Biography
Simon
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Familial relationships for the Simons that were in Leadville between the 1870s and 1890s are difficult to effectively confirm. It is quite possible that all of the Simon families are connected by marriage at the minimum. Where these relationships can be clearly identified, they are noted. These Jewish families include, but are not limited to, Janowitz, Fleissner, Weinright, Leon, and Heimberger.

David Simon
Born:
Died:

Gottschalk Simon
Born:
Died:

Henry Simon Jr
Born:
Died:

The brothers, David, Gottschalk, and Henry (Jr.) Simon appear to have only been in Leadville for a brief time and the brothers only appear once in the Leadville City Directory, listed as saloon owners at 132 East 6th Street. [1] They likely left Leadville in early 1883 for parts unknown.

Sigmund “Sig” Simon
Born: Germany, 1850
Died:
Immigration to United States: Jun 10, 1867

Mrs. Corolone “Cora” (Leon) Simon
Born:
Died:

Sylvian Simon
Born: Leadville, Colorado, August 4, 1888
Died:

Pauline Simon
Born: Prussia, 1811
Death:

Sig Simon was born in 1850 in Germany and immigrated to the United States in 1867. [2] By 1879, he made his way to Leadville, likely from New York. There he met his wife, Cora Leon, [3] and they welcomed their first child in 1888. [4] Sig was in Leadville at the time his brother-in-law, Louis Janowitz, [5] arrived from New York in 1879. Sig was also related by marriage to business partners Arnold Wainright [6] and Joe Fleissner, [7] although the precise nature of these familial relationships is still unclear. [8] Sig and his wife Cora were fully engaged with the Temple Israel Congregation, frequently attended functions both inside and outside of the synagogue. Sig was active in politics as a registered Republican. [9] Sigmund operated a notions business with Arnold Wainright in Denver from 1881 through 1884, [10] then returned to Leadville in 1885 where he managed the short-lived Bankrupt Store at 613 Harrison Avenue and took up residence at 135 East 5th Street. [11] Sig also briefly ran a fruit and confectionary operation at 516 Harrison Avenue and resided across the street at 519 Harrison in 1886. [12]

By 1887, Sig and Joe Fleissner had purchased The Clipper Saloon at 406 Harrison Avenue and Sig moved his residence to 215 West 7th Street. [13] Sig was on the organizing committee for the annual Purim Bal Masque given by the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society, which drew significantly greater attendance in 1887 than it had in previous years. [14] The event was moved from its traditional venue at City Hall to the Tabor Opera House to accommodate their increased audience. [15] In August, Sigmond married Corolone Leon at Louisville, Kentucky. A notice that Sig had left Leadville for Cora’s hometown with specific intentions appeared in the August 7 edition of the Herald Democrat. She lived in Leadville for a brief time before the couple wed. [16] Another notice appeared in the August 23 edition of the Herald Democrat:

“Louisville, Aug. 23”

“Colonel Joe Monheimer”

“I am to be married to-night, otherwise I would be to the front. I arranged with Louie Janowitz for substitute services. Please nail him.”

“Sig. Simon” [17]

It is unclear exactly where Cora and Sig married, but from the timing it can be assumed that it was not in Cora’s hometown of Louisville, Kentucky. The newly identified Mr. and Mrs. Sig Simon returned to Leadville on August 24. [18] Friends of the newlyweds hosted a reception commemorating their nuptials upon their return to Leadville that day. [19] Corolone was related by marriage to several members of the Temple Israel congregation, most notably the sister-in-law of Joe Fleissner, Sig’s business partner. Corolone had only been in Leadville a few months before the couple’s nuptials. [20] The Simons then attended the wedding of Jennie Shoenberg [21] and Jacob Frankle which was held at the Temple Israel Synagogue on December 5, 1887. [22]

In January of 1888, Sig and Joe Fleissner took sole ownership of The Clipper. A notice of the ownership transfer from Goldie Janowitz to Rira Fleissner and Cora Simon appeared in the January 26, 1888 edition of the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. [23] Sig and his wife attended a black tie banquet in honor of Mathilda Baer [24] and Henrietta Schloss [25] for their extensive service to the Temple Israel congregation at City Hall on February 3, 1888. The Master of Ceremonies was Dick Metz [26] and speeches were delivered by David May, [27] Jake Schloss, and Ike and Adolph Baer. Congregation president Ben Davies [28] proposed the evening toast in recognition of the ladies. [29] On September 2, the Metz’s had a lavish housewarming party to celebrate their new home at 212 West 7th Street, Sig was one of sixty guests who attended. [30] Cora and Sig were present at the birthday party for Pauline Simon [31] on October 12. [32] Pauline’s residence was located across the street from Sig and Cora in 1888, at 216 West 7th Street. From the close proximity, very limited information on Pauline, her brief time in Leadville, and her age of 86 years, that she was likely Sig Simon’s mother. [33] Sig hosted a Thanksgiving dinner for his Clipper patrons on November 22. [34]

This advertisement for The Clipper Saloon appeared in the September 11, 1888 edition of the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle.

This advertisement for The Clipper Saloon appeared in the September 11, 1888 edition of the Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle.

“Fleissner & Simon”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 11, 1888. P1.

