Biography

Weil

J. (Jacob) Henry Weil

Born: Miltenberg, Bavaria. March 29, 1835.

Immigration: From Liverpool, ENG. on the City of Washington, December 15, 1863.

Naturalized: Chicago, March 18, 1869.

Died: Chicago, 1908. [1]

 

Jacob Weil

Born: Pfaffenhoffen, Germany. April 11, 1847.

Immigration: October, 1864.

Naturalized: Chicago, October 26, 1880.

Died:

 

Blanche Weil

Born:

Died:

Henry Weil was born in Miltenberg, Bavaria, in 1835. He came to the United States from Liverpool, England, in 1863 [2] and settled in Chicago. [3]  There he maintained a permanent residence and was partnered with his brothers Jacob and Herman in Weil & Brothers, a real estate brokerage. [4] Henry was sometimes referred to as ‘Colonel Weil’ [5] or ‘General Weil’, [6] but no information can be found that explains why.  It is unclear if these monikers signify an actual military rank or are simply nicknames.

 

Henry came to Leadville from Chicago in 1878. [7]  His intent was to mine but had difficulties beyond the initial speculation phase, struggling with where to place a shaft and how to dig one. [8]  This shortcoming would eventually land Henry on the administrative side of the mining industry as a manager, owner/operator, investor, and speculator within the mining industry.

Henry was present at the organizational banquet for the Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 322 of the B’nai B’rith on November 9, 1879. [9] He began his mining career by taking over the New Year Lode on May 10, 1879.  Henry would continue to buy out his partners and the adjoining claims, which eventually gave the Weil’s complete control of all mining operations on Little Ella Hill. [10]

 

Names associated with this surname:

  • Jacob Henry Weil
  • Jacob Weil
  • Blanche Weil

 

  • Reuben Weil

The 1880 Leadville city directory shows Henry living at the Clarendon Hotel. [11]  However, by the time of the 1880 U.S. Census he was shown boarding at the home of Meyer Haas at 643 Front Street. [12]  Henry rarely leased residential property and often stayed in boarding houses or hotels.  Resources suggest Henry was a part time resident of Leadville who travelled to the city from Chicago on business, but from 1878 until 1905, Henry spent most of his time in the Leadville mining camps.  On July 17, 1880 Harry paid Henry Myer $35.00 for 3/32 shares in the Little Harry, Rich Punch, 1/64 share of the Shady lode and another 1/16 share in the Buckeye lode. [13]  Then Henry paid Henry Teller, Henry Dillon, and A.R. Converse $12,000 each for their interests in the New Year Lode, effectively taking complete control of the property that had yet to yield a

significant profit. [14]  It was also in 1880 that Henry incorporated in his first mining conglomerate, serving as vice president of the Green Mountain Consolidated Mining Company.  In this role the company purchased the Grenadier, Mary C., Golden Casket, Colorado Princess, Humbolt, E.C.B, J.Q.S., Back Diamond and Bald Mountain claims, giving him a foothold on fifty acres of Bald Mountain and a substantial stake on Little Ella Hill. [15]  In 1881, Henry is shown to be operating a real estate business while boarding in the Klopman home at 124 West 3rd Street, [16] however the only records of real estate transactions relate to mining property.  In 1882, Henry continued operating his business at the same location [17] while having received a patent from the United States Land Office for the J.H.W. Lode. [18]

 

 

While in Leadville, Henry focused most of his attention on business but did occasionally attend a social or political function.  Henry was at the Purim Ball Masque on March 23, 1883, [19] In July, Henry reported that the Hanna lode on Prospect Mountain was a few days away from hitting a pay streak. [20]  On May 23, Henry purchased one half interest in the Grand View Lode from J.E. Cole for one dollar. [21]  During November, Henry made a prospecting visit to the Modest Girl property with considerations to purchase the mine from the Humbolt Mining Company.  Henry believed that the mine could produce over double its current output of fifty tons per month. [22]  Henry also predicted that the New Year lode would be a productive mine for 1884. [23]  This assessment was incorrect and the mine did not begin to generate a sustainable revenue stream until 1886.

