadville was during January of 1881, although he appears in the 1880 City directory as an employee of “Metz & Powell” with a residence of 311 Harrison Avenue. [6] The newspaper article of 1881 refers to the local militia group called the “Tabor Light Cavalry”, in which Herman is listed as Private. [7] Local militias were a common way for men to experience a martial life and also to socialize. While the United States did not engage in any large-scale wars during the 1880s, the militia were called up during stateside unrest, including during Leadville’s labor strike in summer of 1880 and a Ute Indian uprising in the fall of 1887. Fellow Jewish clothing merchant “J. Sands” was also listed in this newspaper mention as a member of the Tabors during 1880-1881. [8] In March of 1881, Herman was listed as an attendee of a “hop” at the new West Turner Hall on 4th and Pine Streets. The theme of the hop was “Pink Dominoes” and the hall was dressed in pink decoration for the occasion. The event was organized by the “Hebrew Ladies’ Society” and a majority of Leadville’s Jewish society attended including David May, the Schoenberg family and Jacob Baer. The names also include several names of German origin who have not been confirmed to be Jewish; the event was likely public and while the majority appear to be Jewish, non-Jews of German descent and others were present.

A close-up of the Tabor Opera House shortly after it was completed in late 1879 or early 1880.

A close-up of the Tabor Opera House shortly after it was completed in late 1879 or early 1880. The object in the shape of a grave stone in the middle center is a window template for an arched brick window and door opening. “One Price Clothing House” written on the banner was Sands, Pelton and Co., or a precursor. Adolph would work at this store the following year.
Courtesy Denver Public Library Western History Collection.

In November, Herman was listed in a local newspaper as a member of “Leadville Academy Social Dancing Club”, which conducted weekly dances and social events based at Academy Hall on the corner of 7th and Popular Streets. All the members of the club were men; women were probably invited for the dance events, but, by the roster, were not included in the arrangements. According to the article, there were up to seven men assigned to committees such as “ticket and door”, “decorations”, “floor management”, and “invitations”. Applications were issued and 52 men signed up in one night; total membership in late 1881 was 66. In addition, a dance director named Professor Godat provided instruction and lessons. These clubs were clearly a well-organized and popular pastime for early Leadville. [9] Herman continued to live at 311 Harrison Avenue and work in his shoe and boot store with the Metz brothers. [10] The building stands today in much the same condition it did then. In 1881, Herman’s brother Adolph made his first appearance in Leadville as a clerk at Sands, Pelton & Co. located in the northmost street-level storefront of the Tabor Opera House. [11] Interestingly, Adolph was also listed as a resident of this location indicating that there were apartments above or behind the store within the opera house. [12] Horace Tabor himself also had a residence within the opera house during 1881. [13]

During the spring of 1882, Herman traveled back to the old country. He sent a letter from Paris to “John Smith”, a clerk at the shoe and boot store who was appointed manager while Herman was away. The short column in the newspaper reveals more about the management of the store than of Herman’s travels, but he was mentioned as “by this time in Berlin.” [14] This corresponds accurately with a passport application issued in Leadville on January 30, 1882; however, the application does not detail the exact purpose or destinations of the trip. The back of the application reveals an interesting note from notary Thomas Sadler who wrote, “Be pleased to send me Passport for Herman Powell by return mail, as he leaves here in 9 or 10 days. $5 enclosed.” If Herman left on February 10th, the train journey overland to New York, and thence to Europe via steamship, took nearly 2 months. Herman must have been successful in his career, as immigrants often did not return home with much frequency in the 1880s. It should be noted, he was away from Germany for nearly 10 years by 1882. Perhaps an important family event or business opportunity hastened him back. This single appearance in the newspaper was the only evidence of Herman’s social life in Leadville during 1882. Herman was present in the 1882 city directory as a resident of 311 Harrison Avenue and the manager of Metz & Powell. [15] By this time, Marcus and Joseph Metz were listed in the directory as residents of Chicago, and a third brother or nephew named Ellis was listed as a clerk at the store. [16]