Cora Simon hosted a reception for her sister, Hattie Leon, on April 15, 1889. [35] Hattie would marry Jacob Heimberger, another notable Leadville Jew, at Denver in 1892. [36] Both Hattie and Cora had previously attended a lavish party hosted by Jacob Heimberger’s parents at their home on March 17. [37] Sig threw a large party at The Clipper on where his backroom gambling tables were overloaded with patrons on June 16. [38] Sig was called to testify at a hearing regarding a dispute between city officials and local saloon owners who, in mid-July, were involved in a confusing case in which it was alleged that local law enforcement officials were soliciting “fines” as a quasi licensing fee which would covertly allow gambling to continue in these establishments despite Leadville’s anti-gambling ordinances. Although this was eventually dismissed by the city council as a misunderstanding, it did clearly establish that gambling was illegal in Leadville. The following is a summary of Sigmond Simon’s testimony reprinted from the Carbonate Chronicle on July 15, 1889:

Sig Simon was the next witness called. He testified that both the marshal and Judge Long had called at this place of business about June 12 and said that some of the aldermen and the mayor were kicking about gambling going on and it had to be stopped. The witness said he could not afford to pay a fine and that he would allow games to be played in his house. He further stated that he was never asked how much he was willing to put up to be allowed to gamble as it was necessary to have a certain amount to give to some alderman as a divvy. Witness understood that if parties were arrested for gambling they would have to pay their fine in the police court in the regular manner; he was never asked for money by either Long or White. [39]

Cora and sister Hattie attended the farewell banquet for Robert Hoffman [40] at the Hotel Kitchen on May 6, 1889. [41] On August 4 Cora and Sig welcomed their first child, Sylvain Simon, into their family. Cora had vocal talents, and sang occasionally at local functions. Cora sang a solo with the Temple Israel choir during Rosh Hashanah services on September 25. [42] The following day, Mrs. Simon sang again, while her sister Hattie accompanied her on the piano, at a reception celebrating Lee Kahn’s [43] Bar Mitzvah at the Temple Israel Synagogue. Clearly unfamiliar with Jewish nomenclature, the newspaper reported this as the Temple Israel congregation’s “confirmation” of Lee Kahn. [44 Cora and Lottie Schloss assisted with Yom Kippur services at Temple Israel Synagogue on October 4. [45] Mrs. Simon served on the arrangement committee for the Simchath Torahs Ball on October 27. [46] Mr. Leon, of Louisville, Kentucky, the father of Hattie Leon (Heimberger) and Cora Simon, arrived in Leadville to visit his daughters for a few days on November 10. [47] Meanwhile, Sig served on the reception committee for the first annual Ancient Order of United Workmen Ball at City Hall on November 13. [48] Young Sylvian Simon attended his first birthday party, that of seven year old Sam Cohn, on December 9. [49]

Sig and Cora attended a large party at the Schloss mansion on January 12, 1890. [50] Corolone attended a lovely luncheon hosted by Mathilda Baer at her home on West Eighth Street on January 24. [51] Sigmond’s name appeared on a February 18 petition to The United States Congress for the appropriation of a federal post office building in Leadville. [52] Sig attended the Purim Bal Masque at City Hall on March 7 [53] while Mrs. Simon was on holiday in the east. On March 27, Cora and the couple’s son were visiting relatives in Louisville, Kentucky, when the most devastating tornado in that city’s history ripped through the center of downtown, collapsing many building’s and killing hundreds. [54] The newspapers noted that Sigmund had been wiring Louisville for any news on his family, but as of March 29 had heard nothing. [55] Finally on April 1, Sig did receive a letter from Cora stating that both she and Syvain were not injured in the disaster. [56] On April 21, Sig served on a jury in the case of The People V. Charles McDonald. McDonald was convicted of Assault With Intent To Do Bodily Harm. [57]

Downtown Louisville, Kentucky on the morning of March 28, 1890 after the devastating cyclone tore through the city.

Downtown Louisville, Kentucky on the morning of March 28, 1890 after the devastating cyclone tore through the city.

The Filson Newsmagazine. Louisville, KY. USA. 2016.

Corolone attended a surprise party for Mina Heimberger and her mother at the Heimberger home at 130 West 4th Street on June 28, 1891. She also performed several vocal duets with Temple Israel cantor Ben Davies for the event. [58] It is unclear at what point the Simons left Leadville in 1891, but at some point during the previous year Sig sold the Clipper to Louis Pelow. [59] The couple did visit the Janowitz family on September 14, [60] which is their last appearance in Leadville newspapers.

Professor Henry Simon
Born: New York, 1851
Died:

Benjamin Simon
Born:
Died:

Mrs. Ella (Bell) Simon
Born: New York, 1860
Died:

Henry Simon came to Leadville as a miner despite his musical talents [61] and speculated in mining property throughout his time in Leadville. [62] Like most Jews who came to Leadville with dreams of pulling riches from the dirt, Henry’s foray into mining was short lived and rather quickly he began to establish himself as one of Leadville’s premier musicians. According to Leadville historian Edward Blair, Henry began his musical career in Leadville in 1879 and founded the “Hard Times Ball”, one of Leadville’s popular social events during the 1880s. [63] Henry was also an executive officer for the Knights of Pythias throughout the 1880s and 90s. [64]

Information about Henry is sparse between 1879 and 1884. Henry served as manger of Turner Hall Saloon with August Fack at the south east corner of 4th and Pine in from 1880 to 1882. [65] The Fack & Simon saloon was located directly across Pine Street from the future location of Temple Israel Synagogue which would be built in 1884. [66] Henry married Ella A. Bell on October 27 at the Lake County Courthouse. This was likely not her first marriage as she is listed in the license records as “Mrs. E.A. Bell”. [67] This seems slightly odd since she would have only been 21 years of age at the time she married Henry. [68] Henry was the prompter for twenty-two dances under the musical Direction of Professor Parker for the Ancient Order of Hibernians Ball in December. [69] Henry and Ella moved their home twice during this period, in 1882 they are listed at 231 East 4th Street [70] and in 1883 at 312 West 4th Street. [71] Henry also owned a ranch on Brush Creek. [72]

In 1884, Henry’s brother Benjamin joined the couple in Leadville where they lived together at the southwest corner of 8th and Pine streets. [73] Benjamin worked as a clerk of the firm of E.J. Van Camp, a local grocer located at 112 West 4th Street. [74] Benjamin only appears in Leadville records for 1884.