In 1884, Henry secured a court order that demanded a survey be made of the three mines on Little Ella Hill [24] in an effort to ensure that the Trade Dollar and Little Ella mines were not encroaching on the Weil property. [25]  On March 2, Henry was served public notice in the local newspapers by J. H. Tyrell that Tyrell had expended $100 in maintenance in the Nonie Lode and gave Henry ninety days to pay for his share of the work or forfeit his share of ownership. [26]  It is uncertain whether or not this resulted in forfeiture, but notices of this kind were not uncommon in the mining operations in the region.  Henry’s lack of practical mining experience led him to advertise to lease the New Year Mine.  It is not likely that the property was ever let and soon after the listing appeared, the New Year became the cornerstone of the New Year Consolidated Mining Company, of which the Weils were principal partners.  [27]

Henry remained a boarder with the Klopmans [28] for many years and in 1885 [29] Henry was selected as a board member of the struggling Smuggler Consolidated Mining Company, likely owing to his position as a major stockholder. The bulk of this company’s revenue relied on the success of two properties: the Smuggler Lode and the Star of Hope.   There was dissention between the two factions of the ownership group, each under the leadership of local judges named Gunnal and Reed.  The Weils and their partners were aligned with Judge Reed.  The rift centered on an internal power struggle and a third judge named Hallett arbitrated the issue.   Both sides were jockeying for control of board seats and were manipulating the legal system in an effort to gain control.  Although the final results of the battle are unclear, the Reed camp filed an injunction on January 21, 1885 as a means to constructively halt the election of a board of directors. [30]  It is likely that the Smuggler Consolidated Mining Company was disbanded as a result of the dissention.  The Weils would form other mining ownership groups during their time in Leadville.

1886 is the first year Henry is known to have an office at 215 East 5th Street and a personal residence at 119 East 4th Street [31] which may be connected to the arrival of his younger brother, Jacob, who would help Henry with managing the family’s many mining concerns while also attending the Colorado School of Mines. [32]  In June, the Weils hired Mr. Knelphausen, former superintendent of the Little Ella Lode, to oversee day to day operations of the consolidated claims on Little Ella Hill as Henry moved on to a full-time administrative role supervising his properties which enabled him to closely monitor their progress. [33]  Henry reported that the current New Year mine’s main shaft was making good progress and would cross the Trade Dollar lode and join the Little Ella ore shoot before spring, connecting all three of the lodes on Little Ella Hill and resulting in one large mine. [34]  Henry’s brother Jacob arrived in Leadville to join him in managing his properties. [35]

In 1887 the Weils moved their offices to #8, Delaware Block. [36]  P.C. Malone sued Henry on undisclosed complaint on May 18 and the results of the suit were not reported. [37]  According to Henry Weil, the New Year Lode had an estimated $700,000 worth of ore in the current shaft and was moving fifty tons of material a day during the late summer. [38]

 

By the spring of 1887, Henry publicly speculated that 600 tons of ore would be ready to move when the road to the Pueblo smelters was cleared for the season and that the mine was producing at a rate of fifty tons per day. [39]  That estimate would increase dramatically to seventy-five tons per day within a few weeks. [40]  On May 2, Henry reported that he had sighted a vein at the New Year with an estimated value of $200,000.00. [41]

 

Jacob owned a considerable amount of stock in the Ideal mine.  That property had experienced recent troubles with flooding and Jacob sold his 10,000 shares of stock to Moses Frahley at 20 cents per share.  After a few more days of a massive pumping effort it was determined that the groundwater in the Midnight Shaft (of the Ideal) could not be abated and the market value of the stock plummeted to 15 cents per share.  Shortly after, the St. Louis based mining consolidation company which operated the Ideal announced it would no longer expend effort, or money, on the property. [42]

 

 