By early 1883, Adolph re-appeared in the city directory as a clerk at Sands & Pelton and Herman was again away from Leadville “…on a business trip to New York and other eastern cities.” [17] Trips east were common among Leadville merchants. Across the street from Powell & Metz was the clothing store of David May, another German-Jewish merchant, who also often went east to acquire goods himself to ship back to the booming west. Herman returned to Leadville two weeks later. [18] In March, an important event for Leadville’s merchant class and for the Jewish element of the city took place. The previous May, a large fire destroyed nearly an entire block on the south end of the Leadville. “The Palace of Fashion fire” claimed the life of one man, destroyed hundreds of thousands of dollars in property, and resulted in a long-winded arson trial which wrongly accused well-known Jewish clothing salesman Fred Butler, who owned the building where the fire began. [19] In March of 1883, Fred Butler and his colleagues were acquitted, and Leadville’s Jewish element hosted a banquet at the Clarendon Hotel to celebrate that justice had prevailed. Municipal Judge Waldhiemer arrived to celebrate that “…[Leadville’s] people are freed from bigotry and superstition” and Mayor Dougan agreed. Herman was present to support the congratulations and was listed among Leadville’s merchants and dignitaries Jewish and non-Jewish alike. [20]

In July, Herman attended an elaborate ball for the benefit of local veterans and the drum corps. Leadville’s “elite society” participated in 18 separate waltzes and dances, punctuated with an intermission during which a “war” dinner of “black coffee, pork and beans and hard tack”. Successful Jewish merchant Irving Hauser was also listed among the attendees. [21] Both men were German immigrants but were clearly supportive of American institutions and participated in local militias. Herman was away from Leadville for the middle autumn of 1883 again collecting new stock of goods for the store. The Leadville Daily Herald called the new items “the finest, largest and best stock of boots, shoes, and slippers ever brought west.” Newspapers commonly employed hyperbole in social columns; the short notice also may have been submitted by Herman himself or one of his clerks. [22] At the end of November the Leadville Daily Herald observed Herman, “…has been so busy selling shoes that he has not had time to be even a little bit sociable.” [23]

As 1884 began, Herman was paid $5 for his participation as a “Petit Juror” in the district court. [24] Sometime during the course of 1884 Herman would move his business and residence to 317 Harrison Avenue, which according to the Sanborn map was under construction in June of 1883. Later in January, Herman attended a Knights of Pythian ball at City Hall on East 6th Street. Like many of the other balls Herman attended, this one was precisely and elaborately executed; an impressive number of committee members arranged the decorations, order of dance, and reception. The varied dances were listed as “Dudes of ‘84”, “Clarendon” “Babes in the Woods” and “Home, Sweet Home”. These sounds of these medleys and waltzes have been lost to time and some- such as the “Clarendon”- were probably written about Leadville by local musicians. Schloss, Hauser, Butler, and Jackson were among the known fellow Jewish families and individuals who attended. [25] One month after the Knight’s ball, the annual Purim ball took place at the same venue on East 6th Street. This and other middle 1880s “Purim Ball Masqs” were among the best attended in Leadville’s nearly 20-year history of Purim. [26] Herman was included in the “Unmasked Guests” list; there were a total of 368 attendees at the ball. [27]

The two storefronts where Herman lived and worked during his time in Leadville between 1880 and 1888.

The two storefronts where Herman lived and worked during his time in Leadville between 1880 and 1888. 1883 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map.
Courtesy of Library of Congress.

The next month, Herman again went east to collect goods for the store and returned in early May. [28] By late May of 1884, Herman attended a “Policeman’s Ball” at the popular City Hall venue. The ball lasted all night and broke up “…as the rosy dawn had begun to tint the tops of the mountains in the east…” [29] The year 1884 proved to be Herman’s most prolific from a business and social standpoint; he again traveled east in the middle summer and reported “unprecedented” sales in the late fall. [30] Herman’s younger brother Adolph appeared for the first time in a Leadville newspaper in June as the attendee of the “Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society” ice cream and strawberry social at Armory hall on East 5th Street. Nearly all of Leadville’s Jewish society participated including May, Schloss, Metz, Monheimer, Altman, Weil, Butler, and Hyman, although interestingly Herman did not attend. [31] Adolph was only mentioned a few more times in social columns and was continuously listed as a Leadville resident in directories until 1885. [32]