Henry is sometimes listed with the occupation of “Dancing Master” in Leadville City Directories. In 1884, he ran the Dancing Academy at 134 East 6th. [75] Towards the end of 1885, Henry and partner Professor Barker, took over management of City Hall, located between 5th and 6th Streets on Harrison Avenue. [76] Many social events took place in this venue that was very popular among Leadville residents for hosting meetings, dances, and celebrations.

Etching of City Hall in the 1880s.

Etching of City Hall in the 1880s.
Courtesy of the Colorado Mountain History Collection at Lake County Public Library.

“01693CC”. [Image]. Colorado Mountain History Collection. Lake County Public Library. Leadville, CO. USA. 2019.

In 1886 the couple moved to 713 North Pine Street. [77] The Simon’s ranch on Brush Creek appeared to have been a summer home, but one can speculate that he spent more time there than in the city between 1882 and 1885 owing to his sparse mention in local newspapers during that period. [78] It is also possible that Henry’s ranch was a substantial business venture, as reports indicate he was one of the larger land-owners in the region and some 35,000 head of cattle were counted grazing the area in November of 1885. Consequently, Henry was seeking a railroad line to service the area. [79] On January 13, 1886, Henry performed for a gala presented by the St. Patrick’s Literacy Association at City Hall. [80] Henry was summoned to serve as a petit juror for the month of January by the District Court. [81] He performed the music for the Friday Night Club dance at City Hall on January 15. [82] On March 10, Henry and his chamber orchestra performed for a party in the home of the Patrick family. [83] Henry performed with his chamber orchestra for a large party, complete with visiting social dignitaries, at the Patrick home on East 8th Street on March 11. [84] Henry and his ten-piece orchestra provided the music for the Purim Bal Masque on March 24. [85] Ella hosted a “May Party” at City Hall on the evening of May 21, featuring a multitude of springtime activities including the traditional May pole dance. [86] In June, Henry and his orchestra performed at the Eastern Star Ball at City Hall on June 6, and again on June 21 for the benefit of Florence Lindauer, [87] a toddler who was suffering with an undisclosed illness. 88 Henry and his orchestra performed at the Knights of Pythias Fourth of July picnic at the Leadville Race Track and adjoining fairgrounds. [89] Henry hosted the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society Ball on October 21 where he also provided the music. [90] The Knights of Labor had an enormous celebration on December 10, the audience was so large that it required two venues to contain it. Henry performed with a contingent of musicians at City Hall, while his understudy, Professor Mack performed at Armory Hall with a separate group of musicians. [91] Henry also began hosting his annual New Year’s Eve celebration at City Hall, on December 31, 1886. [92]

In 1887, the couple moved their home to 308 West 4th Street. [93] Henry was elected Trustee for Lodge no. 20 of the Knights of Pythias on January 2. [94] On March 15, Henry was appointed to the Democratic Committee prior to the local elections to be held in April. [95] He attended the eighth annual Purim Bal Masque on April 3. [96] Henry and his Great Western Orchestra performed at the Herald Democrat/Carbonate Chronicle ball on April 11. [97] On April 14, Henry led the band during a parade and dance commemorating the retirement of Colorado State Firemen’s Association Secretary Andrew King. [98] Henry hosted the first annual ball for Leadville’s newly formed Milkmen’s Union which had already amassed 30 members. Over 250 guests attended the event. [99] A Thanksgiving evening dance planned by the Apollo club was canceled this year, Henry stepped in and formed another Thanksgiving dance which he hosted at City Hall on November 24. [100] Henry’s second annual New Year’s Eve Masquerade Ball took place at City Hall on December 31. [101]

Ella and Henry attended a black tie banquet in honor of Mathilda Baer [102] and Henrietta Schloss [103] for their extensive service to the Temple Israel congregation at City Hall on February 3, 1888. The Master of Ceremonies was Dick Metz [104] and speeches were delivered by David May, [105] Jake Schloss, and Ike and Adolph Baer. Congregation president Ben Davies [106] proposed the evening toast in recognition of the ladies. [107] Henry hosted the Turn Verein Masquerade Ball on February 11. [108] Ella went to Denver for an extended, month long visit on February 22, although the nature of her absence was not disclosed [109] and it does appear that the couple frequently took long holidays in Denver. [110] That same evening, Henry and his orchestra performed at a Patriotic Sons of America dance commemorating the 155th anniversary of the birth of George Washington. [111] Henry held his first annual “Hard Times Ball” on March 21. The event, which was intended to have a costumed theme that represented the less fortunate hobos and transients, did little to motivate people to dress in costume. Many guests simply attended in their everyday business suits while miners came straight to the event from the field “…mud, overalls, boots and all” and ladies appeared in kitchen gowns. The processional was described as “ludicrous” with the few guests who dressed in evening attire intermingling with those who better understood the evening’s theme. [112] Henry provided the music for a grand ball celebrating the Grand Council of Colorado on July 9. All ladies participating in the grand march received a souvenir program. [113] Henry conducted the orchestra for the Improved Order of Redmen encampment on July 11 [114] and the organization’s picnic at Turner Park on August 10. [115] On August 19, Henry and his band provided the music for Temple Israel’s Sunday School picnic at Turner’s Grove. [116] Henry was a noted booster for the Leadville Blues Baseball Club. [117] Professor Simon and his band performed at the Kermesse Festival [118] at City Hall on August 31 [119] and the dance music for the Knights of Labor, Labor Day Dance at City Hall on September 3. [120] Henry was chairman for the committee of arrangements for the Knights of Pythias Ball held on September 13 [121] and performed the music for the Friday Night Club’s ball on September 27. [122] Henry’s band provided the musical accompaniment for touring vocalist Minnie Cummins, on October 11. [123] Henry and his orchestra also provided the musical entertainment for the Fireman’s Ball at City Hall on October 25. [124] Ella hosted the successful second annual Hard Times Ball at City Hall on November 22. [125] Henry, having just returned to Leadville from a Thanksgiving performance at Aspen, Colorado the previous night, did not participate in the event. [126]

