Biography

Sandusky

Abraham Isaac Sandusky

Born: 1862 (Russia or Latvia)

Died: November 1944 (Pueblo, Colorado)

Married to: Jennie Kahn

 

Jennie S. (Kahn) Sandusky

Born: 1865 (California)

Died: January 31, 1929 (Pueblo, Colorado)

Married to: Abraham Sandusky

 

Jacob Sandusky

Born: November 21, 1890 (Leadville, Colorado)

Died: March 5, 1950 (San Francisco, California)

Married to: Unknown

 

Ethel May (Sandusky) Edelman

Born: 1886 (Leadville or Denver, Colorado)

Died: 1964 (California)

Married to: Samuel Edelman

Joseph Sandusky

Born: December 20, 1887

Died: March 19, 1889

Married to: None

 

Belle Sandusky

Born: September 8, 1894

Died: October 29, 1894

Married to: None

 

Minnie Sandusky

Born: 1895 (Leadville, Colorado)

Died: May 1, 1963 (Denver, Colorado)

Married to: None

Mendal Sandusky

Born: 1897 (Leadville, Colorado)

Died: June 29, 1962 (Pueblo, Colorado)

Married to: None

 

Leah (Sandusky) Rosenthal

Born:  March 1899 (Leadville, Colorado)

Died: August 2, 1981 (Denver, Colorado)

Married to: Rosenthal

 

Frieda Sandusky

Born: December 1902 (Leadville, Colorado)

Died: Unknown

Married to: Unknown

Names associated with this surname:

  • Abraham Isaac Sandusky
  • Jennie S. (Kahn) Sandusky
  • Jacob Sandusky
  • Ethel May (Sandusky) Edelman
  • Joseph Sandusky
  • Belle Sandusky
  • Minnie Sandusky
  • Mendal Sandusky
  • Leah (Sandusky) Rosenthal
  • Frieda Sandusky

 

 

Abraham Isaac Sandusky was born in Russia or Latvia in 1862. [1] Birth and immigration records have not been found. It is estimated that he immigrated to the United States between 1870 and 1880. The first traceable record for Abraham in Colorado is an 1885 marriage record. [2] He married Jennie S. Kahn on December 25, 1885, in Denver. The ceremony was performed by A. L. Alperstein. He lived at 472 Stout Street in Denver in 1886 and was employed at Schlessinger & Sandusky. [3]

 

In 1886, he moved to Leadville pursing opportunities in the growing city. Abraham’s first appearance in a Leadville City directory is 1887; employed as the superintendent of the Leadville Baths with a residence at 108 East 4th Street. [4] The Leadville Baths are not listed in the business section of the directories for that year, but Mr. and Mrs. A. Sandusky are listed as in charge of J. H. Cragg’s “Turkish Bath Institute” at 116 East 4th Street in the summer of 1886. [5] The Sanduskys were employed here until sometime in late 1887. An unfortunate event occurred early in the Sandusky’s time in Leadville.

An article titled “An Unprovoked Assault” detailed a violent incident that occurred in the Sandusky house in 1887.  Abraham went on a rampage in his house on August 30, 1887. [6] According to the Herald Democrat, he attacked his mother-in-law Mrs. F. Kahn. The elderly woman left the house to contact the county judge to report the attack. When Mrs. Kahn returned home, Abraham issued threats to both his wife, his mother in law and his wife Jennie as well as a neighbor named McCall when he tried to intervene. The incident resulted in the arrest of both McCall and Sandusky. On September 8th, Mrs. Kahn left Leadville with her daughter Jennie on a train for Denver. Jennie accompanied her mother “for the benefit of her health.” [7] This was the last mention of the incident that can be uncovered.

 

In 1888, Abraham moved to 112 Harrison Avenue and is listed as an “upholsterer” with no business or employment listing. He likely did work out of his dwelling, part of which is listed as “2nd hand clothing” on the Sanborn map of 1886. Jennie appeared in the Denver directory as “Mrs. Jennie Sandusky” at 1238 Larimer. [8] Perhaps they had separated temporarily as a result of

the fight in August the previous year. She returned to Leadville in March of 1888, “much improved in health.” [9] It is also likely that the Sanduskys’ first daughter Ethel was born around this time. According to the 1900 census, Ethel was 13 years of age. This would put her birth in 1887 or 1888. The 1940 census lists her birth year as 1889 but her death certificate lists 1886. She does not appear in any Leadville records until 1894. The couple’s first son Jacob was born in 1890.

By 1889, Abraham is listed in the directories as an upholsterer. His business address and residence are listed as the same; 110 Harrison Avenue. The block on which Abraham did business was a tremendously varied commercial corridor in 1886 and 1887. A theater (Ben Loeb’s), concert hall, tailor, confection shop, barber, two second hand stores, a sausage maker, a beer bottler, a cigar store, and a saloon all conducted business in the 100 yard line of storefronts. Most proprietors of the shops and other tenants shared the second floor living spaces. By 1889, a shift in business locations and an economic turndown moved many of the businesses of south Harrison up the avenue to the north. Many of the storefronts were vacant by 1889. [10] Sandusky likely took advantage of inexpensive rent during the downturn. During the spring of 1889, a two year old child of Abraham and Jennie named Joseph died and was buried in Evergreen Cemetery.

Starting in 1890, the “J. S. Sandusky” store first appears in Leadville directories. This store was located at 114 Harrison Avenue. Abraham was listed as an upholsterer there. The name remained as Abraham and Jennie’s primary store for many years, albeit at different locations throughout Leadville. The J.S. likely refers to Jennie, who probably owned or operated the space with Abraham as her business partner. Abraham’s wife Jennie was fined $5 by a police court for “breach of the peace” in March. [11] In September Abraham bought a portion of the St. Louis Smelting company addition for $800 from George Raymond. [12] This purchase was listed as Block 1; which would put it near the intersection of at the head of Chestnut, Oak and East 2nd Street. It was an empty lot in 1889. [13]

 

1891 was quiet on news from Abraham’s household. Their store was still located at 113 Harrison Avenue. He and Jennie presumably lived there and continued to build up the store.

 

 

Expansions and troubles occurred in 1892. Abraham purchased or leased store space at 115 Harrison Avenue; next door to where he and Jennie had operated the previous two years at 113. Presumably from this point they operated out of both storefronts. He also applied for a permit to build an addition to his buildings in August. [14] Earlier in August he was arrested for possessing an illegal amount of gasoline in the city limits. Fire was a constant concern in mountain towns. It was likely coal oil, which was an early version of modern gasoline. Coal oil is very explosive and the city government treated it as a serious fire hazard. Abraham was arrested for alleged possession of over 50 gallons of gasoline in a tank behind his store; city ordinance allowed for no more than four. The result or criminal charges for the event are unknown. The reason Abraham had such a large amount of gasoline was unstated. [15]

 

Abraham and Jennie’s status in 1893 cannot be found in any records. The Leadville city directory from this year is not extant and there is no sign of either Jennie or Abraham in the newspapers. Presumably the store continued to operate. The year is known to posterity as an especially difficult one for Leadville. A depression followed the collapse of silver prices in 1893, and many businesses and individuals left Leadville.