In September 1884, the balls and social engagements did not slow down for Herman. On the 6th Herman attended a “Dairy Maid’s Lunch” hosted at City Hall by St. George’s Episcopal Church [33] and on September 27th he attended another ball given by the Athletic Association. This ball took place at West Turner Hall, which was across Pine street from the newly completed Temple Israel. Interestingly, a billiard room at the front of the newly renovated Turner hall was, “…reserved for those too infirm or bashful to dance, while the parlor was given over to the ladies…”. This gives insight into the nature of such dances and the fact that they were not simply serious dance affairs but probably functioned as important mingling, courtship, and entertainment venues as well. [34] On October 11, the first Simchas Torah event took place at the newly completed Temple Israel, and Herman was listed among the attendees.

“The Famous” Boot and Shoe store at 317 Harrison Avenue in 1884 or 1885.

“The Famous” Boot and Shoe store at 317 Harrison Avenue in 1884 or 1885. The building was newly finished, and Herman lived in a residence on the second story. This building exists today on the corner of West 4th and Harrison Avenue, but is cut back from the street, lost its second story, and has been unrecognizably modified. To the right is the Monheimer Clothing store. The building to the left housed the “Board of Trade Saloon” in 1884, which stands today but has also been unrecognizably modified and currently houses the Silver Dollar Saloon.
Courtesy Denver Public Library Western History Collection.

In early November 1884, Herman’s sister Rose visited Leadville and stayed with the Richard Metz family; Herman likely did not have a spare room in his quarters above the store at 317 Harrison Avenue. [35] Herman was a supporter of Democratic president-elect Grover Cleveland in November of 1884. In a short opinion piece, he commented, “I think that with Cleveland will come that reform that will insure good government and protection to business interests.” Many German-Jewish merchants and businessmen such as David May, Irving Hauser and Mannie Hyman were strongly Republican. Saloon keeper Mannie Hyman reacted to Cleveland’s election with apparent neutrality, “We’ll sell just as much whiskey as before”. Irving Hauser was quoted, “Business seems to be affected adversely already.” Herman likely set himself apart from the community with his positive opinion of the Democrats. [36] In December, Herman attended two balls at City Hall, and this time they were Christian events; organized by the ladies of St. George Episcopal Church. [37] It is important to note that Herman attended all these events as a “Gentleman”, unmarried. He may have frequented these events to locate a wife, and he clearly did not have a religious preference in this regard. He was also likely an enthusiast for music; balls and concerts were the only place in Victorian Leadville to hear music. In addition to his active social life, Herman moved his residence and business from 311 Harrison Avenue to 317 Harrison Avenue according to the city directory. [38]

In early 1885, Herman attended a Christmas ball organized at West Turner hall as part of the Athletic Association based there. This further demonstrates Herman’s interest in social gatherings regardless of religious meaning. M. Goldenberg also represented Leadville’s Jewish contingent at the event, but no other Jewish individuals were among the attendees. [39]

For the fourth time in one year, Herman again traveled east to collect stock in mid-January. [40] Herman’s prolific mentions in the newspaper subsided during 1885. Adolph and Herman both attended a concert and dance organized by a musical club called “The Apollo Club” in June. [41] In November, Herman attended a “true old Virginia style” party at the Nevins residence on 4th Street. [42]

Advertisement for The Famous in The Herald Democrat, Thursday, November 4, 1886. Page 4.

Advertisement for The Famous in The Herald Democrat, Thursday, November 4, 1886. Page 4.

Herman is not mentioned again in local social newspaper columns until the spring of 1886, as an attendee of the annual Purim Ball. Herman was listed among the several hundred attendees as a single “Gentleman” with no costume. [43] He also made a several week trip to Denver in May. [44] Again on the evening of June 26, he departed for Denver on a sleeper car of the Rio Grande railroad and was joined by his business co-owner Richard Metz. [45] Herman likely made frequent business trips to the Denver to assess business opportunity there. In July, Herman joined a party of anglers bound for Twin Lakes comprised of all well-known Jewish members including David and Rosa May, the Metz brothers and their wives, Jacob Schloss and his wife, in addition Mannie Hyman, Fred and Ike Butler, and Julius Wolf. [46] Beginning in early November, advertisements for Herman’s shoe store reveal a very melodramatic departure of the Metz name from the business (right). Details of this change in ownership are not available, although curiously, the Metz Brothers still appear as Leadville residents and the store is still listed as Metz & Powell in the city directory during 1887. [47] For unknown reasons, Herman consolidated ownership to his own account. Around the time the first new advertisements which listed him as the sole proprietor, Herman was quoted, “If business keeps up as it has during the year… I prefer to play a lone hand the rest of my natural life.” This is probably a reference to his newly established solo venture in the business.