Henry briefly operated a candy store at 418 Harrison Avenue, in addition to his regular business at City Hall. [127] On February 22, Henry provided the musical entertainment for the Patriotic Sons of America Ball. [128] The couple attended the ninth annual Purim Bal Masque at City Hall on March 15, this year the event was attended by invitation only. [129] Henry and his orchestra performed at the Knights of Robert Emmet Ball in observance of St. Patrick’s day on March 17. [130] Henry and his orchestra provided the music accompaniment for a concert given by the Women’s Exchange on June 16. [131] Professor Simon and his orchestra performed at the Improved Order of Redmen picnic on July 7, [132] the Knights of Pythias annual picnic on July 14, [133] and the Leadville Maennerchor [134] Picnic on August 4. [135] There is a notice in the August 10, 1889 edition of the Herald Democrat that Henry sold the Gem Candy Store and Bakery, located at 418 Harrison Avenue, to William R. Servis. [136] No other records regarding this enterprise and Henry’s ownership of this business have been found. Henry served on the arrangement committee for the Knights of Pythias Ball on September 12. [137] On September 27, Henry and his orchestra performed at the Friday Night Club dance where much of the playlist featured new and popular musical selections. [138] He also hosted the annual Hard Times Bal at City Hall on November 7. [139] Professor Simon and his orchestra performed for the Grand Army of the Republic holiday ball on Christmas Eve. [140]

In 1890 the Simons moved to 222 East 8th Street. [141] Henry served as the Special District Deputy Grand Chancellor for the Progress Lodge no. 20 of the Knights of Pythias where on January 9, 1890 he appointed P.J. Quigley to the office of Deputy Grand Chancellor. [142] Both Henry and Ella attended the weekly reception for the Leadville Social Club on January 16. [143] The couple also attended the Patriotic Sons of America annual ball commemorating the birth of George Washington on February 21. [144] On March 27, Ella was one of the many attendees at the Hotel Kitchen [145] who turned out for an afternoon concert given by the Black Hussar Band in honor of proprietor Charles Kitchen. [146] On March 28, Henry and his orchestra performed behind a large screen at the grand opening of Hanley & Kringen’s hat shop on Harrison Avenue. [147] The Simons attended a benefit for the Printers’ Home Fund hosted by the Leadville Typographical Union No. 179 on April 21. [148] Henry and his wife attended a special Japanese dance held at City Hall on April 30. This was a unique event that featured musical selections from the Mikado and other representations of Japanese musical theater. [149] Henry marched, but did not lead the band in the Leadville Memorial Day parade on May 31. [150] Henry’s orchestra performed under the direction of Professor Barker while the Simons danced at the Strawberry and Ice Cream Festival held by the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society on June 4. [151] In June, Henry and his colleague, Professor Fen Barker, formed a new musical group named the Leadville Band, Henry served as the Business Manager while Barker led the combo. [152] Henry was awarded the bid to provide the band for the city’s Fourth of July celebration. [153] The Simons sold their Leadville home at 222 East 8th Street to Albert Reschiele for $1200 on July 5. [154] The couple then remained in the city until sometime in August, though Henry would continue to perform in Leadville with some regularity. Henry’s orchestra performed at the Alpha Club Dances on July 24 under the direction of Professor Barker while Henry and his wife enjoyed the festivities [155] and again the couple was intent to remain in the audience at their July 31 going away party at City Hall. [156] Without explanation, the couple retained a business presence in Leadville [157] well into the year of 1891, but did so from their home in Denver [158}, visiting Leadville for Henry’s lodge functions and performances. Henry also provided the musical entertainment for a concert hosted by the Ancient Order of United Workmen on November 12 at City Hall, [159] On December 12 where Henry directed the musical performances at the Alpha Club Dance [160], and the annual New Years Eve Masquerade Ball that he regularly hosted as proprietor of City Hall. [161]

During the first week of January, 1891, Henry served as a Major in the Knights of Pythias and [162] appointed forty charter members for the new Knights of Pythias lodge in Greely, Colorado. [163] On January 2, Henry and his wife attended the Ancient Order of United Workmen dance at City Hall. [164] Henry and his orchestra performed at a large banquet commemorating the 131st anniversary of the birth of Scottish poet Robert Burns [165] on January 25th at the Hotel Kitchen. [166] On January 31, Henry began to host weekly Saturday night dances at City Hall. [167] Henry and his orchestra provided the music for the Carnival of Nations Costume Ball on February 13. [168] Henry and his orchestra performed at the dedication for the newly constructed courthouse in Aspen on February 16. [169] It is unclear at what point during 1890-91 Henry and Ella left Leadville, but it was likely before the spring of 1891 as Henry appears in the Denver City Directory residing at 141 First Avenue West. [170] Professor Barker continued on as the proprietor of City Hall, and Henry continued to visit Leadville as a guest performer, [171] however Ella and Henry moved permanently to Ogden, Utah during the first week of March, 1891 rendering their Denver home a temporary one. [172]

Henry may be pictured in this photo of Leadville Knights of Pythias officers taken in the 1880s.