The Weils operated their mines somewhat surreptitiously, which is not uncommon among miners even in modern times.  On May 16, 1887, The Carbonate Chronicle published an article that stated that a Herald Democrat [43] mining reporter was granted access to the mine for the first time.  Most of the rumors on the mine’s current status were found to be accurate.  The reporter was very impressed with the amount of modern industrial equipment employed at the mine that now included the Little Ella and Trade Dollar lodes.  The consolidation was often referred to as the Little Ella Group or New Year Mine that combined all three properties and covered thirty acres.  (See Fig 1) The mine site, located on top of Little Ella Hill, featured a 1000-foot incline railway that allowed ore and equipment to be transported up and down the hill’s steep grade.  The site also employed two large

industrial pumps dedicated for emergency use only, electrical generators, mechanized hoisting equipment and a fifty-horse power Norwalk air compressor.  The ore carts were customized with interior screens and when in motion natural vibration would sift and separate finer minerals from courser material.  By the spring of 1887, the New Year consolidation of the Little Ella group featured nine drifts, [44] each connecting multiple shafts and with interior dimensions of ten feet wide by eight feet in height. [45]  By July, the New Year was the highest producing mine in Leadville, although the reported output had declined from 50 tons per day in April, to 35 tons per day in July.  [46]

Figure 1

(Image Source: Leadville Herald Democrat. September 8, 1888. P3.

Courtesy of the Colorado State Library. [47])

In 1888, the Weil’s moved their offices again, this time to #12, Delaware Block. [48]  Henry became a bit more active socially then in previous  years and raised $58 for the recently widowed Mrs. Matthew Anderson and her three children. [49] On January 28, Henry bought 4/96 shares of the Mary and Resurrection lodes, known as the Mary Consolidation, from W.J. Phillips for $250.00. [50]  He then expanded more by purchasing twenty-five percent interest in the Kokomo Lode from O.H. Simmons for $100 March 13. [51]  In the same month, J.C. Whitehill and E.F. Hallack, owners of the Argentina mine, filed an ejectment complaint against Henry claiming that work on the Weil lode was infringing on the Argentina’s underground drifts and shafts while damaging their claim. [52]  The results of this action have not been found suggesting the matter may have been resolved out of court.  On July 18, Henry purchased all of John Paige’s interest in the Hannah Lode for $100. [53]  Henry and Jacob celebrated a recent strike in the New Year mine, which was now producing at a rate of $50 per ton. [54] By the spring of 1889, Henry had returned to residential accommodations at the Hotel Kitchen. [55]

On January 9, 1890, Henry attended a trout supper given by Judge Dickson at Soda Lakes near Evergreen, CO. [56] On July 28, Henry was confined to his bed at the Hotel Kitchen [57] with what was reported as a “sudden attack of paralysis”. [58]  This appears to have been a permanent affliction that returned Henry to his home in Chicago for some time and affected the entire right side of his body. [59] Moving forward Henry would spend less time in Leadville, which may suggest that his affliction was serious enough to impact his regular mobility, but not to the point that returning to the field was overly arduous.

On May 18, 1891, the Weils paid $70,000 to Erastus Hallack, Bradford DuBois, Maxey Tabor, and Frank Pierce for their ownership shares in the New Year, Hallack, Grand View, Golconda, Mary, Resurrection, Moffat, Maxey, Weil, Kokomo, Jew, and Christmas lodes, [60] further expanding the company business holdings.  On July 26, Henry was granted four more mining patents for the Patience, Endurance, Hope and Success claims along with partner Frank Pierce. [61]  Then on November 8, both Henry and Jacob were awarded additional shares in the New Year, Grandview, Jew, Golconda, Kokomo, Mary, Resurrection and What Is Left lodes from Willard Green, Leadville Mine Limited Co., N.M Tabor, F.N. Pierce, Erastus Hallack, Bradford Dubois, Joseph Thatcher, The Denver National Bank, Joseph Brown, The Hendrie & Bolthoff Manufacturing Company, John McNee, William Peeler, The Continental Oil Company of Colorado, Charles Eaton, Robert Cary, John Earns, David Darling, John King, Thomas Fergus, John Harvey, and The Tomkins Hardware Company in consideration for repayment of $151,000 in debts. [62]