The Sandusky household endured however. In 1894, they were listed in the directory at 113-115 Harrison Avenue. Abraham expanded his interests and leased the Iron Lode in California Gulch “for a period of two years” starting in November. [16] The first appearance of their young daughter Ethel in a newspaper occurs in May; she is listed as pupil in room no. 1 of H. A. Harris’s class. She was around 6 years old at the time and was probably finishing first or second grade. In October 1894, she is again listed in room no. 1 with H. A. Harris as teacher. Ethel was often listed over the years as a participant in concerts and singing events in town. She is also listed among those pupils who were “neither absent nor tardy” for several semesters. [17] In 1895, she was listed at “Central School, basement room, Cecile O’Leary, teacher.” [18] Given the number of notices in the newspapers, songs and singing were an important part of the Leadville school curriculum in the 1890s. In the autumn of 1894, the high rate of infant mortality again struck the Sandusky household. Jennie gave birth to a daughter named Belle who only lived for a month and was buried in the Hebrew section of Evergreen Cemetery on October 29, 1894.

 

 

In early 1897, Jennie bought 517 Harrison Avenue from Ida Elder. This is also the first year that the J. S. Sandusky store has two locations: 517 and 113 Harrison Avenues. 517 Harrison was a wood frame store that extended to the west side commercial ally way between Harrison and Pine Streets. It was two buildings to the north of the Lake County Courthouse and is listed as a store in the 1895 Sanborn Map. [19] Jennie paid $5,100 for the property, which in 2018 would be around $300,000. [20] Given the location and the price, this was a prime location. Abraham was also approved for a “surety saloon bond” for a man named M. Pfannanschmidt in August. Pfannanschmidt owned a restaurant and boarding house next to the J.S Sandusky store at 111 Harrison Avenue. Another Sandusky child appears in the newspapers starting in 1897: Jacob. In the 1900 census he was listed as 10 years of age. He was around 6 or 7 years old in 1897 and like his sister, attended the class of H. A. Harris in room 1 of Central School. [21] In 1898, Jacob and Ethel are both listed on the honor roll of room 2 and 4 respectively. [22] The room number at the time likely was the grade level of the students; 2nd and 4th. A son named Mendel was born in 1897 or 1898 and begins to appear in newspapers by 1902.

The first year Abraham is listed in the city directories as a manager of the two J.S. Sandusky stores is 1898. Presumably he conducted various business in the stores in other ways prior to this year.

 

Unusual fortune in the mining realm came to the Sanduskys in the summer of 1899. On August 4th, an announcement was made in local papers of the discovery of a 60 pound specimen containing free gold in the Red Mountain Mining District. The specimen was found on “…Atlanta hill, eight miles southwest of Twin Lakes”. The property on which the specimen originated belonged to “J.S. Sandusky”. This is presumably because Jennie owned the land. Abraham worked the claim, and the article quotes “Mr. Sandusky”. [23] In September, a group of men claiming to be experts came into Leadville to see the claim. An article in the Herald Democrat begins, “Abe Sandusky is experiencing the usual fate of those who strike it rich.” After Abe showed the specimens and the area near Twin Lakes from which they were extracted, the experts demanded that Abraham pay their hotel bill. This he refused and the experts returned to Leadville with an alleged “…blow out story”; they tried to spread a rumor that high value ore was introduced to make the strike appear more impressive. [24] 1899 was also the year a daughter named Leah was born to the Sandusky household.

A curious event involved the Sandusky family in late 1899. In September, a man named Deems had met Mr. Sandusky after being initiated into a secret club. During the course of their interaction Deems had Mr. Sandusky sign a note for a donation of $100. Mr. Sandusky later thought it better to cancel the note. A few weeks later, the bank sent the Sanduskys a letter asking for payment of the $100. Abraham and Jennie thought the charge was forged by Deems and were not prepared to pay. They had Deems arrested shortly after. Following a trial in December, Deems was acquitted of forgery and nothing more came of the matter.  [25]

 

Starting in 1900, the Sandusky family begin to appear in the newspapers with increasing frequency. On January 7th, the family had a close call. A fire broke out in a neighboring structure owned by the above mentioned Pfannanschmidt. The first to notice was a young clerk of Sandusky’s store who according to an article in the Herald Democrat, “…adopted the effective feminine method of sounding an alarm by shrieking and screaming vigorously, and in about fifteen minutes somebody turned in an alarm.” The fire damaged a good portion of the block. The Sandusky store took the brunt of the fire with $5,000 of the fire’s total $6,000 damage done there. The residential unit in which the Sandusky family lived reportedly took the most damage. [26]

Another unusual event visited Mr. Sandusky in the fall of 1899. On the night of September 14, a flag that he had nailed to his building was hauled down. The flag was in front of a window of The Western Federation of Miners who rented office space from Sandusky. When the union representatives returned the flag to Sandusky, they stated flag was removed because: “…the flag obscured the window, and also that they (the union) hadn’t any use for the soldiers anyhow.” Later Abraham said he did not like the way the union behaved about the flag or the lack of patriotism. As context, this event came months after the end of the Spanish-American war and nearly 3 years to the day of the labor violence that resulted in two deaths, militia deployment, and extensive damage to Leadville mines and economy. The event was explored by editorial and article for several weeks after. [27]

 

Starting in 1900, Minnie also appears on the honor roll of Central School Room 1 like her brother Jacob and sister Ethel. [28] Clearly education was important in the Sandusky family. Also, they were fairly socially conscious. This was the year in which the new St. Vincent hospital on the east side was built and Mrs. Sandusky donated a “sofa pillow”. [29] There are several other instances of small donations over the years by all members of the Sandusky family.

Probably as a result of the fire behind their Harrison Avenue business earlier in the year, the family moved to 145 West 5th Street in 1900. [30] They would reside here for another 20 years. In the census of 1900 the Sandusky household is listed as follows: Abraham 37, Jennie 34, Ethel 13, Jacob 10, Minnie 8, Mendel 3, and Leah 1. There is also a 30 year old Austrian servant in the household named Gertrude Pertinell. The final child in the Sandusky family would come in 1902.