Nearly one year passed before Herman again appeared in social columns; perhaps his solo venture demanded more time from him than a social life could allow. A mention in September of 1887 reveals he returned from the east after a trip to “recuperate”. He is curiously also referred to as a “junior member” of the firm which is still referred to as Metz & Powell. Further in the mention Herman is referred to as “back at the helm” and fully recovered from whatever ailed him. [48] By October, Herman had regained his social bearing and was listed as an attendee of a farewell party for leading clothing merchant, J. H. Monheimer, at the Texas House. Ben Loeb attended as well and “…said grace in a most impressive manner…” in addition there was a short address from David May. The supper consisted of Champagne, Steinberger Cabinet, fried and raw oysters, turkey, cold meats, potato salad, chicken salad, ice cream and cake. An impressive array of government officials, developers, and businessmen made speeches and farewells including A. J. Hunter, George Trimble, Doctor Dougan, Frank DeMainville, Senator Parsons, County Attorney Parks, C.C. Davis, and even at the reporter put it, “bashful” Fred Butler. Herman was clearly in strong and successful company at events such as this. A week later, Herman attended a “Simchos Tora” banquet which took place at City Hall on East 6th Street instead of Temple Israel due to the lack of dinning space at the synagogue. “Dave May, chef d’ceremonie” proposed a toast to the Hebrew Sunday School and the history of the Jews in Leadville, amid toasts from the other Temple dignitaries. [49]

In the middle of December, Herman attended a ball hosted by the Knights of Pythias. The night was reported to be cold and crystal clear, “…the stars dotting the deep blue arch like steel points in the heavens…” and the festivities were similarly elaborate to other balls hosted at the East 6th Street City Hall venue. Several other fellow Jews were listed included Joseph Fleissner, Fred Butler, and several Shoenbergs. [50] A mix of Knights and non-Knights attended; it is unknown if Herman was a member or was invited by a friend or business associate. [51]

The year 1888 was filled with more trips east for Herman. In early January of 1888, Herman traveled “east” to attend his sister Rosa’s wedding. [52] Again, Herman was listed in social columns for his departure to Chicago from Leadville in late February and returned by March 9th. [53] At the end of May, Richard Metz and Herman met to discuss their business prospects in Leadville; they decided to leave and set up a new shop in Denver. A “sacrifice sale” was scheduled for June to avoid transportation costs. Despite this announcement, both the store and Herman continue to appear in Leadville city directories until 1890; although Herman’s residence is listed as Denver after 1889. Herman visited Leadville regularly, but was no longer a participant in the elaborate balls of earlier in the decade. [54] This departure from Leadville mirrors that of David May, the Shoenbergs and other Jewish merchants who found great success in the vital years after the foundation of the Carbonate city but detected waning prospects by the end of the 1880s. Herman was mentioned in a social column of a September 21, 1888 issue of the American Israelite as visiting friends in Atchison, Kansas on his way to New York. [55]

Despite his relocation to Denver in 1889, Herman still returned for several events in Leadville during the 1890s, including a ball hosted by the Carbonate City Dancing Club in February of 1890 and a brief visit in 1892. [56] Herman married Mammie Bacon on September 27, 1893, in Golden, Colorado, and by the 1900 census lived in the same residence with Mammie’s parents at 1818 Lincoln Avenue in Denver. [57] In 1890, Adolph returned to Leadville for a visit from Chicago. Like his brother, he had relocated during the late 1880s. [58]

