Biography
Schultze
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Theodore Schultze
Born: Heidelberg, Germany, 1851
Died:

Josephine Schultze
Born: New York City, 1851
Died: November, 1903

Sidonia “Mary” Schultze
Born: New York City, 1877
Died:

Theodora Schultze
Born: New York City, October, 1878
Died:

Josephine Schultze Jr.
Born: Leadville, April, 1884
Died:

Theodore Schultze Jr.
Born: Leadville, January, 1887.
Died: Humbolt, KS, October 13, 1951

It is unclear when Theodore Schultze immigrated to the United States. He is listed in the 1880 United States Census in Kansas City [1] and came to Leadville with his wife, Josephine, and their two daughters, Sidonia and Theodora, from there. Documents show that Teddy was active in Leadville during 1883 and may have been in town earlier than this. A notice that Teddy was party to legal action concerning the City Bank of Leadville, which fell into bankruptcy in mid-1883, suggests that the Schultze s were likely in Leadville prior to that.

During 1883, the first mentions of Teddy Schultze in Leadville were as one of many victims connected to the financial misconduct of local banker C. C. Howell. In July of 1883, the City Bank of Leadville was forced to close its doors. During the months to follow, this incident would become quite a scandal due to the iniquitous activities of its founder, Howell. Howell, who convinced several prominent Leadville businessmen into starting the institution in 1879, funded the bank with bonds and a series of personal loans acquired from other banks at various locations throughout the United States. This included the financing of a large building, [2] which still stands at 5th Street and Harrison Avenue, [3] known as the C.C. Howell Block. Whenever the bank’s coffers fell into despair, Howell would simply take out a loan from another unsuspecting bank to cover the shortfall. Howell quietly left the country for Europe in the Spring of 1883, leaving the bank to falter, [4] and by July it was discovered that the bank was in default on many large loans and their liabilities far exceeded what a few months earlier was believed to be assets totaling nearly $800,000. [5] The discovery of the deficit by bank officials led to an assessment that the bank had been operating with a negative cash flow since its inception, and months of cable communications with Howell returned responses of the various plans he would fabricate as to how he would repay the debts, including an offer to deed the Howell Block to the bank in lieu of his debts; a gesture that would only have yielded roughly $40,000 of the massive shortfall and was rejected by the trust. By August of 1883, Howell stopped responding and disappeared altogether. [6]

The Howell Block on Harrison Avenue as it appeared in the mid-1890s.

The Howell Block on Harrison Avenue as it appeared in the mid-1890s. Oddly, the City Bank of Leadville changed addresses frequently, and at the time of its closure in July of 1883, it was located in this building. The building still stands at this location today.

Janice Fox. Harrison Avenue Looking South. (00458CC. Leadville, CO: Lake County Civic Center Association, Lake County Public Library). 2016.

What resulted were several lawsuits filed in early 1884, on behalf of the enterprise’s injured depositors. Teddy was party to this litigation, having lost his $350 of savings when the bank closed for business on July 23, 1883. [7]

By 1884, the Schultze’s had become well established in Leadville with a residence at 128 W. 9th Street. Teddy found employment as a bookkeeper with Adolph Hirsch & Co., [8] a successful liquor distribution enterprise owned by Adolph and Simon Hirsch. [9] They had arrived in Leadville in 1879 and also, like Teddy, had Kansas city ties. [10] In April of 1884, Teddy and Josephine welcomed their third daughter to the family when Josephine Jr. was born. [11]

During 1886, Teddy had partnered with Mannie Hyman, [12] a local businessman who ran Hyman’s Club Rooms, [13] (a popular saloon and gambling hall located at 314-316 Harrison Avenue notorious for its rowdy clientele and was host to John “Doc” Holliday’s last gunfight on August 19, 1884). [14] It was also during this year that the Schultze family relocated their home to 308 E. 4th Street. [15]

The year 1887 opened with great joy for the Schultze household as the family welcomed their first-born son, Theodore Jr., in January. [16] In February of 1887, Mannie Hyman left Leadville for the Chicago area and Teddy entered into a new short-lived partnership in the enterprise with Frank Dale. [17] By mid-1887, this partnership was dissolved for unknown reasons and the official name of Hyman’s Place would soon be changed to the Palace Resort under Teddy’s sole ownership, though some resources would also continue to reference Hyman’s Place as the moniker long after Teddy left Leadville. During this year the family relocated their residence again to 218 West 6th Street.