 

Another legal event visited the Sandusky household in 1900. Abraham bought a horse from an individual named Beneski so the man could pay his jail bail bond for an arson charge. For Abraham, the act was apparently charitable in nature. He allowed the horse to stay in Beneski’s barn on the east side of town. Sometime later, Abraham wanted use of the horse and went to ask Beneski. Beneski claimed that the horse had been sold and had been taken to another town. Not trusting Beneski, Abraham went to a constable named Adolphson and asked to search the barn for his horse. Upon inspecting the barn, the constable found the horse but a confrontation followed. The article continues,

An advertisement for Sandusky's in

The Herald Democrat, December 3, 1904.

The Sandusky household was located at 145 West 5th Street. This house is still standing in 2018.

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map 1895,

Courtesy Library of Congress

“…A few minutes later a man with a candlestick in hand and dinner bucket strapped across his shoulder appeared on the site and attempted to saddle the horse, saying he had just bought it from Mrs. Beneski, but the constable refused to give up possession. Mrs. Beneski now took part in the proceedings and after abusing the constable to the best of her ability, without causing him to retreat from his position, set upon him with tooth and nail and it looked as though the constable was going to lose the few reaming hairs on his head, but luckily she spared his hair and was shaken off after administering several bad scratches. Amid a shower of rocks the constable then left the scene of action, refraining from putting the woman in jail on account of her small children which would be left without care. Mr. Sandusky now has his horse and states Andy is the best constable Lake county ever had.”

 

The new year 1901 began prosperously for the Sanduskys. In the January 1st article of the Herald Democrat the following is said of the two stores the family operated:  [31]

“Mrs. J. S. Sandusky has carried on his business at 111 1/2, 113 and 115 Harrison avenue and also at 5l7 Harrison avenue, with a very gratifying measure of prosperity and profit during the year just ended. Both places of business have received considerable improvement, especially that at 517 Harrison avenue to which Mr. Sandusky devotes the greater part of his time. His stocks of furniture, carpets, crockery, stoves and tinware have been largely increased in each instance, with a corresponding increase in the volume of business transacted. A new balcony was added which furnished much needed room for the display of goods and it is well lighted and altogether a very attractive room. Mr. Sandusky’s mercantile interests divide his time with the care of numerous mining investments which, as they increase, call for more and more watchfulness and care and furnish a study and excitement which he apparently enjoys heartily. It is therefore a most valuable acquisition that Mrs. Sandusky assists her husband very materially and her familiar and genial countenance is one that shows plainly her painstaking interest in the business which contributes largely to its success.”

Later in January 1901 Abraham and a man named German were asked to pay $500 bond for Beneski who “decamped” the previous summer. This was the continuation of the horse incident from above; Abraham and German ultimately had to pay the bond for the man. In the spring of 1901, Ethel sung a solo at a ball at City Hall. The song was entitled “When the Harvest Days Are Over”. The Library of Congress has a recording of this song which was made a few months before Ethel’s performance in 1901.  Along with John Phillips Sousa marches, it was a very popular song early in the 20th century.

 

In March, a friend of Abraham named H. S. Samuels died at Garfield, Chaffee County. The body was sent to Abraham so he could arrange the funeral in the Hebrew section of Evergreen Cemetery. Later in the article it is explained that Samuels lost his arm in a riot in Butte, Montana and never regained his health. [32] Later in the summer of 1901, a man was found dead in a barn between Chestnut and 2nd Streets owned by Abraham. The Herald Democrat elaborates:

“Chas. Keepingrink was a well known character of the ‘bum’ order. He was about forty-five years of age but looked much older as a result of a constant dissipation. He came to Leadville about fifteen years ago from St. Louis, where he bore a good reputation and was respected. He fell into a rut of dissipation on coming west.”

 

The cause of death was unknown; the barn had been locked from the inside and police surmised that Keepingrink had fallen ill and taken shelter there to sleep in the hay. He later struck his head on the floor which caused a broken nose, and ultimate death. He had been lying there for several days. [33] The Sandusky family including Jennie, Abraham, Minnie, Ethel, and Jacob contributed 10 cents to the President McKinnley memorial fund after his assassination in September of 1901.

The religious affiliation of the Sandusky family can be determined from an event in June of 1901. A Denver rabbi named Farber lectured at Knesseth Israel Orthodox Synagogue on 5th Street and was hosted for a few days by the Sandusky family. The family clearly attended the Orthodox Knesseth Temple as opposed to the Reform Temple Israel. In point of fact, by 1903 Abraham is listed among the officers of Knesseth. [34] However, Ethel and Jacob both sung at services at Temple Israel during this period, as noted below.

 

The Sandusky children began to appear more frequently in the newspapers starting in 1902. The youngest daughter Frieda was born late in December. [35] During the summer Ethel is involved in a “confirmation” service for 6 young attendees of the Temple Israel Sunday School as a member of the choir. [36] She is involved in numerous other singing and choir engagements throughout the city; her activity is impressive and frequent. Her performances are often listed in the city newspapers of 1902.

These performances included: Turner Hall Leadville Maennerchor (a German-American singing club) “Gesang” solo which was “…very credible and met with much applause.” [37], a “Jewish Sunday School” Purim service solo; a solo at Elks Lodge entitled “I’ve Come to Say

Farewell”; a flower themed benefit for the Presbyterian Church where she played a singing “Rose”; a song for the “Cloud City Rebecca Lodge” (a female chapter of the Odd Fellows); another solo at an anniversary party of the Knights of Pythians; an opening solo at an extremely lively Eagles Club “smoker” party in which she is described as “… a more than promising singer…” [38]; a solo entitled “I’ve Read It In Those Dear Eyes” for the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic; [39] among many others. Ethel’s voice was clearly in great demand for clubs and events. In business, the stores on Harrison functioned much the same as they had for the previous decade. However, J.S Sandusky appears frequently in the delinquent tax columns and 10 properties (mostly mining claims) are listed as unpaid by the end of 1902. The Sandusky store continued to operate at 517 Harrison Avenue and an advertisement for Christmas items was published in December of 1904. [40]

Throughout the early 1900’s, both Ethel and Jacob were heavily involved in song performances throughout the city. It would appear from the large number of advertisements of the timeframe 1904-1906 that Ethel was employed at the Imperial Theater at 610 Harrison Avenue (Galloway Block) This theater was a converted store which was a typical early phenomenon during the transition from stage centered performances to cinema. Jacob also appeared on the bill of performers. They were both typically involved in a long lost entertainment genre: the illustrated song. The Imperial charged 10 cents for admission according to one advertisement in 1904. This was twice the average for a “Nickelodeon” in other parts of the nation which typically charged 5 cents. The Elks Opera House (Tabor Opera House) also charged 10 cents. [41] Unlike nickelodeons of the time, the emphasis at the Imperial was more on live performances and songs with the occasional “moving picture”. [42] Amount the songs she sung in 1904  and 1905 at the Imperial were “When the Sunset Turns the Ocean’s Blue to Gold”, “I Want My Mama”, “Your [sic] the Flower of My Heart Adeline”, “Somebody’s Waiting ‘Neath the Southern Skies”, “Drifting Along with the City’s Tide”, “Down at the Body’s Store”, and “The Letter That Came too Late” at Elk’s Opera House. Ethel

also sung and possibly spoke German as was noted in the German song she sung for the Maennerchor as well as for an event in 1905 at the Leadville Turnverein Club in which she sung “Veilschen”. [43]

 

A close call with fire came to the Sanduskys during the celebrations of July 4th. During the course of the celebrations on Harrison Avenue, a roman candle lit the flag bunting that Abraham had draped across his store. The fire soon consumed the bunting but nothing else. The article continues: “Mr. Sandusky had gotten on the roof and put out the embers before the firemen arrived.” [44]

Stage Bill including Ethel Sandusky

in The Herald Democrat,

April 10, 1904.