In 1893 Herman tied himself to one of Leadville’s largest and most prominent fortunes when he was pledged to undertake a $15,000 loan for a set of diamonds which belonged to Horace and Elizabeth (Baby Doe) Tabor. The Tabors took the loan in order to re-coup financial losses in the middle 1890s. One of these diamonds was reputedly the “Queen Elizabeth” stone, which was owned by Queen Isabella of Spain and Mary Queen of Scots according to a Herald Democrat article from 1899. [59] In December 1900, Herman appealed in a Denver court to be paid over $23,000 for the loan on the diamonds; an amount his attorney said he was owed. [60] Further developments between the Tabor estate and Herman would come 1901. First, Herman and the Metz brothers sold the store at 317 Harrison Avenue to Adolph Morris for $12,000. [61] That summer, the Matchless Mine was actioned at a Sheriff’s sale and the conflict between Herman over the Tabor diamonds again appeared. Continued issues with the diamond loan and the Tabor estate attorney’s bond appeal put the prospect of Herman’s bid on the Matchless in jeopardy. [62] But by the end of July, 1901, Herman was able to buy the Matchless. The Herald Democrat elaborated, “The Matchless Mine romance ended yesterday. It was bought in at [sic] sheriff’s sale by Herman Powell, the holder of a judgment of $24,896.99 and as there is no further equity of redemption or any further legal complications the famous Fryer Hill property passes into his procession…” [63]

The confidence in Herman’s ownership was shaken the following day however, as it was reported that Herman investigated other investors to make some money from the mine. A creditor by the name of W. S. Stratton came forward to finance Mrs. Tabor to help reacquire the mine. The Herald Democrat elaborated, “Powell says: ‘I am willing to give Mrs. Tabor a chance to redeem the mine for a fair consideration, which would be less than the amount due to me. For the past three years I have offered to give up the diamonds and the interest on the principal if she would pay the principal $10,500 which I loaned August 1893, taking the diamonds as security.’ Powell said he was not anxious to dispense of the Matchless and to anyone but Mrs. Tabor he would not think of selling except at a good figure.” [64]

Despite the uncertainly with the property, Herman officially obtained the Sheriff’s deed to the Matchless Mine on August 14, 1901. [65] By the following summer of 1902, further developments on the status of the mine were published in the Herald Democrat. On June 12, the newspaper reported,

“…The possession is by virtue of an agreement in which Herman Powell gives Mrs. Tabor an opportunity to redeem the property. It provides that she may pay off the indebtedness to Mr. Powell in installments and gives her three years from February 13, 1903 in which to complete payments. The royalties from the Matchless leases have thus far enabled her to meet each installment as it falls due. The total amount she must pay off on mine and diamonds is $40,000 and she is making a brave and not altogether hopeless effort to redeem the two properties which in her hands will represent very much more than $40,000.” [66]

During the summer of 1904, 34 mechanics who worked for the Coin Mining Company operated by Elizabeth Tabor, Herman Powell and Claudia McCourt filed a complaint that they had not been paid for labor or supplies provided for the mining effort at the Matchless. The outcome is unknown. The success of the mining effort continued to be uncertain, but Herman was finally able to record the deed and the mine was working on a small scale, with Herman involved, during the following summer. The Herald Democrat elaborated,

“…Of late the Matchless has been spasmodically operated by small lessees who are at present taking out ore from the old workings and making irregular shipments.” [67]

The diamonds were eventually sold to the Tabor’s son Maxie for a final amount of $8,650 in the early winter of 1907 and Herman ceased to be tied to the Tabors in Leadville newspapers after this time. [68]

Herman died in Berlin on April 7, 1912 “as a result of an operation” according to the Colorado Transcript, which also referred to him as a “pioneer Colorado shoe man.” [69]