Henry may be pictured in this photo of Leadville Knights of Pythias officers taken in the 1880s.
Courtesy of The Colorado Mountain History Collection at Lake County Public Library.

“Knights of Pythias Circa 1880s”. [Image]. Leadville, CO. USA. Colorado Mountain History Collection. Lake County Public Library. 2019.

Bernard Barney Simon
Born: Poland, 1844
Death:

R. Simon
Born: Poland, 1859
Died:

There is little information on Barney Simon. Barney was born in Poland in 1884, [173] and came to Leadville from St. Paul, Minnesota. [174] In 1879 Leadville, he operated a saloon at 19 Lower Chestnut Street, where he also resided. [175] Barney is listed in the 1880 United States Census living with Louis and Goldie Janowitz, his brother and sister-in-law, and his sister, “R” at 210 West Chestnut Street, and found work in the mines. [176] In 1880 Barney is listed as a liquor dealer, [177] and a saloonkeeper at 120 East 6th Street in 1881. [178] It is unclear what became of Barney and his sister after that.

Selix Simon
Born:
Death:

Robert Simon
Born:
Death:

Solomon Simon
Born:
Death:

This contingent of Simons, Selix, Sol, and Robert were brothers. Selix came to Leadville from Denver in 1880 where he operated a newsstand at 15th and Lawrence. [179] He then went to work as a barkeeper for Mason & Barash and resided there with Ike Barash at 121 East 5th Street. [180] In 1881, brother Robert Simon joined Selix in Leadville. Selix then worked as a barkeeper for S. Phillipe while Robert found work as a pressman for the Herald Democrat newspaper [181] and both shared a residence at 308 West 5th Street. [182] There is no record for Robert in 1882, but a third brother, Sol, came to Leadville as a barber and both he and Selix worked at the Mason & Barash [183] Saloon in Old Turner Hall. [184] Selix disappears from Leadville after 1882, but Sol remained for 1883, relocating his residence to 222 West 5th Street, and continued to work as a Barber for Mason & Barash. [185]

There is no mention of these Simons after 1883 with the exception of their appearance at Pauline Simon’s 86th birthday party in 1888. This indicates that it is possible that Robert, Selix, and Solomon were directly related to her and Sigmond Simon. [186]