Abraham continued to have a presence in the mining district in the early years of the 20th Century. In August of 1905, a man was charged with “malicious mischief” after he tore down a sign on one of Abraham’s mining properties near Granite. [45] The dispute is centered around water and property access. [46] The same month, a short “Around the City” notice gives an indication of the attitude and character of Mr. Abe Sandusky:

 

“Abe Sandusky does not wait for council or anything else, but is going ahead to put down a cement sidewalk in front of his store. The extent of the sidewalk will be fifty feet.” [47] A few days later, Abraham’s haste was unrewarded when he encountered “obstructions” with the sidewalk construction. He was unable to continue to lay pavement and asked the Mayor for help at an August 30th City Council meeting. He received no help at the time of the meeting. [48]

 

Delinquent taxes are listed for seven properties unpaid by Sandusky at the end of 1905.

In 1906 Jacob and Ethel continued performances at the Elks Opera House, the Imperial Theater, as well as other social venues in the city. In the year leading up to the financial panic at the end of 1907, business became difficult in Leadville. Abraham published a series of advertisements claiming he planned to sell the store at 517 Harrison Avenue. The nearly full page advertisements published a list of articles for sale. These items are much the same as a large bedroom and bath supply chain today such as Ikea or Bed, Bath, and Beyond. Items included mattresses, cupboards, plates, silverware, some toys, and carpets. [49] It does not appear that the store changed name however, as into the spring of 1907 there continue to be small advertisements for “Sandusky’s” at 517 Harrison Avenue. [50]  The store hung red, white and blue for an Elk’s Club convention that visited Leadville in June of 1907. [51] It is unclear to what extent the Sandusky family were involved in the store after 1907. The store published a help wanted advertisement for “fifteen sales ladies and boys” in September of 1907. [52] Abraham continued his interests in mining and in April it is reported:

“A strike of $25 ore in the Cleveland tunnel is reported as the latest development from upper California Gulch. The streak is a wide one and the assays show half an ounce in gold, four percent in copper and 12 ounces in silver. The property is under lease to Sandusky and Bochatey and the ground is owned by Dr. Cook.”

 

In 1908, Ethel and Jacob continue to perform popular songs in venues throughout the city including the Empire and the Dreamland theaters. Abraham worked as a foreman at a mine named the “Iron Hat” near Graham Park in September of 1908. That month a young man named Peter Damjanovich was killed in a cave-in at the mine. He had been hired earlier in the year by Abraham. [53]

 

By 1909, singing performances by Jacob and Ethel were fewer than the previous 4 years. Minnie made several appearances in the newspaper during the spring and autumn as a member of two school debate clubs, “The Fortnightly” and “The Castalian”. Topics included “Resolved that co-education in public schools is desirable” and “Resolved that Football should be abolished”. [54] Ethel argued that co-education was desirable and that football should not be abolished. [55] Jacob and Ethel  sung for a Yom Kippur service at Temple Israel in September [56] and

both performed at the Empire Theater throughout the year. [57] The Sandusky family appeared at a function of the Turnverein Club in August. The Herald Democrat reported that nearly 100 members of the club were present and specially brewed beer from the Columbine Brewery was consumed. There were shot put, swimming, and jumping contests as well as picnic food of “Dutch” variety. The event centered around the Turner Outing Clubhouse on the shore of Turquoise Lake.

 

In late 1909 the funeral of Henry Miller took place at Temple Israel. The 18 year old Henry had been accidentally shot by a police officer who was clubbing a dog with his pistol. Jacob Sandusky acted as pall bearer and the young man was interned at the Hebrew Cemetery under a “…cold dreary and sunless sky…”. [58]

 

Early in 1910, Both Jennie and Abraham were involved in a dispute over ownership of the Indus Placer near Twin Lakes. The case was titled “Twin Lakes Placers Ltd. vs. A.I. Sandusky, J.S. Sandusky and J.A. Lamping” and was listed in the Colorado circuit court of pending cases in May of 1910. [59] The Sanduskys are also listed at another annual picnic of the Turnverein Club in the summer of 1910.

Abraham Sandusky

Senior photo of Ethel Sandusky in the 1908 yearbook for Leadville High School

Courtesy Lake County Library Mountain History collection

Senior photo of Minnie Sandusky in the 1912 yearbook for Leadville High School

Courtesy Lake County Library Mountain History collection

Minnie Sandusky in 1912.

Ethel, the oldest child of the Sandusky household, moved to Denver sometime in the second half of 1910. The Herald Democrat listed her return to Denver after a visit to her parents in Leadville in September. [60] According to the 1910 census, the Sandusky Family still lived at 145 West 5th Street. There were a wide range of ages in the Sandusky household that year; the children were elementary to university age. Abraham was listed as 48, Jennie 45, Ethel 21, Jacob 19, Minnie 16, Mendel 14, Leah 10, Frieda 7. [61]

 

By 1911, Frieda and Minnie appeared in the newspapers for various academics at the 9th Street School and Ethel continued to visit from Denver intermittently. Details of the life of the Sandusky family begin to dwindle in newspapers during the early 1910s.

 

Minnie graduated high school in 1912. [62] In November, Abraham was a pall bearer for the internment of M. Zeiler in the Hebrew Cemetery. [63] The lease of 517 Harrison Avenue, which had been the Sandusky store, was transferred from Jennie Sandusky to F.M. Keiser in July and may have signaled a change of storefronts. [64] During these years, there were no advertisements in the Herald Democrat for a store with the name Sandusky on it.

In June of 1913, Jennie had a successful “abdominal operation” at St. Vincent’s Hospital and was home by the end of the month. [65] During the course of 1913 both Jacob and Ethel were active again in singing and clubs of Leadville, including the Woodmen of the World, Shack Club, Elk’s, Eagles, as well as performances at Christian Science reading room in 1913 and an Episcopal Service at St. George Church in 1914. Ethel returned to Leadville full time and no trips to or from Denver are noted.