1 For more information on the Metz family see http://jewishleadville.org/metz.html
2 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 145; Volume #: Roll 0145 - Certificates: 59455-60341, 21 Aug 1911-11 Sep 1911
3 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 39; Volume #: Roll 0039 - Certificates: 33714-34613, 25 May 1907-05 Jun 1907
4 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; Soundex Index to Naturalization Petitions for the United States District and Circuit Courts, Northern District of Illinois and Immigration and Naturalization Service District 9, 1840-1950 (M1285); Microfilm Serial: M1285; Microfilm Roll: 138
5 Year: 1880; Census Place: Chicago, Cook, Illinois; Roll: 185; Page: 450D; Enumeration District: 017
6 1880 Leadville City Directory p. 297
7 “Tabor Light Cavalry” Leadville Daily Herald, January 1, 1881 p. 1
8 For more information on Jacob Sands see http://jewishleadville.org/sands-sandelowsky.html
9 “Leadville Academy Social Dancing Club” Leadville Weekly Democrat, Volume 2, November 12, 1881 p. 6
10 1881 Leadville City Directory p. 242
11 1883 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map
12 1881 Leadville City Directory p. 242
13 1881 Leadville City Directory p. 280
14 “Breakfast Table Talk” Leadville Daily Herald, April 9, 1882 p. 4
15 1882 Leadville City Directory p. 234
16 1882 Leadville City Directory p. 208
17 “Social Slivers” Carbonate Chronicle, January 20, 1883 p. 4
18 “Social Slivers” Carbonate Chronicle, February 3, 1883 p. 8
19 For more information on the Palace of Fashion fire see http://jewishleadville.org/palaceoffashionfire.html
20 “A Love Feast” Carbonate Chronicle, March 24, 1883 p.5
21 “Sons of Veterans” Carbonate Chronicle, July 7, 1883 p. 5
22 “Personal Points” Leadville Daily Herald, November 11, 1883 p. 4
23 “Personal Points” Leadville Daily Herald, November 25, 1883 p. 6
24 “Country Sires” Leadville Daily Herald, February 8, 1884 p. 4
25 “No. 20” Leadville Daily Herald, February 20, 1884 p. 4
26 For more information on Leadville’s Purim Balls see http://jewishleadville.org/leadvillepurim.html
27 “Tuesday Night’s Ball” Carbonate Chronicle, March 15, 1884 p. 5
28 “Social Items” Carbonate Chronicle, April 5, 1884 p. 12 “Personalities” Leadville Daily Herald, May 9, 1884 p. 4
29 “The Policeman’s Ball” Carbonate Chronicle, May 24, 1884 p. 7
30 “Leadville Social News” Leadville Daily Herald, July 26, 1884 p.4 “Why They Gave Thanks” Carbonate Chronicle, November 29, 1884 p. 3
31 “A Happy Occasion” Carbonate Chronicle, June 21, 1884 p. 12
32 1885 Leadville City Directory p. 203
33 “Dairy Maid’s Lunch” Leadville Daily Herald, September 6, 1884 p. 4
34 “Crème De la Crème” Carbonate Chronicle, September 27, 1884 p. 2
35 “Personal Points” Leadville Daily Herald, November 8, 1884 p. 4
36 “Effect of the Election” Carbonate Chronicle, November 22, 1884 p. 2
37 “Leadville and St. George” Carbonate Chronicle, December 6, 1884 p. 7
“St. George’s Dance” Carbonate Chronicle, December 20, 1884 p. 8
38 1884 Leadville City Directory p. 205
39 “The Club’s Christmas” Carbonate Chronicle, January 3, 1885 p. 8
40 “Social and Personal” Carbonate Chronicle, January 17, 1885 p. 8
41 “A Musical Treat” Carbonate Chronicle, June 13, 1885 p. 6
42 “Virginia Style” Carbonate Chronicle, November 28, 1885 p. 5
43 “Purim Ball Maque” Herald Democrat, March 25, 1886 p. 4
44 “Social and Personal” Carbonate Chronicle, May 31, 1886 p. 5
45 “Personal” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, June 27, 1886 p. 3
46 “Social and Personal” Carbonate Chronicle, July 12, 1886 p. 8
47 1887 Leadville City Directory p. 193
48 “Personal” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, September 5, 1887 p. 4
49 “Simchos Tora” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, October 10, 1887 p. 4
50 “The Knights of Pythias Ball” Herald Democrat, December 16, 1887 p. 4
52 “Social and Personal” Herald Democrat, January 15, 1888 p. 4
53 “After This Man” Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle, February 24, 1888 p. 1 “Personal” Herald Democrat, March 9, 1888 p. 2
54 “Personal Mention” Herald Democrat, July 10, 1889 p. 2
55 “Atchison, KS.” The American Israelite, Sep 21, 1888 p. 7
56 “An Eventful Evening” Herald Democrat, February 1, 1890 p. 8
57 Year: 1900; Census Place: Denver, Arapahoe, Colorado; Page: 8; Enumeration District: 0070; FHL microfilm: 1240119
58 “Some People You Know” Herald Democrat, May 4, 1890 p. 4
59 “Tabor’s Diamonds” Herald Democrat, May 10, 1899 p. 1
60 “Famous Tabor Diamonds” Herald Democrat, December 23, 1900 p. 5
61 “Filed for Record” Herald Democrat, April 21, 1901 p. 6
62 “Diamonds to be Re-Sold” Herald Democrat, June 28, 1901 p. 6
63 “Sold Under Hammer” Herald Democrat, July 30, 1901 p. 1
64 “Powell’s Matchless a White Elephant” Herald Democrat, August 1, 1901 p3
65 “Around the City” Herald Democrat, August 14, 1901 p. 7
66 “Diamonds and Mine” Herald Democrat, June 12, 1903 p. 1
67 “Zinc Camp of Country” Herald Democrat, June 16, 1905 p. 1
68 “Tabor Diamonds to be Sold” Herald Democrat, December 8, 1907 p. 5
69 “Local Paragraphs” Colorado Transcript, April 11, 1912 p. 8