1 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1882”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P258.
2 Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census[database on-line]. Lehi, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880 U.S. Census Index provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints © Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. All use is subject to the limited use license and other terms and conditions applicable to this site
3 “A Happy Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 25, 1887. P4.
4 “News Jots”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 4, 1888. P8.
5 For more information on Louis Janowitz and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/janowitz.html
6 For more information on Arnold Wainright, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/weinright.html
7 Allen DuPont Breck,. The Centennial History Of The Jews Of Colorado, 1859-1959. Denver, CO: Hirschfeld Press, 1961. P128. For more information on Joseph Fleissner and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/fleissner.html
8 Sigmond’s familial relationship was distant, and difficult to confirm. His future sister-in-law, Hattie Leon, married Joseph Heimberger at Denver on January 12, 1892. Erma Heimberger married Edward Janowitz at Denver on February 27, 1913 (Colorado Marriages 1858-1939. 2004. Denver, CO. USA. The Colorado Genealogical Society. P9,270). Although Allen DuPont Breck makes the distinction that these men were all related by marriage, that may have not been the case in 1879, likely these marriages blossomed through familiarity, and most of these connections developed over the course of the ensuing decade. For more information on Joeseph and Erma Heimberger and their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/heimberger.html .
9 “Local Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 25, 1887. P4.
10 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Denver for 1883”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Denver, CO; USA. 1883. P597.
11 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1885. P220.
12 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1886. P231.
13 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1887”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887. P92 & 242.
14 “Eighth Annual Purim Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. April 4, 1887. P2.
15 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 2. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. P1942.
16 “Pert Personal Pickings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 7, 1887. P4.
17 “Duty’s Solemn Call”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 23, 1887. P3.
18 “A Happy Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 25, 1887. P4.
19 “Local Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 25, 1887. P4.
20 “A Happy Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 25, 1887. P4.
21 For more information on Jennie Shoenberg please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/shoenberg.html
22 “Frankle-Shoenberg”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 6, 1887. P3.
23 “County Clerk’s Office”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 26, 1888. P3.
24 For more information on Mathilda, Isaac, Adolph Baer and the rest of their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/baer.html
25 For more information on Henrietta, Jacob Schloss and the rest of their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/schloss.html
26 For more information on Dick Metz and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/metz.html
27 For more information on David May and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/may.html
28 For more information on Ben Davies and the rest of his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/davies.html
29 “Banquetting The Brides”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 3, 1888. P4.
30 “A Splendid Affair”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. September 4, 1888. P3.
31 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO; USA. 1888. P235.
32 “A Birthday Party.” Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle. October 13, 1888. P4.
33 “A Birthday Party.” Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle. October 13, 1888. P4.
34 “Entertained At Dinner”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 30, 1888. P3.
35 “An Elegant Reception”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. April 16, 1889. P3.
36 Hattie Leon married Joseph Heimberger at Denver on January 12, 1892: Denver Public Library. Colorado Marriages 1858-1939. 2004. Denver, CO. USA. The Colorado Genealogical Society. For more information on Hattie Leon, Jacob Heimberger and the rest of their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/heimberger.html
37 “Pleasant Party”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 18, 1889. P3.
38 “A Pleasant Evening”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 17, 1889. P8.
39 “Fully Exhonorated” Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. July 15, 1889. P1.
40 Judging by other attendees of this event, it is likely that Robert Hoffman is related to the Hoffman family From the 1880s into the 1920s. For more information on this family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/hoffman.html
41 “A Farewell Party”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 13, 1889. P8.
42 “Rosh Hashonah”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 25, 1889. P4.
43 For more information on Lee Kahn and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html
44 “Confirmation Exercises”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 27, 1889. P4.
45 “Yom Kippur”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 4, 1889. P4.
46 “The Simchath Torah Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. October 28, 1889. P1.
47 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. November 11, 1889. P1.
48 “A.O.U.W. Ball!”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 6, 1889. P4.
49 “Mr. And Mrs. Joe Cohn Give A Delightful Party On Sunday Afternoon”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 10, 1888. P2.
50 “A Happy Gathering”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 14, 1890. P 4.
51 “Mrs. Baer Entertains”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 26, 1890. P4.
52 “It Looks Like Business”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 19, 1890. P4.
53 “A Season Of Rejoicing”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 8, 1890. P4.
54 Nettie Hance Oliver. The 1890 Louisville Cyclone. 2016. Louisville, KY. USA. The Filson Newsmagazine. Volume 5, Number 2. http://filsonhistorical.org/archive/news_v5n2_cyclone.html
55 “Leadvillites Anxious”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 29, 1890. P8.
56 “Leadvillites Safe”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 1, 1890. P8.
57 “Court Calendar”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 22, 1890. P4.
58 “Pleasantly Surprised”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 1, 1891. P3.
59 “Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms Etc. In The City Of Leadville For 1890”. P 284.
60 “The Whirl In Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 14, 1891. P1.
61 “Favorite’s Farewell”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 1, 1890. P4.
62 “With The Recorder”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 18, 1890. P1.
63 Edward Blair. Leadville: Colorado’s Magic City. Boulder, CO: Pruett Pub. 1980. P131.
64 “Election Of Officers”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. January 3, 1887. P6.
65 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Second Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1881”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P128.
66 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Second Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1881”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P266.
67 Manly and Wolford. “Index to Marriages and Marriage Licenses Recorded at The Lake County Courthouse”. Leadville, CO; USA. 1990. Historical Research Co-operative.
68 "Colorado State Census, 1885," database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K8WN-7TD : 1 April 2016)
69 Don L., and Jean Harvey Griswold,. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. P923.
70 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P258.
71 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1883. P247.
72 “Incoming, Outgoings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. November 15, 1886. P1.
73 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1884. P224.
74 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1884. P265.
75 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Fifth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1884”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1884.
76 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1885. P 34 & 220.
77 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1886. P231.
78 “Incoming, Outgoings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. November 15, 1886. P1.
79 “What The People Think”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 14, 1886. P4.
80 “A Splendid Success”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 14, 1886. P3.
81 “The Court”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 14, 1886. P3.
82 “Friday Night Club”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 16, 1887. P4.
83 “A Party At Patrick’s”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 11, 1886. P4.
84 A Party At Patricks”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 12, 1886. P3.
85 “Purim Bal Masque”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 25, 1886. P3.
86 “May Party”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 17, 1886. P8.
87 For more information on Florence Lindauer and her family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/lindauer.html