 

Jennie published the sale of the storefront at 517 Harrison starting in February of 1914. [66] This sale was a result of a default in payments on the building. [67] The column appears for most of February and March and was presumably sold by the late spring.

 

Minnie is listed as “… here from Wortman for the Christmas Holidays.” [68] Wortman was a railroad siding in Lake County which included a post office in 1900. The very small townsite was likely named for the Wortman family who were located in “Putman’s Gulch” in the 1910 census. [69] The family included George and Lillie Wortman, four children, and a 75 year old “boarder” from Canada. This Gulch is not listed in Lake County topographical maps, but is listed after Birdseye and before

 

 Climax in the 1910 census. This points to the location of the settlement as the immediate area around Fremont Pass. According to the USGS, Wortman was near Alicante and below the town of Climax. [70] Why Minnie was located here is unknown, but she was presumably employed by Mr. and Mrs. Wortman.

 

The year 1915 passed the Sandusky household with few mentions of mining or commercial interests. Jacob and Ethel appear more frequently at a similar lineup of singing performances throughout Leadville. In 1916, Jacob even has his own stage bill advertisement published in the Herald Democrat. Minnie again made regular trips between Leadville and the siding at Wortman on Fremont Pass. [71] She is mentioned as “…in the city [Leadville] with Mrs. Wortman” in April of 1915. [72] In August, Minnie is mentioned in the personal column as recently returned from a trip to Glenwood Springs where she had attended a “Teacher’s Institute”. [73]

 

Jacob was involved in a shooting incident in April of 1916. He departed a “stag” party which had been held in the Emmet Block at a late hour and was subsequently shot at by Jimmy Lynch. Sandusky was not injured, but ran from the building and was later cornered by a Leadville constable on patrol that night. A trial the next day colorfully explained the circumstances of the shooting:

“… ‘I think he was drunk’ was Dr. O’Leary’s explanation of why Lynch came to fire the shot that furnished gossip for Leadville the following day. Lynch had had a quarrel with Sandusky a short time before the shooting, he said. ‘The two boys got to scrapping very suddenly and unexpectedly’, he said. ‘I tried to get them apart, and succeeded. The first thing I knew then Lynch had reached in the drawer, got his gun and fired it.’ He wasn't sure what Lynch was aiming at ‘Sandusky wasn't in sight.’ he said. ‘Whether or not he fired at Sandusky, I don't know’

 

Jacob testified, “‘…having come from a jitney dance and having met Carl Peterson on the way, ‘He [Lynch] hadn't had a drink’. ‘Lynch was agreeable when I first went into his office.’ he said ‘Then all of sudden he told us no one could leave the room. Harrington left just ahead of me, and I stated to follow him. Lynch pushed the door, just as I was going out, and my leg and threw his arms around my neck. I asked Dr. O’Leary to part us. I didn’t want to have any trouble. Dr. O’Leary did part us. I heard Lynch scrambling in the drawer and went for the hall.’ The crowded courtroom laughed and, and when the court asked Sandusky if he was in sight when Lynch fired, the spectators twittered again when he answered, ‘No I was around the corner going home.’”

This photo dates to 1885. However, the buildings that burned in the 1916 fire are within the circle. Sandusky’s store was the small building in the middle.

Courtesy Denver Public Library Western History Collection: William Henry Jackson.

“… ‘I think he was drunk’ was Dr. O’Leary’s explanation of why Lynch came to fire the shot that furnished gossip for Leadville the following day. Lynch had had a quarrel with Sandusky a short time before the shooting, he said. ‘The two boys got to scrapping very suddenly and unexpectedly’, he said. ‘I tried to get them apart, and succeeded. The first thing I knew then Lynch had reached in the drawer, got his gun and fired it.’ He wasn't sure what Lynch was aiming at ‘Sandusky wasn't in sight.’ he said. ‘Whether or not he fired at Sandusky, I don't know’

 

Jacob testified, “‘…having come from a jitney dance and having met Carl Peterson on the way, ‘He [Lynch] hadn't had a drink’. ‘Lynch was agreeable when I first went into his office.’ he said ‘Then all of sudden he told us no one could leave the room. Harrington left just ahead of me, and I stated to follow him. Lynch pushed the door, just as I was going out, and my leg and threw his arms around my neck. I asked Dr. O’Leary to part us. I didn’t want to have any trouble. Dr. O’Leary did part us. I heard Lynch scrambling in the drawer and went for the hall.’ The crowded courtroom laughed and, and when the court asked Sandusky if he was in sight when Lynch fired, the spectators twittered again when he answered, ‘No I was around the corner going home.’”

“Asked if he had a statement to make, Lynch said, ‘The only thing I can say is that I was drunk and didn’t know what I was doing’”. He had torn a door off of the hinges and created a mess in the apartment when police arrived. A friend named Van Scoy testified that Lynch had good character, but Lynch came back with, “‘That is kind of you, Van Scoy and all that,” said Lynch getting up, ‘but I don't want any mercy. I pulled the stunt and that is all.’” Jacob later said he did not want to prosecute and the affair was concluded with a small court fine for Lynch and the justice quoted with the statement, “‘The best thing you can do, is to cut these parties out and be more careful. The next one you have is liable to end up in something more serious.” [74]

 

In January of 1916 fire again visited Harrison Avenue. At 2:30 AM a fire broke out at Robert Sayer’s shoe shop and quickly consumed the Sandusky Jewelry shop and an adjoining vacant storefront. According to the Herald Democrat, the buildings “…burned like oiled cotton.” These wooden frame structures likely dated from the early days of Leadville. Winds in the night [75] and the tinder dry structures made for a fast fire. By 3 AM, the fire department had made progress however and, with the help of volunteers, a fourth structure was

 saved and some stock was moved into the street. Jacob and Jennie arrived at some point in the morning to try and save some stock from their store. The Herald Democrat describes, “No occupants were in these three frames buildings at the time, but the Sanduskys were soon notified and appeared on the scene to rescue whatever valuables possible. No insurance was carried on the building and stock, Jake Sandusky said. The latter and Mrs. Sandusky broke the show window and took out what jewelry they could reach before being endangered by smoke.”

 

The year 1917 proved to be active in Leadville and with the Sanduskys. Beginning early in the year, the songs that Ethel and Jacob performed became more patriotic. At a Women’s Club meeting in February, Ethel eulogized “American Music” and sung “The Star Spangled Banner”. [76] Both Jacob and Ethel sang at ever more popular patriotic events throughout the year as America geared up for the First World War. Mendel and Jacob, the two Sandusky sons, were listed as eligible for military service on “Lake County’s Roll of Honor” on June 11, 1917. [77] Jacob was called for a military physical exam on August 21st [78] and Mendel was called for the same exam on August 8th [79]. Mendel was rejected from military service “owing to physical deficiencies” on August 10th. The beginning of the article

explained that of the 115 total men examined to that point, 24 had passed. At the session Mendel attended on August 8th, only 8 of the 35 who were called passed the exam. [80] Like his brother Mendel, Jacob was rejected from military service on August 27 for “physical deficiencies”. [81] The physical deficiencies were not noted in the newspaper. Many men were also declared ineligible because they were married or were employed in a strategically sensitive profession such as mining or railroaders. As it later turned out, Jacob was able to join a few months after and was sent to Kansas for training in 1918.