In June of 1887, in a promotional effort, Teddy Schultze conducted a raffle in which the prize offered was large cigar cabinet containing filled with F.P. del Rio cigars. [18] In August, Shultze announced that betting on all sporting events during the local firemen’s tournament could be booked at his clubrooms. [19] On December 31, Teddy threw a lavish New Year’s Eve celebration for his friends at his home. [20]

During 1888, Teddy and his family moved once more to 200 West 7th Street. [21] On June 6, Teddy gave a badge to Marshal White that was noted to be quite beautiful. [22] On August 9, Teddy testified in the vagrancy case of Henry Heaf on behalf of the defendant. Heaf was accused of vagrancy but Schultze revealed that Heaf had deposited $95 in his saloon’s safe weeks before, had asked for work, and Schultze obliged also stating that he knew Heaf to be a former mine boss, a hard worker, and a sober person. The charge was dismissed based on Teddy’s testimony. [23] Teddy had remained close friends with Simon Hirsch who visited Leadville, staying at the Schultze home on July 3, 1887 [24] and on subsequent visits to Leadville. [25] This relationship also extended to the Palace Resort which served Anheuser-Busch beers, Quaker Maid Rye, and Quaker Club Whiskey, all products for which the Hirsch brothers were the exclusive Leadville distributors. [26]

Teddy was not without promotional ideas for his establishment; regularly offering a daily hot lunch, [27] free champagne and eggnog for the holiday season, [28] free turkey dinners on Thanksgiving, [29] bottled goods, [30] cigars, [31] mineral waters of all varieties, [32] and a holdover from what was billed by Mannie Hyman as the “Greatest keno game on Earth”. [33] Teddy’s business interests were diverse: newspaper reports document interests in a cattle ranch he purchased in Dotsero, Colorado, [34] (about 70 miles northwest of Leadville) and that he held stock in the Lucky Boy mining operation. [35]

Teddy was a fun loving and amiable fellow with a good-natured sense of humor. This generally served him well, save for the incident that occurred on December 8, 1888, in his front yard:

Teddy Schultze’s Accident.

Sunday morning the genial and popular Teddy Schultze was feeling unusually lively; in fact he felt like a twelve-year-old! His custom had been remarkably good the night before, and he was feeling like “the flowers that bloom in the spring, tra-la!”

After partaking in a nice breakfast, Teddy went out into his front yard humming:

“When love is young,
The world seems gay,
Tra-la la, la-la-la-la”

Then he tried his almost forgotten prowess as a high-kicker. He kicked over the top of the front palings (picket fence) and then called Mrs. Schultze out to hold his hat as high as she could get it, and kicked it out of her hand.

Then he tried his almost forgotten prowess as a high-kicker. He kicked over the top of the front palings (picket fence) and then called Mrs. Schultze out to hold his hat as high as she could get it, and kicked it out of her hand.

I am a devilish young fellow for my age,” said Teddy to himself. “I think I’ll try to ‘skeet’ as I used to do when I was a boy back in the good old Deutsches Vaterland. (German Fatherland).” Accordingly he threw off his coat, spit on his hands, took a good running start and away he slid upon the treacherous ice. Teddy had not studied carefully, however, that principle of physics known as “the inertia of matter.” He had forgotten how much he had increased in avoirdupois since his boyhood. The momentum of his 215 pounds was too much for him.

When he came to himself, he found that his boyish dreams had been dispelled and that he had gone through the glass of his front door, nearly cutting his hand off in the operation. A doctor was called and dressed his wounds and Teddy appeared upon the street Monday morning as smiling and genial as usual.