WM Clark, WA Root And HC Anderson. “Clark, Root and Co’s First Annual City Directory of Leadville and Business Directory of Carbonateville, Kokomo and Malta for 1879”. Daily Times Steam Printing House And Book Manufactory; Denver, CO: USA. 1879.

Corbett, TB, Hoye, WC and Ballanger, JH. “Corbet, Hoye and Co’s Second to Tenth Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. In The City Of Leadville For 1880-1888”. Democrat Printing Company; Leadville, CO: USA. 1880-1888.

Trow, “Trow’s Ninety-Third New York City Directory For The Year Ending May 1, 1880” Unknown Printing Company; New York, NY: USA 1879-1880, Public Library, Newark, NJ Business Branch. Ancestry.com. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.

Passport Applications accessed via ancestry.com:

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 39; Volume #: Roll 0039 - Certificates: 33714-34613, 25 May 1907-05 Jun 1907

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington D.C.; Roll #: 145; Volume #: Roll 0145 - Certificates: 59455-60341, 21 Aug 1911-11 Sep 1911


Year: 1880; Census Place: Chicago, Cook, Illinois; Roll: 185; Page: 450D; Enumeration District: 017

Year: 1900; Census Place: Denver, Arapahoe, Colorado; Page: 8; Enumeration District: 0070; FHL microfilm: 1240119

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; Soundex Index to Naturalization Petitions for the United States District and Circuit Courts, Northern District of Illinois and Immigration and Naturalization Service District 9, 1840-1950 (M1285); Microfilm Serial: M1285; Microfilm Roll: 138

Maps and Photos;

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Leadville, Lake County, Colorado. Sanborn Map Company, Sep, 1883. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/sanborn01031_001/.

Harrison Ave., Leadville. Jackson, William Henry. History Colorado, William Henry Jackson Collection, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll21/id/6445/rec/82

Tabor Opera House, Wakely & Clements. History Colorado, Original photographs collection. Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll21/id/10434/rec/214


Colorado Transcript (Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado)

Leadville Daily Herald (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)

Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)

Leadville Daily/Evening Herald (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)

Herald Democrat (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)

The American Israelite (accessed via Proquest)


To cite any of the information in this biography, please use the following reference.

AUTHOR: Trevor Mark
EDITOR: William Korn
SOURCE: Jewish Surnames/Powell
PUBLISHED BY: Temple Israel Foundation. Leadville CO; USA. 2019
STABLE URL: http://www.jewishleadville.org/powell.html

Temple Israel Foundation
208 West 8th Street
Leadville, Colorado 80461

Temple Israel Museum
201 West 4th Street
Leadville, Colorado 80461

Hebrew Cemetery
SW Corner of Evergreen Cemetery
North end of James Street, Leadville
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