In June, Abraham is listed in a newspaper personal mention column as looking after interests at a Park County mining property. [82] There are also advertisements in December of 1917 for a new Sandusky jewelry store location at 313 Harrison Avenue. [83]  In October, Ethel bid on a half interest in a delinquent tax sale of the “Maid” claims number 1 through 4. The newspaper notice explains that the total area of the four Maid claims in California Gulch is 37,000 acres(??); this was a very sizable gain for the Sanduskys. [84] The taxes were never paid, and the deed to the properties was given to Ethel on January 21, 1918 after she paid $29.67. [85] Ethel and Jacob sung at more than 10 services, parties and engagements throughout 1917 as noted by the newspapers.

In 1918, the war effort in the United States was fully engaged. It appears that Jacob eventually enlisted in the military and departed for Camp Funston, Kansas, on the evening of April 27, 1918. [86] Jacob was still stationed stateside in September of 1918 when a telegram was sent to Sandusky and four other military members of the Knessesth Israel Synagogue who were away from Leadville on Rosh Hashana. The article elaborates:

 

“Message to Jewish Boys in Service- ‘Leshono Tabo Tecosavoo’, read a message sent yesterday to Knesseth Israel congregation of Leadville to five members who are serving in the American Army and Navy, and the expression means ‘Happy New Year’. It was dispatched to Sargent Maurice Miller, Louis Naginsky, Isadore Mankuss, Meyer Stager and Jake Sandusky, all of them Leadville boys who are now on duty in camps in this country, both east and west, with the exception of Mankuss, who is a sailor aboard ship in the Atlantic. Mankuss volunteered for the navy early this year. The other four were called for the national army early this summer. The message, signed by S. J Alter chairman of the special committee said: “By a raising vote to our services, congregation Knesseth Israel conveys to you hearty New Year Greetings. We are proud that you are fighting for America, our country, and our prayers are offered that you may do your duty nobly and return home safely. The message occasioned by Rosh Hoshana the Jewish New Year, the festival of which ended last evening with the beginning of Yom Kippur.” [87]

Ethel was once again prolific in Leadville for her song performances. She is listed five times in 1918 for songs she performed at funerals both Christian and Jewish. Jacob performed at fewer venues in 1918 as he left for military service in the late spring. In the mid-summer, Minnie and Leah participated in a “mine rescue car” first aid program by the Bureau of Mines. The group visited Gilman, Climax, Red Cliff, and Breckenridge during the training and were based in Leadville. [88]

 

In 1919, the Sanduskys increased the frequency of advertisements for their store at 313 Harrison Avenue. The weekly advertisements claimed “Highest prices paid for diamonds, Jewelry, and Liberty bonds. E. Sandusky 313 Harrison avenue.” The “E.” in the advertisement is Ethel, as she had taken over the business. [89] In January, around $300 in diamonds were stolen from 313 Harrison Avenue by a bold thief who simply broke the storefront glass and “helped himself” to the jewelry within. [90] The supposed thief was caught on East 6th Street in May.

 

Jacob was mustered out of military service in January of 1919. According to the Herald Democrat, he was sent to California after initial training in Kansas and was on call to be deployed to Siberia when the armistice occurred in November of 1918. [91] He was stationed at the San Fransisco Presidio and was honorably discharged on February 1. He returned home on February 9, 1919. [92]

According to the 1920 Federal census the Sandusky household at 145 West 5th Street was the following: Abraham 60, Jennie 52, Ethel 30, Jacob 26, Minnie 24, Mendel 22, Leah 18, and Frieda 15. This was the last year during which all six Sandusky children lived at the house at 145 West 5th Street. In September, Minnie left Leadville to teach in Emma, Pitkin County, and Leah left to teach in Pueblo. [93] Mendel also left Leadville for Pueblo in 1920. [94] He is listed as an employee of Colorado Fuel and Iron Steelworks. His registration card lists him as a 5 foot 9 inch, 132 pound, 23 year old with a “crooked little finger on right hand”. The registration is dated January 26, 1920. Mendel is listed as self-employed from 1918 until 1920 on the card. Ethel and Jacob continued to operate the store on Harrison Avenue. The store expanded to sell shoes, “first class” second hand furniture, and gems in 1920. Advertisements in the Herald Democrat occurred on a weekly basis the entire year. Ethel, Frieda and Jacob returned to performing songs at the Elk’s Opera House, The Women’s Club, and several funerals.

In the late summer, a wandering fugitive named George Smith purchased several pistols and a rifle at the Sandusky store. Upon recognizing Smith, Ethel or Jacob notified authorities. The Lake County sheriff traced his movements around the base of Mt. Massive and Twin Lakes. Smith traveled further south after buying the weapons, and they were later found concealed in gunnysacks at a prison labor rock quarry near Cañon City. [95] The weapons were dropped into the quarry at night and the plan called for the convict laborers to eventually take up the arms against the prison guards. Smith was located west of Leadville, the weapons were found, and the armed breakout was foiled. [96]

 

In 1921, Freda was in late high school and, like her sisters, participated in a debate club. [97] Besides the notices about Freda, early 1921 was quiet for the Sanduskys. The store continued to operate at 313 Harrison Avenue and transitioned to an emphasis on furniture. [98] In early April, Jacob was involved in a automobile accident. The Herald Democrat elaborates:

“Machine went in ditch- If the speedometer on a National car correctly indicates the rate the machine was moving, then exactly at 2:19 yesterday afternoon, near a culvert near Bucktown, it was racing at 75 miles per hour. Then it went into the ditch. The exact moment of the accident is known because the watch of Jake Sandusky was jolted so hard that it stopped too. George Berkhardt was another passenger but escaped unhurt. The driver of the National was J. Stout, an auto salesman engaged in giving a ‘demonstration’ of the machine. It is now in Mandy’s garage with a broken axle the front wheel off and a few other casualties. How the occupants of the car escaped is another evidence that the age of miracles is not over.” [99]

 

In early June, massive flooding occurred along the lower Arkansas. Ethel, Minnie and Leah were visiting relatives in Pueblo at the time and were reported safe by the Herald Democrat the day after the most severe flooding. [100] In October, Mendel was working a mine in Montezuma, Summit County, and was injured when a piece of steel lodged in his eye. His eye was operated upon in Denver a week after the accident and was predicated to be a success. [101] Ethel and Jacob continued to operate the store and attended Shack and Elks

Club dances and events. On armistice day, Jacob sang a patriotic song entitled “There’s A Long Long Trail” to a fully occupied Elks Opera House at a reunion of soldiers sponsored by the Leadville Women’s Club. [102] The Herald Democrat elaborates: “… Jake Sandusky rekindled the fires that burned in the hearts of all true Americans in 1917-1918 when the country was in peril with his creditable rendering of ‘The Long Long Trail.’”