But he says he’ll never try to be a boy again and calls himself a “d- pumpernickelish dummkopf” for attempting such and exploit. [36]

In June of 1888, Teddy purchased two boa constrictors from a “circus man” in Denver, as an attraction for his saloon. He had a large cage built for the reptiles in the rear with glass sides and an alcohol lamp for warmth. The animals were fed a live chicken once a week or, as Teddy sometimes joked, an unruly patron. [37]

Feeding The Snake

A few invited friends assembled in Teddy Schultze’s back rooms last evening to witness one of the big boa constrictor snakes dine on a live chicken. The chicken, a half grown Plymouth Rock, was taken from a box and the door of the glass cage in which the reptiles are confined was quickly opened and the chicken was thrust in. One snake was too sleepy to pay any attention to the chicken, and the other one, half covered with a blanket, had its eyes wide open but did not stir. The chicken strutted about the box as thoroughly unconcerned as though it was at home in the barnyard. Still no move form either snake. The chicken saw a few crumbs of bread on the blanket under which part of his second snakeship lay, and picked one piece up and ate it.

Snake No. 2 was slowly drawing himself together, evidently not relishing the jabbing he was getting from the chicken’s bill.Slowly the sinuous folds drew themselves under and toward the rear of the cage. The chicken didn’t notice anything. Suddenly there was a flash as the shiny head darted like lightning, and the cruel jaws, with their receding teeth and terrible fangs, fastened with an awful grip midway of the chicken. There was a smothered squawk, a crunching of bones, and the chicken was dead. The snake held it for several minutes as though to salivate the bird so as to swallow it easier, and it began to disappear down the reptile’s throat. Beyond a few twitches of the muscles back of the jaws, there was no effort in swallowing. At last nothing but the chicken’s feet could be seen and then they too disappeared. The shape of the bird could easily be seen under the serpent’s skin, and it kept moving until it reached a point about a foot or two back of the head, where it stopped. The snake then lay down. Saturday morning it could still be seen, but had apparently been partially digested and absorbed, for it appeared much smaller. The other snake will be fed on Sunday. [38]

An advertisement for The Palace Resort, which was also known as “Teddy’s Place”, “Hyman’s Club Rooms”, and “Hyman’s Place”.  Similar ads appeared weekly in local newspapers from 1887 through 1890.

An advertisement for The Palace Resort, which was also known as “Teddy’s Place”, “Hyman’s Club Rooms”, and “Hyman’s Place”. Similar ads appeared weekly in local newspapers from 1887 through 1890.

Leadville Evening Chronicle. Tuesday, April 30, 1889. Page 4.

This article and illustration discusses the origins of “Buck Beer Day” and Anheuser-Busch’s Buck Beer which was proudly served at Shultze & Dale’s club rooms.

This article and illustration discusses the origins of “Buck Beer Day” and Anheuser-Busch’s Buck Beer which was proudly served at Shultze & Dale’s club rooms.

“The Day We Celebrate”. Leadville Evening Chronicle. Monday, April 25, 1887. Page 4.

Teddy had a close relationship with Simon Hirsch whom was the president of Hirsch Bros., a liquor distribution and distilling company. The Hirsch brothers were the exclusive distributors of Anheuser-Busch products in Leadville.

For more information on Simon, Adolph, and the rest of the Hirsch family, please visit the Hirsch biography page.

On February 24, 1889, a fire broke out in David May’s building, [39] next door to the Palace Resort, at 318 Harrison Avenue. The fire was mostly contained to the May Block, but spread to Theodore’s saloon and caused extensive damage, temporarily closing the business:

An Early Morning Blaze
Serious Loss to Several Tenants in The Opera House Block.

A fire broke out at 4 o’clock last night in the store next to Hyman’s place, which is now occupied by the “Plymouth Rock” Pants men. It was quickly extinguished without material damage.

Later- Soon after it was announced that the fire had been put out, the firemen discovered flames issuing from the ceiling of the back part of Hyman’s club rooms. Then ensued a scene of the wildest confusion.

While the firemen were getting additional hose, tables and chairs and everything else movable were rapidly rushed out on the sidewalk by excited, swearing, frantically gesticulating men.

Meanwhile, the lodgers in the adjacent buildings were getting their household goods out as fast as possible.

Dense volumes of smoke poured from the burning building, and to make matters still worse, the electric lights were put out about twenty minutes past 4 o’clock.

