Biography

Raabe

Julius Raabe

Occupation: Fruit, cigars, and confectionaries seller

Born: April 1864-1865

Birthplace: Poland

Died: 27 November 1939

 

Clementine (Kahn) Raabe Davies Raabe

Occupation:

Born: 1866

Birthplace: Germany (Alsace Lorraine)

Died: 21 June 1943

 

Max Raabe

Occupation: Dentist

Born: 1885-1886

Birthplace: Germany (Alsace Lorraine)

Died: 1977

 

Rosa (“Rose”) Raabe

Occupation:

Born: February 1887-1888

Birthplace: Germany (Alsace Lorraine)

Died: ?

Charles Samuel Raabe

Occupation: Dentist

Born: August 1888

Birthplace: New York

Died: ?

 

Lillian Raabe (“Hartwell”)

Occupation:

Born: August 1891

Birthplace: Colorado

Died: ?

 

Harry Raabe

Occupation:

Born: December 1892

Birthplace: Colorado

Died: ?

 

Effie Clayton Raabe

Occupation:

Born: 16 September 1889

Birthplace: Elm Creek, Nebraska

Died: 21 June 1943

Ethel H. Raabe

Occupation:

Born: est. 1888

Birthplace: Kansas

Died: ?

 

Max H. Raabe

Occupation:

Born: est. 1919

Birthplace: Colorado

Died: ?

 

Infant Raabe

Occupation:

Born: 11 November 1917

Birthplace: Leadville, Colorado

Died: 11 November 1917

 

Infant Daughter Raabe

Occupation:

Born: 26 September 1921

Birthplace: Denver, Colorado

Died: ?

Names associated with this surname:

  • Julius Raabe
  • Clementina (Kahn) Raabe Davies Raabe
  • Max Raabe
  • Rosa Raabe
  • Charles Samuel Raabe
  • Lillian Raabe (Hartwell)
  • Harry (Davies) Raabe
  • Effie Clayton Raabe
  • Ethel H. Raabe
  • Max H. Raabe
  • [infant] Raabe
  • Infant daughter Raabe
  • Ben Davies

Aside from their involvement in the most lurid affair to afflict the Jewish community in Leadville, the Raabe family otherwise exhibits the classic American immigrant experience. Julius Raabe (born April, 1864, in Poland) married Clementine Kahn (born April, 1866, in Alsace Lorraine, Germany) prior to immigrating to the United States. [1] They had two children while living in Germany, Max (born est. 1885-1886) and Rosa (born est. 1887-1888). [2] Julius first arrived alone in the United States in 1880 but occasionally returned to Germany to visit Clementine and the children he later fathered. [3] Clementine, Max, and Rosa joined Julius in the United States eight years later, in 1888, settling first in New York where they welcomed the newest member of their family, Samuel (born August 1888). [4]

The first evidence of the Raabe family residing in Leadville is a notice of their appearance in court in 1889 alongside the Bloomberg family at which both were fined $5, payable to the court, for “principals calling each other pet names.” [5] Julius is listed in the Leadville city directories starting in 1890 as the owner of a fruit and confectionery business at 223 Harrison Avenue. [6] In August of the same year, the Raabe family became the center of town gossip during the Raabe-Davies Affair which is, unfortunately, what they are most well-known for during their residence in Leadville. As described by scandalous editorials in the Leadville Evening Chronicle and Herald Democrat, Clementine became dissatisfied with Julius’ less-than-glamorous occupation as a fruit and

 confectionary seller which brought in a pittance compared to Ben Davies’ extravagant diamond jewelry store nearby. [7] She became further disillusioned with her life after having to work every day from morning to night helping Julius run the small store to make ends meet. Davies, coincidentally, was romantically interested in Clementine and visited the Raabe’s store frequently. Clementine also accused Julius of abusing their children, contributing to the hatred she felt toward her lot in life and to the man she had married. Julius came to suspect that Clementine and Davies were having an affair and, realizing that she no longer loved him, left for Salt Lake City. Soon after, Clementine accused Julius of abandoning her and their children and sought a divorce which was

 promptly approved by Judge Hall. Clementine and Davies shortly after departed for Denver where they quickly married. Davies, the cantor for Temple Israel, faced repercussions in the Jewish community due to his actions. At an emergency meeting called by the temple’s leadership, Leadville’s Jewish community voted to remove Davies from his cantor duties.