 

In December, a vagrant man tried to break into the back of the Sandusky store on Harrison Avenue. The Herald Democrat reported that both Jacob, who was living in back of the store at the time, and Ed O’Leary, who was also living behind his soda shop, shot at the burglar but missed. Both bullets lodged in the window through which the robber escaped. [103]

 

The Sanduskys appear less frequently in newspapers as the 1920s progressed. Mendel relocated to Pueblo by 1920 and Leah, Minnie, and Freda followed soon after. Jennie died in January of 1929 and was buried in Roselawn Cemetery, Pueblo. [104] According to the 1930 Federal Census, Abraham and Jacob still lived behind or above the store at 313 Harrison Avenue in Leadville. [105] In the middle to late 1920s Ethel moved to Denver. She married Hungarian immigrant Samuel Edelman in June of 1928. The couple returned to Leadville by 1940. In the 1940 census Samuel 50, Ethel 51, and Abraham Sandusky 78, lived in the same residence at 621 Harrison Avenue. [106] Abraham died in 1944 and was buried with Jennie in Pueblo. [107]

 

Jacob moved to California in the 1930s. He died in 1950 in San Francisco and was buried at Salem Memorial Park in San Mateo. [108]

 

Mendel likely lived in Pueblo the remainder of his life. He was listed without an occupation in the 1930 census [109] and at a mental health institution in 1940. [110] He died in Pueblo and was buried at the Roselawn Cemetery with his parents in 1962. [111]

 

Ethel remained for an unknown time in Leadville. She likely left before the 1950s and died in California in 1964. [112]

According to the 1930 census Minnie lived in a boarding house in Pueblo and was a teacher. [113] By 1940, she lived by herself and was still listed as a teacher. [114] In 1961, she had moved to Denver and was as a resident of “Wash St.” apartment.[115]  She never married and died in 1963. She is buried with the other Sanduskys in the Roselawn cemetery.

 

Leah was probably the longest lived of the Sandusky children. Records for her residence in the 1930 census list her in a boarding house in Denver. [116] The 1940 census found her in another boarding house in Denver and unmarried. She eventually married a man named Rosenthal. Leah died in 1981. She is buried in the Fairmount Cemetery of Denver. [117] Records for the later life of Freda, the youngest Sandusky daughter could not be found.

 

The Sandusky family stayed in Leadville longer most other Jewish families. Abraham and Ethel remained until at least the 1940s. From Abraham’s early days at the East 4th Street bathhouse to his final years in Ethel’s household in the early 1940s, the Sanduskys were a lively and active family.

 

 

1 1910 Federal Census

2 Colorado, County Marriage Records and State Index, 1862-2006 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016.

3 Denver City Directory 1886 p. 314

4 Leadville City Directory 1887 p 234

5 “The Turkish Treat” Leadville, CO; USA, Carbonate Chronicle, July 26, 1886 p 8

6 “An Unprovoked Assault” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 30, 1887 p 4

7 "Personal" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 8, 1887 p 3

8 Denver City Directory 1888 p 781

9 “Personal" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, March 27, 1888 p 3

10 1889 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map

11 "Police Court” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, March 8, 1890 p.4

12 "With the Recorder" Herald Democrat, September 20, 1890 p 5

13 1889 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map

14 "The Aldermanic Board" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 17, 1892 p 8

15 "Violated the Ordinance" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 6, 1892 p 7

16 "Mining Lease Filed" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 23, 1894 p 3

17 "The City Public Schools" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, October 5, 1894 p 5

18 “They Will Render Thanks: Happy School Children Will Sing Praises for the Good Things of the Past Year” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 27, 1895 p 5

19 1895 Sanborn Fire Insurance Map

20 http://www.historicalstatistics.org/Currencyconverter.html

21 "The Leadville Public Schools" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 9, 1897 p 2

22 “Leadville Public Schools Role of Honor” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, December 12, 1898 p 4

23 "Mammoth Copper Vein in Red Mountain Country Contains Gold" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 4, 1899 p 1

24 “To Widen the Scope” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 20, 1899 p 1

25 “Deems Acquitted” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 24, 1899 pg 8

26"Fire on the Avenue Did Considerable Damage" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, January 7, 1900 p 5

27 “Hauled Down Flag” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 14, 1899 p 7

28 “February Roll of Honor Leadville Public Schools” Carbonate Chronicle, March 19, 1900 p 6

29 “The Noble Effort of the Sisters to Build a Great Hospital in Leadville” Carbonate Chronicle, November 5, 1900 p 5

30 Leadville City Directory 1900

31 "Sandusky's Store" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, January 1, 1901 p 6

32 “Body of Samuels Brought From Garfield” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, March 10, 1901 p 4

33 “Died in a Barn” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 5, 1901 pg 7

34 "Knesseth Israel Officers" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 16, 1903 p 6

35 “Born” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, December 1, 1902 p 6

36 “At Temple Israel” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 9, 1902 p 6

37 “Songs of Fatherland” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, January 27, 1902 p 8

38"Great Birds The Eagles" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, February 7, 1902 p 6

39 “News of the Lodges” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 16, 1902 p 3

40 "Advertisements" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, December 3, 1904 p 7

41 “The Elk’s Opera House” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 10, 1904 p 2

42 “The Imperial” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 24, 1904 p 4

43 “Turners Enjoy Their Birthday” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, October 16, 1905 p 2

44 “Leadville’s Glorious Day, Sports, Music, A Parade” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat July 5, 1905 p 1

45 “Poker has Fallen Under the Ban” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 23, 1905 p 8

46 "Quarrel Over Placer" Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 25, 1905 p 6

47 “New Sidewalk” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 18, 1905 p 6

48 “Shut Doors on the Public” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 30, 1905 p 1

49 “Great Farewell Sale” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 28, 1906 p 12

50 “Here Are Bargains” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 17, 1907 p 4

51 “City Gate Swung Wide” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 14, 1907 p 2

52 “Sales Ladies” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 22, 1907 p 4

53 “Cave in Brings Death to Miner” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 17, 1908 p 6

54 “Public School Column” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, February 21, 1909 p 2

55 “Public School Column” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 28, 1909 p 2

56 “Jewish Faithful Observe Holiday” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 25, 1909 p 4