Henry and Jacob were partnered with several other businessmen in the New Year Consolidated Mining Company that had fallen on hard times during 1892.  In consideration of mounting debts, the Sherriff was ordered to sell all properties of the company, which included the Magnolia, Jew, Christmas and Maxey claims at public auction.  The holdings were purchased by John Harvey, as trustee for the New Year Consolidated Mining Company’s creditors for $16,038.80. [63]  This property, and its rightful ownership would continue to be in dispute for several years to follow.  Later in 1894 while operating as a representative of the New Year Consolidated Mining Company, Jacob Weil was named in a suit involving the Resurrection Mining Company in property dispute over multiple claims.  [64]

As part owners of the Magnolia placer claim, a suit was filed against Henry and Jacob by James A. Shinn and John A. Storm in July of 1895. The complainants argued that the property rightfully belonged to them under the provisions of the Mining Act of 1872, [65] maintaining that the property was legally abandoned since no work activity had taken place on the site since 1880. [66] However, it does appear that Henry was working to secure mining lumber for the site as late as 1887, which would indicate that the property was worked more recently than 1880, as the complaint suggested. [67] The results of the suit are not reported, but it is likely that the complaint was dismissed as historical records indicate that the Weils were very active in mining operations on their properties, to include the Magnolia.

Both Henry and Jacob were more active in community affairs in 1897.  Jacob held office as Grand Organizer [68] for the United Moderns local.  [69] After using the Knights of Pythias Hall for meeting space, Jacob was ordered by the international organization of the United Moderns to secure permanent property for the Rose Lodge No. 20 of the United Moderns. [70]  The Rose Lodge chapter continued to meet at the Knights of Pythias Hall from 1897-1989, [71]  then moved their meetings to City Hall in 1899 [72] before finally finding to their permanent home at 125 East 6th Street.  By this time a second local lodge of the United Moderns had been established in Leadville that held their meetings at 613 Harrison Street. [73]

In 1899, Blanche Weil joined Henry and Jacob for a time in Leadville.  The familial connection is unclear, but evidence suggests that she was in her late teens or early twenties that year and thus was likely a younger sister of Jacob and Henry.  Information on Blanche is limited and she may have only been in Leadville for a very brief time, but did attend a music and card party given by Ruth Kahn on July 19, 1899, followed by a taffy pull given by Carrie Mayer the next day. [74]

During 1903, Joseph Meyer transferred his interests in the Silent Friend, Mountain Queen, Springfield, Clara Burbank, Talisman No. 2, Lady Crawford, J.H.W. Hannah, Bald Mountain, Black Diamond, Colorado Princess, E.C.B., Golden Casket, J.Q.S. and Mary lodes to the Weils. [75]  However, this appears to be the last major purchase for the Weil brothers in Leadville.  Henry’s health may have been a consideration, but the Weils appear to have divested their interests over the next five years leading up to Henry’s death of unknown causes in his Chicago home in 1908.  Jacob graduated from the Colorado School of Mines in April of 1907. [76]  He then worked as a chemist at the Arkansas Valley Smelter through 1908  before disappearing from Leadville records in 1909.

Reuben Weil

Born: Austria-Hungary, 1859

Died: San Francisco, May 15, 1905.

 

 

Records of Reuben Weil’s arrival in Leadville are inconsistent, but he arrived in Colorado and initially landed in Denver during 1874.  Sometime between 1874 and 1880, Reuben moved to Leadville and became a longtime and well-reputed employee of Fred Butler at the Palace of Fashion. Resources suggest that Reuben was most likely to have arrived in Leadville closer to the mid-eighteen seventies rather than 1882 when he makes his first appearance in the city directory. [78]  It is certainly possible that Reuben initially worked for the Palace of Fashion’s Denver operations briefly before moving on to Leadville where he worked and resided at that location.