The next day, Julius supposedly sent a confusing telegram to an unnamed source in Leadville claiming that he would return to Leadville and make trouble for Davies. [8] B. Sachs, a friend of Julius who was not fluent in English, also sent two gibberish telegrams to Clementine’s brother, Jacob Kahn who was residing in Leadville and looking after the confectionary store in Julius’ absence. [9] Julius later revealed his intention to return to Leadville when the Herald Democrat sought his opinion on Jacob’s intention to sell the store, to which he responded that he would soon leave Salt Lake City. [10]

Julius returned to Leadville on August 23rd after a week-long absence, finding his ex-wife married to Davies. [11] In yet another scandalous article, the Herald Democrat reported on the reunion of Julius and Clementine, describing Julius as calm and collected and Clementine as raging and hysterical. [12] It claims that Clementine wanted to send their children to live with and be cared for by Julius which he was happy to do. In an interview found in the same article, Julius said that he only wanted the matter to end so he could get back to his business. After a tumultuous week for the Raabe family, the matter disappeared from the news. The final mention of the Raabes in 1890 was of an armed confrontation in late-September between Julius and Ben Steinberg after Julius sent a reminder to Ben of money he owed. [13] Ben brandished a knife and Julius responded with a gun which he used to chase Ben out of his store.

Interest in the Raabe-Davies affair quickly waned from public consciousness, however, and Leadville’s reporters moved on to cover new scandals. Members of the Raabe family appear only a few times each year in newspapers from 1890 to 1900. Clementine, married to Davies, gave birth to a daughter, Lillian, in August 1891. [14] Curiously, Julius purchased a $200 diamond ring for an unstated reason only for it to be lost after Z. Greenwald offered to test the diamond’s purity, taking it for a day. [15] In December, 1892, Clementine gave birth to Harry, her second child fathered by Davies. [16]

Leadville’s newspapers briefly revived the Raabe-Davies affair on September 28, 1893, months after Davies died from smoke inhalation when his shop caught on fire. With an article titled “Just like a Story Book,” the Herald Democrat once again sensationalized personal events in Leadville, recounting the matrimonial reunion of Julius and Clementine and the expansion of the Raabe family to include the two Davies children. [17] Clementine, Max, Samuel, Lillian, and Harry then left for Europe where the children attended school. Julius and Rosa remained in Leadville where he worked at his store and she attended school. [18]

By 1895, Julius changed his store’s specialties from fruit and confectionaries to cigars and confectionaries. [19] Clementine and the children returned to Leadville in January, 1896, where they joined Rosa in local schools. [20] The Raabe children quickly became involved in local performances put on by schools and societies. In November, 1897, Max performed a violin solo and Samuel recited “My Mother” at a Thanksgiving event held by their school. [21] In December, 1899, Samuel and Harry participated in a flag drill and Lillian sang with a group of other children at a ball hosted by the Turn Verein Society. [22] Max also began working at his father’s store as a clerk. [23] Another disturbance occurred at Julius’ store in April, 1900, in which William O’Brien became angry when Julius refused him credit to purchase a sack of tobacco. [24] In October of the same year, Julius had three new buildings constructed at the corner of West 3rd Street and Pine Street. [25] One was for his family – a new permanent residence in Leadville after twelve years of transient living – and the others for rent.

City directories from 1890 to 1897 do not list any residence for Julius, contributing to the impression that, for many years, homes which the Raabes lived in were transitory. Their newly constructed, “permanent” home was located at 115 West 3rd Street, yet the family moved two more times: to 200 West 3rd Street by 1903, and to 307 ½ Pine Street by 1905. [26] The location of Julius’ store also moved frequently, from 223 Harrison to 221 Harrison by 1897, and then to 309 Harrison by 1903. [27] Conveying the success of the confectionary business, 309 Harrison Avenue was a glamorous sweets store outfitted with an onyx and gold marble soda fountain. [28]

Max became the first of the Raabe children to finish secondary education, graduating from high school in 1903. [29] By January, 1904, a sickness resulting in high fevers descended upon Leadville, affecting every member of the Raabe family over the course of a few weeks. [30] Luckily, they all recovered with no ill effects. Max left Leadville for the University of Michigan in September of the same year, pursuing a degree in dentistry. [31] After a long absence from mention in the newspaper, Clementine made an appearance on a list of the planning committee for a party and dance for the L. O. T. M. at the Elks Lodge. [32]