Several times it looked as if the flames were under control, but each time they broke out afresh in another spot.

From Dave May’s former store the flames spread to Teddy Schultze’s saloon, and from one room to another until it looked as if the whole block would be consumed.

Ex-Alderman Warfield was packing up, preparatory to taking French leave of his cigar store; Manager Cragg was looking on at the opera house with care-filled eyes; and the whole sidewalk was filled with women and children, with their quilts, baby carriages, and a confused mass of other gods that they had hastily snatched as they fled from the impending danger.

Ever and anon amid the crackling of the flames would be heard a thunderous roar as some part of the building fell under the fireman’s axe.

Early as was the hour, the fire called out an immense crown of spectators, who eagerly watch the progress of the flames, and many of them rendered material and acceptable aid in the removal of goods and fixtures.

The fire department was taxed to the utmost of its facilities, and, considering the nature of the conflagration, and the early hour at which it occurred, did efficient work.

While the origin of the fire is not certainly known, it is supposed to have been from a stove in the back part of the store-room formerly occupied by Dave May.

At 5:20 Chief Pollard informed the reporter that the fire was under control, and the throng of anxious lookers-on slowly dispersed.

Chief Pollard and all his force did real yeoman service, and thereby deserved the gratitude of their fellow townsmen.

Not only the regular firemen, but many of the old volunteers also, turned out and fought the flames with as much vigor as they exhibited in the early days of Leadville.

The loss is roughly estimated at between $2,000 and $3,000. [40]

Friday Morning’s Blaze Covered By Insurance

The Extent of the Damage Done to the Hyman House by Fire.

Friday Morning’s Blaze

From the usual scene of bustle and activity that once was want to see around the Hyman house, Friday morning it presented a sad, deserted and desolate appearance. No one was in charge, and the familiar faces that are associated with the place could not be seen. About three inches of water was on the floor, the well-appointed bar and fixtures were covered with dirt and bespattered with water. The ceiling, in different places, was punched with holes, and chairs and tables were piled one upon another, which lent an air of disorder to the whole place.

Mr. Teddy Schultze, the proprietor, was seen by a reported of this paper, and when questioned as to how soon it would be before he re-opened, he said:

“As quick as carpenters can work, and things can be put in shape.”

“Have you any idea as to the origin of the fire?”

“Only what I have been told since I came here this morning.”

“Are you fully covered by insurance?”

“I believe so.”

Mr. Schultze was asked who carried the insurance, and being informed it was Stickley and Shaw, the reporter called on those gentlemen. Mr. Shaw said that his firm had $2,500 insurance on the stock and fixtures, and $1,000 on the building. Mr. Ned Steole has $250 on the stock and fixtures, and Mr. W. Thompson has $500. This makes $3,250 that Mr. Schultze has on his stock and fixtures, which will in all probability cover his loss.

Mr. David May, who owned the adjoining building, has $6,000 insurance on it. The origin of the fire was from a wooden box placed in the May building used for holding ashes, which ignited and set fire to the partition, and from there it spread to the Hyman house. The damage to the May building does not amount to $50. [41]

January of 1890 is the last notation of the Schultze family in Leadville. They returned to Kansas City by the end of that year. [42]