The first official record for Reuben in Leadville is his appearance in the 1882 city directory where he is listed working for Frankle & Butler (Palace of Fashion) and residing at the same location. [79]  Reuben’s living quarters would have an impact on one of the more controversial stories in Leadville history known as the Palace of Fashion fire which claimed many business properties along Harrison Avenue and Chestnut Street in the spring of 1883.

 

Reuben was sleeping at the Palace of Fashion location at 4:00AM on the morning of May 19, 1882, when he was awakened by Palace of Fashion manger Fred Butler who frantically warned Reuben and his roommate, Isaac Kamak, that the building was on fire.  Within a few short hours the fire would claim an abundance of commercial property and leave one man dead. [80]

Most of the accusations for the fire’s cause would center around arson and insurance fraud and were exacerbated by an eyewitness account of goods having been removed from the Palace of Fashion in the early morning hours of May 19 prior to the fire’s reported ignition.  Official’s moved quickly in the aftermath and a coroner’s inquest took place later on the afternoon of May 19th, where five Jewish men were questioned: Frankle; Weil; [81]  fellow employee Isaac Kamak; along with a barber, Reinhold Rosendorf, and another Palace of Fashion clerk, Maurice Zippert, the two of whom resided at the courthouse, also in the fire’s destructive path.  All five would be indicted on charges of arson. [82]  All five were acquitted at different points during the 1883 trial.  Rosendorf and Reuben Weil were

dismissed before the prosecution rested [83] and all were completely cleared of any wrongdoing when an ex- Leadville firefighter, Jack Brogan, who had been convicted of arson after setting fire to the Famous Shoe Store later in the summer of 1882, was brought in from the penitentiary in Canon City and testified.  Brogan confessed that he and two other firefighters, Walter Wilson and Bryce Blair, committed the crime, as a means to see which of Leadville’s three volunteer fire departments would respond first. [84]  Blair and Wilson left town quickly after the Palace of Fashion fire, were never located and thus never stood trail for their crime. [85] All five men accused were ultimately acquitted. [86]  The night of the acquittal, a large banquet was held in the community to celebrate the absolution of the wrongfully accused. [87]

Brogan was released from prison on his initial charges in 1884 and was not located again until 1891 when he reappeared in Leadville, was recognized, and arrested on a charge of vagrancy.  He was held briefly on pending charges for murder and arson, but due to a lack of evidence and witnesses, the charges were dropped and Brogan released.  He left town immediately and thus no one was ever held accountable for the fire. [88]

 

If there was anything positive that came from the fire, accusations of misconduct against members of the three Leadville volunteer fire departments regarding a general lack of serious demeanor, drunkenness, looting, and one firefighter turning his hose away from the flames and onto a crowd of surprised spectators.  The actions of Leadville firefighters during the Palace of Fashion fire led to a quick decision by the town council to phase out the three volunteer organizations in lieu of establishing Leadville’s first full-time department of professional firefighters [89] within a few weeks following the tragedy.  Reuben discontinued his residency at the store in the aftermath and took up more conventional lodging at 407 Harrison Avenue. [90]

Reuben was well liked in town, although there are few records of his social activities.  He reportedly gave a parlor ornament as a gift in honor of Augustus Brabant’s and Rose Hawkins’ wedding on October 23, 1885. [91]  This would be one of very few mentions about Reuben that are not business related.

 

Reuben gave up his Harrison Avenue [92] home during the summer of 1886. After receiving a large $1200 bonus from Fred Butler, Reuben ceremoniously departed Leadville for his hometown in Austria and then to New Zealand. [93] He was given a warm farewell from the Herald Democrat which celebrated his time with Frankle & Butler. [94] When Reuben returned to the United States, he settled first in Nashville where he opened the first store of his own with his remaining money. [95]  He would later open an additional storefront in Spokane, W.A., and Leadville. [96]

Reuben Weil did return to Leadville late in 1887.  In January of 1888, Reuben partnered with New York jewelers Schenkein & Sons [97] who had previously operated store fronts in Pueblo and Leadville.  [98]  Shenkein & Sons and their new addition, Reuben Weil, opened their new Leadville location in at 313 Harrison Avenue on March 1, 1888. [99]

 

It is unclear how long Reuben remained in Leadville after this, but with his business interests in the Pacific Northwest it is likely that he spent most of his remaining life in that region.  On May 19, 1905, [100]  Reuben Weil died of heart failure in San Francisco at the age of 46.  Weil was reportedly worth $200,000 at the time of his death. [101]

 

[Adjusting for inflation, $200,000 in 1905 would approximately equate to 5 million dollars in 2018.] [102]

1 “Filed For Record”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. March 3, 1908. P5.