88 “Card Of Thanks”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. June 22, 1886. P4.
89 “Grand Fourth Of July Picnic”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 4, 1886. P2.
90 “Hebrew Ladies Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 22, 1886. P3.
91 “A Grand Charity Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 11, 1886. P4.
92 “Grand Masquerade Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 28, 1886. P1.
93 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887. P242.
94 “Election Of Officers”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. January 3, 1887. P6.
95 “The Democratic Dish”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 16, 1887. P4.
96 “Eighth Annual Purim Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. April 4, 1887. P2.
97 “It Was A Dandy Success”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 12, 1887. P3.
98 “The Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. August 15, 1887. P4.
99 “Milkmen’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 13, 1887. P3.
100 “Local Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 23, 1887. P4.
101 “The Gay Masqueraders”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 1, 1888. P2.
102 For more information on Mathilda, Isaac, Adolph Baer and the rest of their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/baer.html
103 For more information on Henrietta, Jacob Schloss and the rest of their family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/schloss.html
104 For more information on Dick Metz and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/metz.html
105 For more information on David May and his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/may.html
106 For more information on Ben Davies and the rest of his family, please visit: http://www.jewishleadville.org/davies.html
107 “Banquetting The Brides”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 3, 1888. P4.
108 “Masquerade Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 9, 1888. P2.
109 “Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 22, 1888. P4.
110 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 26, 1889. P3.
111 “The P.O.S. of A. Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 22, 1888. P3.
112 “The Hard Times Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 23, 1888. P3.
113 “The Grand Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 9, 1888. P7.
114 “Red Men’s Encampment”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 26, 1888. P1.
115 “This Is The Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 2, 1890. P4.
116 “A Delightful Picnic”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 20, 1888. P8.
117 “A Card Of Thanks”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 13, 1888. P1.
118 Although a Kermesse Festival is of Dutch origin, and is a historical remembrance denoting the Brussels Massacre of 1730 when Jews who cursed a communion basket were slaughtered, this seems to take on a much less volatile symbolic representation in the Victorian era United States, and employed varying cultural representations. The festival in 1888, Leadville took on a Grecian theme, and was in no way a somber occasion but quite celebratory, featured dancing and the recitation of various works from Greek literature. For more information on Kermesse festivals, please visit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kermesse_(festival) .
119 “The Kermess Again”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 31, 1888. P4.
120 “Labor Day In Leadville”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 4, 1888. P3.
121 “Knights Of Pythias Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 14, 1888. P4.
122 “Friday Night Club”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 28, 1888. P2.
123 “The Coming Concert”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 10, 1888. P4.
124 “The Fireman’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 25, 1888. P3.
125 “Social And Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 4, 1888. P3.
126 “Entertained At Dinner”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 30, 1888. P3.
127 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO; USA. 1889. P226.
128 “The P.O.S. of A. Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 23, 1889. P3.
129 “The Purim Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 16, 1889. P3.
130 “The K.R.E. Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 18, 1889. P3.
131 “Some Social Successes”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 17, 1889. P6.
132 “I.O.R.M”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 1, 1889. P1.
133 “Annual Picnic Of The”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 13, 1889. P2.
134 Mannerchor, directly translated to English means “Men’s Choir”, and damenchor would be the feminine derivative meaning “Women’s Choir”. Mannerchor clubs were German-American singing societies that originated in the mid nineteenth century in Pennsylvania. Most of these groups were founded in the northeastern United States but was not unlikely to find these groups forming where large concentrations of German immigrants were located, and Leadville certainly falls into this category. For more information please visit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maennerchor
135 “The Event Of The Season”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 2, 1889. P4.
136 “Notice Of Sale”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 10, 1889. P4.
137 “Knights Of Pythias”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 13, 1889. P3.
138 “Friday Night Club”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 27, 1889. P3.
139 “Hard Times”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 8, 1889. P4.
140 “Gallant Boys In Blue”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 25, 1889. P4.
141 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1890”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1890. P231.
142 “Earth to Earth”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 9, 1890. P4.
143 “The Social Club”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 17, 1890. P4.
144 “Leadville Patriotism”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 22, 1890. P4.
145 The Hotel Kitchen still stands today at 7th Street and Harrison Avenue. The hotel also operated under the name of the Tabor Grand Hotel, and the Hotel Vendome, which it is how it is identified today.
146 “An Afternoon Musicale”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 28, 1890. P4.
147 “It’s A Love Of A Bonnet”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 28, 1890. P4.
148 “The Printers Receive”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 22, 1890. P4.
149 “The Japanese Dance”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 1, 1890. P4.
150 “The Parade”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 31, 1890. P4.
151 “Among The Dancers”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 5, 1890. P4.
152 “A New Band”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 10, 1890. P4.
153 “Bids Awarded”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 17, 1890. P5.
154 “With The Recorder”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 6, 1890. P1.
155 “Mirth In Midsummer”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 25, 1890. P4.
156 “A Gay Week In Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 20, 1890. P5.
157 “Men Of Mystic Symbol” Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 31, 1890. P8.
158 “Society’s Gay Flutter”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 21, 1890. P5.
159 “Soiree-Musicale”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 13, 1890. P4.
160 “A Club Dance”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 13, 1890. P5.
161 “Grand Masquerade Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 25, 1890. P3.
162 “The Knights At Aspen”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 9, 1891. P1.
163 “The Mystic Miscellany”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 16, 1891. P4.
164 “The A.O.U.W. Dance”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 3, 1891. P5.
165 Mary Ellen Brown. "Robert Burns." Poetry Foundation. 2019. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poets/robert-burns .
166 “The Banquet”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 27, 1891. P4.
167 “Notice” Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 30, 1891. P4.
168 “Carnival Of Nations”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 14, 1891. P5.
169 “Court House Dedication”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 17, 1891. P1.
170 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twelfth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1891. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1891. P1296.
171 “Special Attraction At City Hall”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 9, 1891. P4.
172 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 1, 1891. P8.
173 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch. B Simon in household of Lewis Janowitz, Leadville, Lake, Colorado.
174 “Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 17, 1888. P4.
175 Clark, Root and Anderson. Denver, CO; USA. 1879. P141.
176 Corbett, Hoye and Ballenger. Leadville, CO: USA. 1880. P330.
177 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch. B Simon in household of Lewis Janowitz, Leadville, Lake, Colorado
178 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P266.
179 Corbett, Hoye and Ballenger. Leadville, CO: USA. 1880. P328.
180 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P258.
181 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P266.
182 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P266.
183 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P258.
184 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882.
185 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1883. P247.
186 “A Birthday Party.” Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily/Evening Chronicle. October 13, 1888. P4.