57 “Many Attended Show” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 5, 1909 p 3

58 “Mortal Remains of Henry Miller” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 11, 1909 p 3

59 “Filed For Record” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, May 21, 1910 p 5

60 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 10, 1910 p 5

61 1910 United States Census

62 “High School Commencement Exercises at Elks Tonight- Dr. Finlay to Give Address” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 14, 1912 p 6

63 “Funeral of M. Zeiler” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 1, 1912 p 5

64 “Filed for Record” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, July 31, 1912 p 5

65 “Two Operations” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 3, 1913 p 5

66 “Public Trustee Sale” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, March 1, 1914 p 4

67 “Filed for Record” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 16, 1915 p 5

68 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, December 20, 1914 p 2

69 "United States Census 1910

70 https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2004/2820/sim2820.html

71 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, March 28, 1915 p 2

72 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 18, 1915 p 2

73 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 15, 1915 p 2

74 “Sudden Scrap Then Gun Play” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 18, 1916 p 8

75 “Leadville” William Henry Jackson see bibliography

76 “Society” Leadville, CO; USA, Carbonate Chronicle, February 26, 1917 p 2

77 “Lake County’s Roll of Honor” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 11, 1917 p 6

78 “Their Call to Service” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 21, 1917 p 2

79 “First Day for Drafting” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat August 8, 1917 p 2

80 “Eight Men Passed Local Examination” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 10, 1917 p 2

81 “Exemptions Are Granted” Leadville, CO; USA, Carbonate Chronicle, August 27, 1917 p 3

82 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 23, 1917 p 3

83 “Cut Glass Vase” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, December 22, 1917 p 5

84 “Treasurer’s Notice on Request for Tax Deed” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, October 1, 1917 p 4

85 “Filed for Record” Leadville, CO; USA, Carbonate Chronicle, January 21, 1918 p 2

86 “Nineteen Recruits Will Leave Tonight” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 27, 1918 p 2

87 “Message to Jewish Boys in Service” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 9, 1918 p 5

88 “First Aid Students Complete Their Work” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, July 27, 1918 p 2

89 “Diamonds and Liberty bonds” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, July 25, 1919 p 5

90 “Burglar Robs Sandusky Store” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, January 15, 1919 p 5

91 “Local Boys on Troop Train Passing Malta” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, January 28, 1919 p 5

92 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, February 9, 1919 p 2

93 “Personal Mention” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 5, 1920 p 2

94 Ancestry.com. Colorado, Steelworks Employment Records, 1887-1979 [database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2016. Original data: Courtesy of the Steelworks Center of the West.

95 “Hatched Plot to Free Convicts” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, August 22, 1920 p 5

96 “Paroled Convict Arrested” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, September 1, 1920 p 5

97 “High School Notes” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, March 6, 1921 p 3

98 “Furniture” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, October 7, 1921 p 4

99 “Machine Went in Ditch” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, April 1, 1921 p 5

100 “Saw Flood Near Canon” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, June 5, 1921 p 6

101 “Piece of Steel in Eye” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, October 28, 1921 p 5

102 “Cloud City Has Holiday” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, November 12, 1921 p 5

103 “Attempted to Rob Avenue Resort” Leadville, CO; USA, Herald Democrat, December 15, 1921 p 5

104 Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.

105 1930 Federal Census

106 1940 Federal Census

107 Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.

108 Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012.

109 1930 Federal Census; Pueblo, Colorado; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 0004

110 1940 Federal Census, Pueblo, Colorado; Roll: m-t0627-00475; Page: 20B; Enumeration District: 51-6

111 Ancestry.com. U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2012. https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/140498318

112 U.S., Social Security Death Index, 1935-2014 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2014.

113 1930 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2002.

114 Year: 1940; Census Place: Pueblo, Pueblo, Colorado; Roll: m-t0627-00475; Page: 81A; Enumeration District: 51-13

115 U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.

116 1930 Federal Census

117 "Find A Grave Index," database, FamilySearch

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Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1902”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1902.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1903”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1903.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1904”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1904.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1905”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1905.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1906”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1906.

 

Wellge, H, J. J Stoner, and Beck & Pauli. Bird's eye view of Leadville, Colo. Madison, Wis., J. J. Stoner, 1882. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/75693140/.

 

 “Leadville” Jackson, William Henry. Western History Collection, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado http://digital.denverlibrary.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15330coll22/id/61860/rec/868

 

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Leadville, Lake County, Colorado. Sanborn Map Company, Oct, 1889. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/sanborn01031_001/.

 

Sanborn Fire Insurance Map from Leadville, Lake County, Colorado. Sanborn Map Company, 1895. Map. https://www.loc.gov/item/sanborn01031_001/.

 

“Find A Grave Index,” database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QK1D- FZ1R : 15 December 2015), Abraham I. Sandusky, 1944; Burial, Pueblo,  Pueblo, Colorado, United States of America, Roselawn Cemetery; citing record ID 140498198, Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com.

 

"Find A Grave Index," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QK1K-XDJC : 11 July 2016), Leah Sandusky Rosenthal, 1981; Burial, Denver, Denver, Colorado, United States of America, Fairmount Cemetery; citing record ID 143185473, Find a Grave, http://www.findagrave.com.

 

"United States Census, 1900," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MQM8-22R : accessed 23 June 2018), A B Sandusky, Precinct 4-5, 11 Leadville city Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 46, sheet 12B, family 241, NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1972.); FHL microfilm 1,240,125.

 

"United States Census, 1910," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MK4H-5XZ : accessed 14 June 2018), Abraham I Sandusky, Leadville Ward 2, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 69, sheet 9A, family 58, NARA microfilm publication T624 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1982), roll 121; FHL microfilm 1,374,134.

 

"United States Census, 1920," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MX2B-S2X : accessed 23 June 2018), A Isaacc Sandusky, Leadville Ward 3, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing ED 74, sheet 1B, line 57, family 21, NARA microfilm publication T625 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992), roll 165; FHL microfilm 1,820,165.

 

"United States Census, 1930," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X74M-K11 : accessed 22 June 2018), Leah Sandusky, Denver, Denver, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) ED 162, sheet 14B, line 91, family , NARA microfilm publication T626 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2002), roll 238; FHL microfilm 2,339,973.

 

"United States Census, 1940," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:VR6X-WGS : accessed 23 June 2018), Abraham Sandusky in household of Samuel Edelman, Ward 3, Leadville, Election Precinct 3, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district (ED) 33-5, sheet 11B, line 64, family 257, Sixteenth Census of the United States, 1940, NARA digital publication T627. Records of the Bureau of the Census, 1790 - 2007, RG 29. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 2012, roll 466.

 

Carbonate Chronicle (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)

 

Herald Democrat (Leadville, Lake County, Colorado)

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