2 "United States Passport Applications, 1795-1925," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q24F-849F : 16 March 2018), Jacob Henry Weil, 1891; citing Passport Application, United States, source certificate #, Passport Applications, 1795-1905., 368, NARA microfilm publications M1490 and M1372 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

3 Thomas Hutchinson. “The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago, 1885. Embracing a Complete General and Business Directory Miscellaneous Information and Street Guide”. The Chicago Directory Company. Chicago, IL; USA. 1885. P1430.

4 Thomas Hutchinson. “The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago, 1880. Embracing a Complete General and Business Directory Miscellaneous Information and Street Guide”. A.J. Cox & Co. Chicago, IL; USA. 1880. P1155.

5 “The New Year”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. July 2, 1887. P2.

6 “Gold In The Fanny”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. July 21, 1883. P8.

7 “Mining Notes”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. November 17, 1883. P3.

8 “Mining Notes”. Carbonate Chronicle. 1883. P3.

9 “B’nai B’rith”. Leadville, CO: USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. November 15, 1879. P3.

10 “The New Year Mine”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 16. 1887. P8.

11 Corbett, Hoye and Ballenger. Leadville, CO: USA. 1880. P372

12 "United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MFDJ-ZVV : 19 August 2017), J H Wiel in household of M B Hass, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78, sheet 394C, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0091; FHL microfilm 1,254,091.

13 “Transfers”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. July 17, 1880. P2.

14 “Transfers”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Weekly Herald. August 7, 1880. P1.

15 Don L Griswold and Jean Harvey Griswold. History of Leadville And Lake County, Colorado: From Mountain Solitude To Metropolis. Vol. 1. Denver, CO: Colorado Historical Society, 1996. P766.

16 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Second Annual City Directory: Containing A Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1881”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1881. P297

17 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Thrid Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville for 1882”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P290

18 “Land Office”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Herald. June 11, 1882. P4.

19 “The Purim Ball”. Leadville, Co; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. March 24, 1883. P4.

20 “Gold In The Fanny”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. July 21, 1883. P8.

21 “Mining Transfers”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. May 23, 1883. P8.

22 “The Modest Girl”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville, Daily Herald. November 25, 1883. P5.

23 “Mining Notes”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. December 22, 1883. P1.

24 At this point there are three mines on Little Ella Hill, The New Year, owned by Henry, The Trade Dollar and Little Ella are owned by the Little Ella Group (see diagram). Weil’s firm will eventually absorb the other two claims giving Henry and his partners complete control of the hill and the ability to join all three properties into one large mine site.

25 “The Mines”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Herald. January 17, 1884. P3.

26 “Notice Of Forfeiture”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Herald. March 4, 1884. P3.

27 “To Lease”. Leadville, CO; USA; Leadville Daily Herald. July 13, 1884. P2.

28 "Colorado State Census, 1885," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K8WN-LJS : 1 April 2016), J H Weil in entry for W Klockman, 1885; citing NARA microfilm publication M158 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm 498,507.

29 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1885”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1885. P243.

30 “Election Of Directors”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. February 21, 1885. P8.

31 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1886”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1886. P255.

32 "Home." Colorado School of Mines. 2018. https://www.mines.edu/ .

33 “The New Year Lode”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. June 14, 1886. P6.

34 “Mining Notes And Personals”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. March 1, 1886. P5.

35 “The New Year Mine”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. September 20, 1886. P8.

36 TB Corbett and JH Ballenger. “Corbet, and Ballenger’s Sixth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List Of The Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City Of Leadville For 1887”. Corbet and Ballenger Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887. P267.