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“Grand Masquerade Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 28, 1886.

“Grand Masquerade Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 25, 1890.

Grant, Jeffrey P. "Lindauer." Temple Israel Museum. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/lindauer.html .

Grant, Jeffrey P. "Barash." Temple Israel Museum. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/barash.html.

Griswold, Don L., and Griswold, Jean Harvey. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996.

Griswold, Don L., and Griswold, Jean Harvey. History of Leadville and Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude to Metropolis. Vol. 2. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996.

“Hard Times”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 8, 1889.

“Hebrew Ladies Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 22, 1886.

Hulstine, Matthew. "Hoffman." Temple Israel Museum. 2016. http://www.jewishleadville.org/hoffman.html .

Hulstine, Matthew. "Kahn." Temple Israel Museum. 2017. http://www.jewishleadville.org/kahn.html .

“I.O.R.M”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 1, 1889.

“Incoming, Outgoings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. November 15, 1886.

“It Looks Like Business”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 19, 1890.

“It Was A Dandy Success”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 12, 1887.

“It’s A Love Of A Bonnet”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 28, 1890.

"Kermesse (festival)." Wikipedia. December 06, 2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kermesse_(festival).

“Knights Of Pythias Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 14, 1888.

“Knights of Pythias Circa 1880s”. [Image}. Leadville, CO. USA. Colorado Mountain History Collection. Lake County Public Library. 2019.

“Knights Of Pythias”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 13, 1889.

Korn, William. "Baer." Temple Israel Museum. 2013. http://www.jewishleadville.org/baer.html .

Korn, William. "Heimberger." Temple Israel Museum. 2013. http://www.jewishleadville.org/heimberger.html .

Korn, William. "Schloss." Temple Israel Museum. 2013. http://www.jewishleadville.org/schloss.html.

Korn, William. "Shoenberg." Temple Israel Museum. 2014. http://www.jewishleadville.org/shoenberg.html .

“Labor Day In Leadville”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 4, 1888.

“Leadvillites Anxious”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 29, 1890.

“Leadville Patriotism”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. February 22, 1890.

“Leadvillites Safe”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 1, 1890.

“Local Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 25, 1887.

“Local Laconics”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 23, 1887.

Manly and Wolford. “Index to Marriages and Marriage Licenses Recorded at The Lake County Courthouse”. Leadville, CO; USA. 1990. Historical Research Cooperative.

"Maennerchor." Wikipedia. 2019. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maennerchor.

Mark, Trevor. "May." Temple Israel Museum. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/may.html .

“Masquerade Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 9, 1888.

“May Party”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 17, 1886.

“Men Of Mystic Symbol” Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 31, 1890.

“Milkmen’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 13, 1887.

“Mirth In Midsummer”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 25, 1890.

“Mr. And Mrs. Joe Cohn Give A Delightful Party On Sunday Afternoon”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. December 10, 1888.

“Mrs. Baer Entertains”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 26, 1890.

“News Jots”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 4, 1888.

“Notice” Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 30, 1891.

“Notice Of Sale”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 10, 1889.

Oliver, Nettie Hance. The 1890 Louisville Cyclone. 2016. Louisville, KY. USA. The Filson Newsmagazine. Volume 5, Number 2. http://filsonhistorical.org/archive/news_v5n2_cyclone.html

“Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 22, 1888.

“Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 17, 1888.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 26, 1889.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. November 11, 1889.

“Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. March 1, 1891.

“Pert Personal Pickings”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 7, 1887.

“Pleasant Party”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 18, 1889.

“Pleasantly Surprised”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 1, 1891.

“Purim Bal Masque”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 25, 1886.

“Red Men’s Encampment”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. June 26, 1888.

“Rosh Hashonah”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 25, 1889.

“Social And Personal”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. November 4, 1888.

“Society’s Gay Flutter”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 21, 1890.

“Soiree-Musicale”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 13, 1890.

“Some Social Successes”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 17, 1889.

“Special Attraction At City Hall”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 9, 1891.

“The A.O.U.W. Dance”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 3, 1891.

“The Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. August 15, 1887.

“The Banquet”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 27, 1891.

“The Coming Concert”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 10, 1888.

“The Court”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 14, 1886.

“The Democratic Dish”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 16, 1887.

“The Event Of The Season”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 2, 1889.

“The Fireman’s Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. October 25, 1888.

“The Gay Masqueraders”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 1, 1888.

“The Grand Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 9, 1888.

“The Hard Times Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 23, 1888.

“The Japanese Dance”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 1, 1890.

“The K.R.E. Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 18, 1889.

“The Kermess Again”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. August 31, 1888.

“The Mystic Miscellany”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 16, 1891.

“The Knights At Aspen”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. September 9, 1891.

“The P.O.S. of A. Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 22, 1888.

“The P.O.S. of A. Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. February 23, 1889.

“The Parade”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. May 31, 1890.

“The Printers Receive”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. April 22, 1890.

“The Purim Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 16, 1889.

“The Simchath Torah Ball”. Leadville, CO. USA. Carbonate Chronicle. October 28, 1889.

“The Social Club”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. January 17, 1890.

“The Whirl In Society”. Leadville, CO. USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. September 14, 1891.

“This Is The Event”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. August 2, 1890.

Turpin, Crystal. "Fleissner." Temple Israel Musuem. 2014. http://www.jewishleadville.org/fleissner.html .

Turpin, Crystal. "Janowitz." Temple Israel Museum. 2016. http://www.jewishleadville.org/janowitz.html .

"United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MFDJ-MML : 19 August 2017), B Simon in household of Lewis Janowitz, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 73, sheet 316C, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0091; FHL microfilm 1,254,091.

“What The People Think”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 14, 1886.

“With The Recorder”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. July 6, 1890.

“With The Recorder”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. November 18, 1890.

Whittington, Quinn. "Davies." Temple Israel Museum. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/davies.html.

“Yom Kippur”. Leadville, CO. USA. Herald Democrat. October 4, 1889.

Zampacorda, Krista. "Metz." Temple Israel Museum. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/metz.html .

Zampacorda, Krista. "Weinright." Temple Israel. 2018. http://www.jewishleadville.org/weinright.html .

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