1 Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.
2 C.C. Howell Or The Man Of Many Aliases. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). August 18, 1883. P1.
3 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1883. (Denver, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers.1883). P129.
4 Carbonate Chronicle. Leadville, CO. August 18, 1883. P1.
5 The Bank Of Leadville. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Herald.) January 27, 1883. P2.
6 Carbonate Chronicle. August 18, 1883. P1.
7 Gone But Not Forgotten. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). February 9, 1884. P6.
8 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1884. (Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. 1884). P219.
9 For more information on the Hirsch family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/hirsch.html
10 Jeffrey P. Grant. Hirsch. (Leadville, CO: Temple Israel Foundation). 2017.
11 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. (National Archives. Washington, D.C.)
12 For more information on Mannie Hyman and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/hyman.html
13 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886. (Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers). 1886. P227.
14 Jeffrey P. Grant. Kellerman. Leadville, CO: Temple Israel Foundation. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/kellerman.html
15 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1886. P227.
16 United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration).1900.
17 Trevor Mark. Hyman. (Leadville, CO: Temple Israel Foundation). 2018.
18 A Very Rare Opportunity. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 6, 1887. P1.
19 Pools! Pools! (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 21, 1889). P1.
20 Pleasant New Year Party. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). January 2, 1888. P4.
21 JH Ballenger and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1888. (Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1888). P#230.
22 It Is Rumored. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 6, 1888. P7.
23 Those Vagrancy Cases. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). August 10, 1888. P8.
24 A Week’s Social Summary. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 15, 1888. P4.
25 Personal. (Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle). February 18, 1889. P5.
26 Jeffrey P. Grant. Hirsch. (Leadville, CO: Temple Israel Foundation). 2017.
27 Hot Lunch at Shultze & Dales Every Day Between 10 A.M. And 1 P.M. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). October 4, 1887. P1.
28 Dyspepsia For Sixteen Years. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). November 23, 1887. P4.
29 The Red Men’s Big Ball. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 24, 1887. P1.
30 An Ignorant Ingrate. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). November 6, 1887. P4.
31 Our Mines And Smelters. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). August 21, 1887. P2.
32 Big Question Settled. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat.) February 12, 1888. P4.
33 New Furniture. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). July 3, 1887. P4.
34 Personal. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 9, 1888. P3.
35 A List Of Locations. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). January 1, 1890. P13.
36 Teddy Schultze’s Accident. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). December 10, 1888. P4.
37 Personal. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat). June 25, 1888. P8.
38 Feeding The Snakes. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). June 30, 1888. P8.
39 For more information on David May and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/may.html
40 An Early Morning Blaze. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 1, 1889. P3.
41 Friday Morning’s Blaze. (Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle). March 1, 1889. P4.
42 United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration). 1900.

Bibliography

A List Of Locations. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 1, 1890.

A Very Rare Opportunity. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. June 6, 1887.

A Week’s Social Summary. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 15, 1888.

An Early Morning Blaze. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 1, 1889.

An Ignorant Ingrate. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. November 6, 1887.

Big Question Settled. (Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. February 12, 1888).

C.C. Howell Or The Man Of Many Aliases. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. August 18, 1883.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. Corbett, and Ballenger’s Fourth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1883. Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers.1883.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1884. Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. 1884.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886. Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. 1886.

Corbett, TB and Ballenger, JH. Corbet, and Ballenger’s Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1887. Leadville, CO: Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. 1887.

Ballenger, JH and Richards. Ballenger & Richard’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1888. Leadville, CO: Ballenger and Richards Publishers.1888.

Dyspepsia For Sixteen Years. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 23, 1887.

Feeding The Snakes. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. June 30, 1888.

Fox, Janice. Harrison Avenue Looking South. 00458CC. Leadville, CO: Lake County Civic Center Association, Lake County Public Library. 2016.

Friday Morning’s Blaze. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 1, 1889.

Gone But Not Forgotten. Leadville, CO: Carbonate Chronicle. February 9, 1884.

Grant, Jeffrey P. Hirsch. Leadville, CO: Temple Israel Foundation. 2017.

Hot Lunch at Shultze & Dales Every Day Between 10 A.M. And 1 P.M. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 4, 1887.

It Is Rumored. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. June 6, 1888.

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New Furniture. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. July 3, 1887.

Our Mines And Smelters. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. August 21, 1887.

Palace Resort. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. January 1, 1890.

Personal. Leadville, CO: Herald Democrat. June 25, 1888.

Personal. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 9, 1888.

Pleasant New Year Party. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 2, 1888.

Pools! Pools! Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 21, 1889.

Teddy Schultze’s Accident. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. December 10, 1888.

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The Day We Celebrate. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. April 25, 1887.

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Those Vagrancy Cases. Leadville, CO: Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 10, 1888. P8.

United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. Year: 1880; Census Place: Kansas City, Jackson, Missouri; Roll: 692; Page: 108B; Enumeration District: 004.

United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls. Year: 1900; Census Place: Kansas City Ward 9, Jackson, Missouri; Page: 7; Enumeration District: 0097; FHL microfilm: 1240863

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