Rosa graduated from high school in 1905 and traveled to Boulder in late-August where she began attending the University of Colorado pursuing a literary degree. [33] Max graduated early from dental school in 1907 as valedictorian of his class, completing his course work in four years rather than the expected five. [34] In addition to his academic studies, he joined numerous extracurricular organizations such as the O. K. E. and Rocky Mountain clubs. Max was the pride of the Leadville High School of which his teachers claimed he was the first graduate from the school to become a valedictorian at a university. [35] With the conclusion of his studies, Max returned to Leadville in late-June of the same year. [36] Like Max, Lillian became involved in social organizations with the Herald Democrat claiming she was a member of Phi Kappa Sigma in Leadville. This was likely an editorial mistake as Phi Kappa Sigma is an all-male fraternity; Rosa was most likely a member of Pi Kappa Sigma, an all-female sorority. [37]

Samuel graduated from high school in 1908 and, like Rosa and Max, left Leadville to pursue collegiate experiences at University of Pennsylvania. [38] Max began working as a dentist in Leadville at 501 Harrison Avenue. [39] With most of his children finished with high school and pursing higher education, 1908 is the last full year in which Julius ran his confection store. [40] By late-March 1909, Julius posted a bill of sale for his store at 309 Harrison Avenue including all “fixtures and stock.” [41] The same bill also lists a property at 107 East 4th Street. Clementine and Lillian left for Sterling, Colorado in late-April where they planned to settle into a new home. [42] By June 27th, the Herald Democrat reported that the Raabes had been living in Sterling and Denver for several months but had not determined a permanent residence. [43] Julius and Clementine finally settled in Boise, Idaho with Rosa, Lillian, and Harry where they purchased the Boise Tea and Coffee Store. [44] Julius and Clementine returned to Leadville intermittently to visit relatives, but their residence in the city had officially came to an end. Unlike the rest of his family, Max decided to stay in Leadville where he hoped to continue practicing dentistry, becoming the most prominent Raabe in the city for the next decade. [45]

Max married Effie Clayton (born September 16th, 1889 in Nebraska) in Idaho at the home of his parents on January 1st, 1911. [46] Perhaps with the intention of someday moving to Idaho, Max obtained his dental licensure for the state after passing a rigorous exam which included a day of practical work at the Idaho State Penitentiary. [47] In Leadville, Max and Effie were an energetic couple, attending numerous dances, parties, and balls such as the Masonic dance in April 1913, Shack Club dances in March, September, and October, and a D. T. Club dance in October. [48] At the County Fair on August 27th, Max checked children’s teeth as part of the Better Babies contest which scored children based on their health and appearance. [49] In early-April, Samuel – now going by Charles – who graduated from University of Pennsylvania with a degree in dentistry like his brother, visited Max and Effie in Leadville with his wife, Mrs. C. S. Raabe. [50] He moved to Leadville permanently in October, 1915, residing at 130 East 8th Street and opening his own dentistry office at the Boston Block. [51] Charles’ wife quickly became a prominent member of Leadville’s embroidery club, attending and hosting numerous meetings over the years. [52]

News of the Raabes begins to taper by the end of the decade with mostly fleeting mentions of their attendance to events in town. The Herald Democrat listed Charles as an enlistee for the draft for World War I, however Max is absent from the list despite having registered for the draft. [53] It is difficult to determine whether Charles was drafted or not. Max, however, is mentioned as holding the rank of captain in a Herald Democrat article published in 1920. [54] Though it is somewhat unclear, Max seems to have been a veteran of World War I.

 

Max and Charles both became involved in the local Masonic society after returning to Leadville. Max attended Masonic dances and Charles was listed as a pall bearer for Jacob Bergman whose funeral was held at the Masonic Hall. [55] Prior to his departure from Leadville in 1921, the Masonic Society honored Max at a banquet for his service in the society where he at one point held the position of ‘high priest.’ [56]

 

 

Troubled marriages afflicted Julius and Clementine’s children with marriage listings in 1918 showing that Max married a woman named Ethel M. Hartwell on May 16th, 1917, having apparently divorced from Effie at an earlier time. [57] Either Mrs. Charles Raabe or Ethel gave birth to a stillborn child on November 11th, 1917. [58] The ‘Infant Raabe’ is buried in Leadville’s Hebrew Cemetery. Ethel gave birth to her and Max’s first child, Max Hartwell, in Denver in early May. [59] They then welcomed another child, an unnamed daughter, on September 26th, 1921. [60]

On November 28th, 1921, Max announced his plans to leave Leadville for Denver where he would open a new practice. [61] He left the city with his family by late December. The final mention of Charles in Leadville’s newspapers is of a trip with his wife to New York and Philadelphia in January 1919 where he planned to pursue post-graduate studies for three months at the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University. [62] The Raabes’ presence in Leadville came to an end with Clementine and Julius visiting their daughter, Lillian Hartwell, in September, 1922, and again during September, 1923. [63] Lillian married Earnest L. Hartwell at an unspecified date, but like her parents’ and brother’s early marriages, it did not last and she is listed in the 1930 census as living in Denver, single, with her two young sons, Ernest G. and Robert L. [64]