37 “District Court”. Leadville, Co; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. May 18, 1887. P2.

38 “The New Year”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville, Daily Evening Chronicle. August 6, 1887. P4.

39 “Our Mines And Smelters: The New Year To The Front As A Shipper- Robinson Roster- Mining Craze”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. April 4, 1887. P8.

40 “The New Year”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. April 18, 1887. P6.

41 “Mining Notes”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. May 2, 1887. P1.

42 “The Ideal’s Troubles”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. June 7, 1887. P2.

43 The Carbonate Chronicle was a weekly paper published only on Mondays in 1887, the Herald Democrat was published Tuesday thru Sunday. Both newspapers were published by C. C. Davis Co., and shared staff. These papers also published the same articles with relative frequency.

44 “Drift” is a general mining term with multiple but similar meanings and in general reference to tunnels that orient themselves in specific directions, but not directly downward which is commonly known as a “shaft”. In regards to the functions of the Little Ella Group, the term is used to describe horizontal, subterranean tunnels that follow an ore vein and connect existing shafts underground with minimal change in elevation. For more information on drift mining see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drift_mining .

45 Carbonate Chronicle. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887. P4

46 “The New Year”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. July 2, 1887. P2.

47 “The New Year Strike”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. September 8, 1888. P3.

48 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1888”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1888.

49 “Generous Miners”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 14, 1888. P4.

50 “Country Clerk’s Office”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 28, 1888. P3.

51 “Clerk And Recorder”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. March 14, 1888. P2.

52 “Legal Log”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. March 8, 1888. P3.

53 ”County Clerk’s Office”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. Leadville, CO; USA. July 18, 1888. P6.

54 “The New Year Strike”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. September 8, 1888. P3. (See Fig 1/diagram)

55 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Tenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1889”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1889. P248.

56 “Entertained At Evergreen”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 12, 1890. P4.

57 JH Ballenger and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1890”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1890. P255.

58 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville, Daily Evening Chronicle. July 28, 1890. P4.

59 “Paralyzed On One Side”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. August 1, 1890. P8.

60 “With The Recorder”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. May 18, 1891. P1.

61 “With The Recorder”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. July 26, 1891. P4.

62 “With The Recorder”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. November 8, 1891. P3.

63 “Sold By The Sherriff”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. December 10, 1892. P8.

64 “The Sale Was Stopped. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. August 30, 1894. P6.

65 The Act of May 10, 1872; section 2323 clearly states: “Where a tunnel is run for the development of a vein or lode, or for the discovery of mines, the owners of such tunnel shall have the right of possession of all veins or lodes within three thousand feet from the face of such tunnel on the line thereof, not previously known to exist, discovered in such tunnel, to the same extent as if discovered from the surface; and locations on the line of such tunnel of views or lodes not appearing on the surface, made by other parties after the commencement of the tunnel, and while the same is being prosecuted with reasonable diligence, shall be invalid; but failure to prosecute the work on the tunnel for six months shall be considered as an abandonment of the rights to all undiscovered veins on the line of such tunnel.” This was the basis for Shinn and Storm’s claim for abandonment since the property had not been worked for fifteen years. For more information please see: ACT OF MAY 10, 1872-(MINING LAW OF 1872), United States Congress § 2323 (1872).

66 “Notice Of Hearing”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. July 27, 1895. P2.

67 “Wanted”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. September 22, 1887. P2.

68 “United Moderns”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 14, 1897. P8.

69 “The United Moderns were a fraternal organization with lodges in many communities across the country. The organization provided members with insurance and held regular meetings. From review of Tucson City Directories it appears this lodge did not last beyond the 1904 period. Little has been found on the objectives, purpose, or activities of the organization.” For more information please consult: David Tackenberg. “MS 913 United Moderns Ledger 1902 – 1904”. Report no. MS 913. Library & Archives. Tucson, AZ: Arizona Historical Socieity, 2010.

70 “The United Moderns”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. June 30, 1897. P4.