Julius and Clementine eventually moved from Boise, Idaho to Denver. [65] Julius died on November 27th, 1939 and Clementine died on June 21st, 1943. [66] Both are buried at Fairmount Cemetery in Denver. The most recent publicly available census records show Max living unmarried with his son Max H. in Denver in 1940. [67] Max died in 1977 and was also buried in Fairmount Cemetery. [68] Charles Samuel, Rosa, Lillian, and Harry become difficult to trace after they leave Leadville.

1 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85J: accessed 8 July 2018), Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125; "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85V: accessed 8 July 2018), Clementine Raabe in household of Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.

2 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85K: accessed 8 July 2018), Max Raabe in household of Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125; "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-852: accessed 8 July 2018), Rose Raabe in household of Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.

3 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85J: accessed 8 July 2018), Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.

4 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85V: accessed 8 July 2018), Clementine Raabe in household of Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125; "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85L: accessed 8 July 2018), Samuel Raabe in household of Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.

5 “Police Court,” Leadville Evening Chronicle (Leadville, CO) November 15, 1889: 4.

6 John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Eleventh Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1890 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1890): pp. 214, 269.

7 “His Ruined Home,” Leadville Evening Chronicle (Leadville, CO) August 15, 1890: 3. The remainder of the paragraph exclusively draws information from this article.

8 “The Raabe Affair,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 17, 1890: 8.

9 “The Raabe Affair,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 17, 1890: 8.

10 “Will Raabe Return?,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 21, 1890: 7.

11 “The Husband Returns,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 24, 1890: 4.

12 “The Husband Returns,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 24, 1890: 4.

13 “Knife vs. Gun,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 26, 1890: 8.

14 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85G: accessed 8 July 2018), Lillian Raabe in household of Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.

15 “A Handsome Reward,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 14, 1891: 5.

16 "United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-85P: accessed 8 July 2018), Harry Raabe in household of Julius Raabe, Precinct 1-3 Leadville city Ward 1, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 16A, family 323, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.

17 “Just like a Story Book,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 28, 1893: 8.

18 “Just like a Story Book,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 28, 1893: 8.

19 John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Fifteenth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1895 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1895): pp. 226, 286.

20 “Gloom of the Lenten Season,” Leadville Evening Chronicle (Leadville, CO) April 6, 1896: 4; “The City Public Schools Report for the Month,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 24, 1897: 3.

21 “The Thanksgiving Vacation,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) November 24, 1897: 2.

22 “Pupils Exhibition,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) December 9, 1899: 2.

23 John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Eighteenth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1899 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1899): pp. 255.

24 “Happenings of the Day,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) April 5, 1900: 8.

25 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 30, 1900: 7.

26 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 30, 1900: 7; John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Twenty-Second Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1903 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1903): pp. 265; John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Twenty-Fourth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1905 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1905): pp. 266.

27 John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Eleventh Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1890 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1890): pp. 214, 269; John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Sixteenth Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1897 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1897): pp. 238, 304; John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Twenty-Second Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1903 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1903): pp. 265.

28 “Raabe’s New Place,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 10, 1903: 8.

29 “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) June 14, 1903: 11.

30 “Bulletins from Bedside,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 24, 1904: 5; “Bedside Bulletins,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 31, 1904: 5.

31 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 4, 1904: 9; “High School Graduates Enter Larger Fields,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 30, 1905: 4.

32 “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) November 27, 1904: 10.

33 “Commencement Day is Coming,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) June 6, 1905: 2; “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 27, 1905: 9; “High School Graduates Enter Larger Fields,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 30, 1905: 4.

34 “Leadville High School Boy Gains Honors in University,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 26, 1907: 4.

35 “Leadville High School Boy Gains Honors in University,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 26, 1907: 4.

36 “Leadville High School Boy Gains Honors in University,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 26, 1907: 4.

37 “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 13, 1907: 8.

38 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 13, 1908: 5.

39 John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Twenty-Seventh Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1908 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1908): pp. 240.

40 John H. Ballenger and ‘Richards,’ Ballenger and Richards Twenty-Seventh Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville for 1908 (Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers, 1908): pp. 240.

41 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) March 26, 1909: 5.

42 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) April 25, 1909: 6.

43 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) June 27, 1909: 5.

44 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 26, 1909: 5.

45 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) July 11, 1909: 5.

46 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 7, 1911: 5.

47 “Dr. Max Raabe’s Visit to Idaho Penitentiary,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 8, 1911: 8.

48 “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) April 20, 1913: 2; “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) March 22, 1914: 7; “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 27, 1914: 2; “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 25, 1914: 2; “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 18, 1914: 2.

49 “First Day of the County Fair,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 28, 1914: 6.

50 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) April 8, 1914: 5.

51 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) October 28, 1914: 3; “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) August 2, 1914: 5.

52 “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) November 8, 1914: 2.

53 “Lake County’s Roll of Honor,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) June 11, 1917: 6; "United States World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:KZKN-6CK: accessed 21 July 2018), Charles Samuel Raabe, 1917-1918; citing Lake County, Colorado, United States, NARA microfilm publication M1509 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 1,561,833; "United States World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:KZKN-6C2: accessed 21 July 2018), Max Raabe, 1917-1918; citing Lake County, Colorado, United States, NARA microfilm publication M1509 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 1,561,833.

54 “Majors and Captains Ready for Campaign,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) July 21, 1920: 3.

55 “Society,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) April 20, 1913: 2; “Deaths and Funerals,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) April 12, 1917: 4.

56 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) December 13, 1921: 5.

57 “Marriages,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 1, 1918: 19.

58 “Infant Raabe,” Find a Grave, Hebrew Cemetery id. 18472946 (Leadville, Colorado) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/18472946/infant-raabe (accessed June 27, 2018).

59 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) May 6, 1919: 8; "United States Census, 1920," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MX2B-S2C: accessed 8 July 2018), Max H Raabe in household of Max Raabe, Leadville Ward 3, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing ED 74, sheet 1B, line 52, family 19, NARA microfilm publication T625 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992), roll 165; FHL microfilm 1,820,165.

60 “Births,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 27, 1921: 4.

61 “Around the City,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) November 28, 1921: 3.

62 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) January 12, 1919: 2.

63 “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 17, 1922: 2; “Personal Mention,” Herald Democrat (Leadville, CO) September 27, 1923: 3.

64 "United States Census, 1920," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MX2B-6RH: accessed 23 July 2018), Lillian L Hartwell in household of Earnest L Hartwell, Precinct 13, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing ED 81, sheet 4A, line 2, family 1, NARA microfilm publication T625 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992), roll 165; FHL microfilm 1,820,165; "United States Census, 1930," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X74M-Z53: accessed 23 July 2018), Lillian Hartwell, Denver, Denver, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 138, sheet 25A, line 19, family 1453, NARA microfilm publication T626 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2002), roll 238; FHL microfilm 2,339,973.

65 "United States Census, 1930," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X74M-Z59: accessed 10 July 2018), Julius Raabe, Denver, Denver, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 138, sheet 25A, line 17, family 1452, NARA microfilm publication T626 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2002), roll 238; FHL microfilm 2,339,973.

66 “Julius Raabe,” Find a Grave, Fairmount Cemetery id. 129516563 (Denver, Colorado) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/129516563/julius-raabe (accessed June 27, 2018); “Clementine Raabe,” Find a Grave, Fairmount Cemetery id. 129516562 (Denver, Colorado) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/129516562/clementine-raabe.

67 "United States Census, 1940," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VRDP-97M: accessed 10 July 2018), Max Raabe, Tract 42, Denver, Election District O, Denver, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 16-187, sheet 2A, line 11, family 26, Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA digital publication T627. Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007, RG 29. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2012, roll 489.

68 “Max Raabe,” Find a Grave, Fairmount Cemetery id. 95824442 (Denver, Colorado) https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/95824442/max-raabe (accessed 21 July 2018).

Bibliography

 

 

Ballenger, John H. and Richards. Ballenger and Richards Annual Leadville City Directory Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms, Etc. in the City of Leadville. Leadville: Ballenger and Richards, Publishers. Via Lake County Public Library.

 

Colorado Historic Newspapers Collection. Search criteria, “Lake County” “Raabe.” Accessed July 23, 2018. https://www.coloradohistoricnewspapers.org/cgi-bin/colorado?a=q&r=1&results=1&sf=byDA&e=-------en-20--1--txt-txIN-Raabe-------0-Lake.

 

Find a Grave. Accessed July 23, 2018. https://www.findagrave.com/.

 

United States Census, 1900. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

 

United States Census, 1910. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

 

United States Census, 1920. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

 

United States Census, 1930. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

 

United States Census, 1940. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

 

United States World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Via FamilySearch.org. https://www.familysearch.org/.

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