71 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO; USA. 1898. P48.

72 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO; USA. 1899. P48

73 Ballenger and Richards. Leadville, CO; USA. 1900. P48.

74 “The World Of Society”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. July 23, 1899. P6.

75 “Around The City”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. November 11, 1903. P6.

76 “To Smelters And Zinc Mills”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. April 26, 1907. P6.

77 “Personal Mention”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 2, 1908. P5.

78 “Ruben Weil Dead; A Leadville Pioneer”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. May 16, 1905. P8.

79 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1882. P290.

80 Griswold. Vol. 1. Denver, CO; USA. 1996. P966.

81 Griswold. Vol. 1. Denver, CO; USA. 1996. Pp970-72..

82 Griswold. Vol. 1. Denver, CO; USA. 1996. P967.

83 Griswold. Vol 1. Denver, CO; USA. 1996. P1140.

84 “The Summing Up”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. March 24, 1883. P3.

85 Griswold. Vol 1. Denver, CO; USA. 1996. P971.

86 “District Court”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Herald. March 22, 1883. P4.

87 Griswold. Vol. 1. Denver, CO;USA. 1996. Pp 1143-44.

88 “Near The Close”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. March 24, 1883. P6.

89 Griswold. Vol. 1. Denver, CO;USA. 1996. Pp

90 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1884. P248.

91 “Cupid’s Conquest”. Leadville, CO; USA. Carbonate Chronicle. October 24, 1885. P3.

92 Corbett and Ballenger. Leadville, CO; USA. 1887. P267.

93 "New Zealand, Archives New Zealand, Passenger Lists, 1839-1973," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:F3MZ-ZM9 : 10 August 2017), Reuben Weil, 01 Mar 1888; citing ship Zealandia, Archives New Zealand, Wellington; FHL microfilm 4,415,828.

94 “The Silver Crown”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 16, 1886. P5.

95 “Ruben Weil Dead; A Leadville Pioneer”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. May 16, 1905. P8.

96 “Ruben Weil Dead; A Leadville Pioneer”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. May 16, 1905. P8.

97 “Mid Winter Merriments”. Leadville, CO; USA. Leadville Daily Evening Chronicle. January 23, 1888. P3.

98 “A New Firm”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 15, 1888. P2.

99 “A New Firm”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 15, 1888. P2.

100 “Local Chronology For 1905”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 1, 1906. P10.

101 “Ruben Weil Dead; A Leadville Pioneer”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. May 16, 1905. P8.

102 CPI Inflation Calculator. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. https://www.bls.gov/data/inflation_calculator.htm.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

“A New Firm”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. January 15, 1888.

 

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Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1888”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1888.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Tenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1889”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1889.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Eleventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1890”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1890.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twelfth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1891”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1891.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Thirteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1892”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1892.

 

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Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Nineteenth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1898”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1898.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twentieth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1899”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1899.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-First Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1900”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1900.

 

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Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Third Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1902”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1902.

 

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Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Seventh Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1906”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1906.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Eighth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1907”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1907.

 

Ballenger, JH and Richards. “Ballenger & Richard’s Twenty-Ninth Annual City Directory: Containing a Complete List of the Inhabitants, Institutions, Incorporated Companies, Manufacturing Establishments, Business, Business Firms etc. in The City of Leadville for 1908”. Corbet and Ballenger and Richards Publishers. Leadville, CO; USA. 1908.

 

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"United States Census, 1880," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MFDJ-CV1 : 19 August 2017), Morris Weil in household of John Lingenfelter, Leadville, Lake, Colorado, United States; citing enumeration district ED 78, sheet 374D, NARA microfilm publication T9 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.), roll 0091; FHL microfilm 1,254,091.

 

"United States Passport Applications, 1795-1925," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q24F-849F : 16 March 2018), Jacob Henry Weil, 1891; citing Passport Application, United States, source certificate #, Passport Applications, 1795-1905., 368, NARA microfilm publications M1490 and M1372 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

 

“Wanted”. Leadville, CO; USA. Herald Democrat. September 22, 1887.

 

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